Rosemary
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Salvia
Species:
S. rosmarinus
Binomial name
Salvia rosmarinus
Spenn.[1][2]
Synonyms[1]
  • Rosmarinus angustifolius Mill.
  • Rosmarinus communis Noronha
  • Rosmarinus flexuosus Jord. & Fourr.
  • Rosmarinus latifolius Mill.
  • Rosmarinus ligusticus Gand.
  • Rosmarinus officinalis L.
  • Rosmarinus palaui (O.Bolòs & Molin.) Rivas Mart. & M.J.Costa
  • Rosmarinus prostratus Mazziari
  • Rosmarinus rigidus Jord. & Fourr.
  • Rosmarinus tenuifolius Jord. & Fourr.
  • Salvia fasciculata Fernald

Salvia rosmarinus (/ˈsælviə ˌrɒsməˈrnəs/[3][4]), commonly known as rosemary, is a shrub with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region. Until 2017, it was known by the scientific name Rosmarinus officinalis (/ˌrɒsməˈrnəs əˌfɪsɪˈnlɪs/[4]), now a synonym.[5]

It is a member of the sage family Lamiaceae, which includes many other medicinal and culinary herbs. The name rosemary derives from Latin ros marinus (lit.'dew of the sea').[6][7] Rosemary has a fibrous root system.[8]

Description

rosemary leaves
S. rosmarinus 'Prostratus'

Rosemary is an aromatic evergreen shrub with leaves similar to hemlock needles. It is native to the Mediterranean region,[8] but is reasonably hardy in cool climates. Special cultivars like 'Arp' can withstand winter temperatures down to about −20 °C (−4 °F).[9] It can withstand droughts, surviving a severe lack of water for lengthy periods.[10] It is considered a potentially invasive species and its seeds are often difficult to start, with a low germination rate and relatively slow growth, but the plant can live as long as 35 years.[11][12]

Forms range from upright to trailing;[8] the upright forms can reach 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) tall, rarely 2 m (6 ft 7 in).[citation needed] The leaves are evergreen, 2–4 cm (341+12 in) long and 2–5 mm (116316 in) broad, green above, and white below, with dense, short, woolly hair.[8]

The plant flowers in spring and summer in temperate climates, but the plants can be in constant bloom in warm climates; flowers are white, pink, purple or deep blue.[8] Rosemary also has a tendency to flower outside its normal flowering season; it has been known to flower as late as early December, and as early as mid-February (in the northern hemisphere).[13]

Taxonomy

Rosemary plant

Salvia rosmarinus is now considered one of many hundreds of species in the genus Salvia.[2] Formerly it was placed in a much smaller genus, Rosmarinus, which contained only two to four species including R. officinalis,[14] which is now considered a synonym of S. rosmarinus. Salvia jordanii (formerly Rosmarinus eriocalyx) is a closely related species native to Iberia and the Maghreb of Africa.[15] Both the original and current genus names of the species were applied by the 18th-century naturalist and founding taxonomist Carl Linnaeus.[16] Elizabeth Kent noted in her Flora Domestica (1823), "The botanical name of this plant is compounded of two Latin words, signifying Sea-dew; and indeed Rosemary thrives best by the sea."[17]

History

Illustration from an Italian herbal, circa 1500

The first mention of rosemary is found on cuneiform stone tablets as early as 5000 BCE,[18] after which Egyptians used it for embalming corpses starting in 3500 BCE.[19] There is no further mention of rosemary until the ancient Greeks and Romans. Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) wrote about it in The Natural History,[20] as did Pedanius Dioscorides (c. 40 CE to c. 90 CE), a Greek botanist (amongst other things). He talked about rosemary in his most famous writing, De Materia Medica, one of the most influential herbal books in history.[21]

The herb later made its way east to China and was naturalized there as early as 220 CE,[8] during the late Han dynasty.[22]

Rosemary came to England at an unknown date, though it is likely that the Romans brought it when they invaded Britain in 43 CE. Even so, there are no viable records containing rosemary in Britain until the 8th century CE. This mention was in a document which was later credited to Charlemagne, who promoted the general usage of herbs and ordered rosemary specifically to be grown in monastic gardens and farms.[23]

There are no records of rosemary being properly naturalized in Britain until 1338, when cuttings were sent to Queen Philippa by her mother, Countess Joan of Hainault.[24] It included a letter that described the virtues of rosemary and other herbs that accompanied the gift. The original manuscript can be found in the British Museum. The gift was then planted in the garden of the old palace of Westminster.

Since then, rosemary can be found in most English herbal texts, and is widely used for medicinal and culinary purposes.[25] Hungary water, which dates to the 14th century, was one of the first alcohol-based perfumes in Europe, and was primarily made from distilled rosemary.[26] Rosemary, along with holly and ivy, was commonly used for Christmas decorations in the 17th century.[27]

Rosemary finally arrived in the Americas with early European settlers in the beginning of the 17th century, and was soon spread to South America and distributed globally.[8]

Usage

Illustration from Köhler's Medicinal Plants
Seeds – MHNT

Aside from its usage in the fragrance industry, Rosemary is not only used as a decorative plant in gardens, but also cultivated for practical applications, such as medicine and cooking. When the plant is fully grown, the leaves, twigs, and flowering apices are often extracted for use in these areas.[28] The leaves are used to flavor various foods, such as stuffing and roasted meats.[29]

Cultivation

Since it is attractive and drought-tolerant, rosemary is used as an ornamental plant in gardens and for xeriscape landscaping, especially in regions of Mediterranean climate.[8] It is considered easy to grow and pest-resistant. Rosemary can grow quite large and retain attractiveness for many years, can be pruned into formal shapes and low hedges, and has been used for topiary. It is easily grown in pots. The groundcover cultivars spread widely, with a dense and durable texture.[8]

Cultivars

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Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden use.

The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:[31]

Culinary use

Dried leaves

Rosemary leaves are used as a flavoring in foods,[8] such as stuffing and roasted lamb, pork, chicken, and turkey. Fresh or dried leaves are used in traditional Mediterranean cuisine. They have a bitter, astringent taste and a characteristic aroma which complements many cooked foods. Herbal tea can be made from the leaves. When roasted with meats or vegetables, the leaves impart a mustard-like aroma with an additional fragrance of charred wood that goes well with barbecued foods.[citation needed]

In amounts typically used to flavor foods, such as one teaspoon (1 gram), rosemary provides no nutritional value.[36][37] Rosemary extract has been shown to improve the shelf life and heat stability of omega 3-rich oils which are prone to rancidity.[38] Rosemary is also an effective antimicrobial herb.[39]

Fragrance

Essential oil

Rosemary oil is used for purposes of fragrant bodily perfumes or to emit an aroma into a room. It is also burnt as incense, and used in shampoos and cleaning products.[citation needed]

Phytochemicals

Rosemary contains a number of phytochemicals, including rosmarinic acid, camphor, caffeic acid, ursolic acid, betulinic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol.[40] Rosemary essential oil contains 10–20% camphor.[41]

Rosemary extract, specifically the type mainly consisting of carnosic acid and carnosol, is approved as a food antioxidant preservative in several countries. The E number is E392.[42]

Folklore and customs

The plant or its oil have been used in folk medicine in the belief it may have medicinal effects. Rosemary was considered sacred to ancient Egyptians, Romans, and Greeks.[28] In Don Quixote (Part One, Chapter XVII), the fictional hero uses rosemary in his recipe for balm of fierabras.[43]

The plant has been used as a symbol for remembrance during war commemorations and funerals in Europe and Australia.[44] Mourners would throw it into graves as a symbol of remembrance for the dead. In Australia, sprigs of rosemary are worn on ANZAC Day and sometimes Remembrance Day to signify remembrance; the herb grows wild on the Gallipoli Peninsula, where many Australians died during World War I.[44]

Several Shakespeare plays refer to the use of rosemary in burial or memorial rites. In Shakespeare's Hamlet, Ophelia says, "There's rosemary, that's for remembrance. Pray you, love, remember."[45] It likewise appears in Shakespeare's Winter's Tale in Act 4 Scene 4, where Perdita talks about "Rosemary and Rue".[46] In Act 4 Scene 5 of Romeo and Juliet, Friar Lawrence admonishes the Capulet household to "stick your rosemary on this fair corse, and as the custom is, and in her best array, bear her to church."[citation needed] It is also said that "In the language of flowers it means 'fidelity in love.'"[47]

In the Spanish fairy tale The Sprig of Rosemary, the heroine touches the hero with the titular sprig of rosemary in order to restore his magically lost memory.[48]

Rosemary is very important in Danube Swabian culture being used for christenings, weddings, burials and festivals, for example, an apple with a sprig of rosemary in it is present at Kirchweih celebrations.[49][50]

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b Drew, Bryan T.; González-Gallegos, Jesús Guadalupe; Xiang, Chun-Lei; Kriebel, Ricardo; Drummond, Chloe P.; Walker, Jay B.; Sytsma, Kenneth J. (2017). "Salvia united: The greatest good for the greatest number". Taxon. 66 (1): 133–145. doi:10.12705/661.7. S2CID 90993808.
  3. ^ "Salvia". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary.
  4. ^ a b "Rosemary". California Plant Names. Retrieved December 19, 2022.
  5. ^ Drew; et al. (February 2017). "Salvia united: The greatest good for the greatest number".
  6. ^ Room, Adrian (1988). A Dictionary of True Etymologies. Taylor & Francis. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-415-03060-1.
  7. ^ Wedgwood, Hensleigh (1855). "On False Etymologies". Transactions of the Philological Society (6): 66.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary)". Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. 3 January 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  9. ^ Tucker, Arthur O.; Maciarello, Michael J. (September 1986). "The essential oils of some rosemary cultivars". Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 1 (4–5): 137–142. doi:10.1002/ffj.2730010402.
  10. ^ "How to Grow Rosemary". Garden Action. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  11. ^ Shepherd, Lizz. The Complete Guide to Growing Vegetables, Flowers, Fruits, and Herbs from Containers. Page 127. Retrieved on 6 Oct. 2023. "Rosemary seeds can be hard to start, with a slow germinating time and a low germination rate, which means many seeds do not develop into plants."
  12. ^ Federal Register. Volume 52, Issues 13-20 - Page 2228. Retrieved on 6 Oct. 2023. "Mature rosemary approaches senescence at an age of 30-35 years…it releases toxic chemicals into the soil that inhibit or prevent the growth of most other plants, resulting in areas of relatively bare, open sand between the shrubs."
  13. ^ McCoy, Michael (27 June 2012). "The good graces of rosemary". The Gardenist. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  14. ^ Rosselló, J. A.; Cosín, R.; Boscaiu, M.; Vicente, O.; Martínez, I.; Soriano, P. (2006). "Intragenomic diversity and phylogenetic systematics of wild rosemaries (Rosmarinus officinalis L. s.l., Lamiaceae) assessed by nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences (ITS)". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 262 (1–2): 1–12. Bibcode:2006PSyEv.262....1R. doi:10.1007/s00606-006-0454-5. JSTOR i23655428. S2CID 25645455.
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  16. ^ Linnaeus, Carolus (1753). Species Plantarum. Vol. 1. p. 23. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
  17. ^ Kent, Elizabeth (1823). Flora Domestica, or the Portable Flower-Garden. Taylor and Hessey. p. 330.
  18. ^ Leafy Medicinal Herbs: Botany, Chemistry, Postharvest Technology and Uses by Dawn Ambrose, 216, 210-11
  19. ^ Boi, Marzia. "The Ethnocultural significance for the use of plants in Ancient Funerary Rituals and its possible implications with pollens found on the Shroud of Turin" (PDF). www.shroud.com. Retrieved 2020-12-07.
  20. ^ Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, trans. John Bostock (London: Taylor and Francis, 1855)
  21. ^ Pedanius Dioscorides of Anazarbos (2000). Osbaldeston, Tess Anne (ed.). De materia medica: Being an herbal with many other medicinal matters. Written in Greek in the first century of the common era. Johannesburg: IBIDIS. ISBN 0-620-23435-0.
  22. ^ "Han dynasty | Definition, Map, Culture, Art, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  23. ^ The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Fruits, Vegetables, and Herbs: History, Botany by Deborah Madison, 2017, p.266
  24. ^ Vale, Juliet (2004). "Philippa [Philippa of Hainault] (1310x15?–1369), queen of England, consort of Edward III". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/22110. Retrieved 2023-06-26. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  25. ^ A Brief History of Thyme and other Herbs by Miranda Seymour, 2002, p.96
  26. ^ Sullivan, Catherine (1994-03-01). "Searching for nineteenth-century Florida water bottles". Historical Archaeology. 28 (1): 78–98. doi:10.1007/BF03374182. ISSN 0440-9213. S2CID 162639733.
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  28. ^ a b Burlando, Bruno; Verotta, Luisella; Cornara, Laura; Bottini-Massa, Elisa (2010). Herbal Principles in Cosmetics Properties and Mechanisms of Action. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 303. ISBN 978-1-4398-1214-3.
  29. ^ "About the Herb Rosemary and Uses". The Spruce Eats. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
  30. ^ Rosemary Archived 2012-04-22 at the Wayback Machine. Gardenclinic.com.au. Retrieved on 2014-06-03.
  31. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 93. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  32. ^ "Rosmarinus officinalis (Angustifolia Group) 'Benenden Blue'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  33. ^ "Rosmarinus officinalis 'Miss Jessopp's Upright'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  34. ^ "Rosmarinus officinalis 'Severn Sea'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  35. ^ "Rosmarinus officinalis 'Sissinghurst Blue'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  36. ^ "Nutrition Facts – Dried rosemary, one teaspoon (1 g)". nutritiondata.com. Conde Nast, USDA Nutrient Database, version SR-21. 2014.
  37. ^ "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference". NAL.usda.gov. US Department of Agriculture. 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  38. ^ Daniells, Stephen (20 November 2017). "Oregano, rosemary extracts promise omega-3 preservation". Food Navigator.
  39. ^ Nieto, G.; Ros, G.; Castillo, J. (2018). "Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, L.): A Review". Medicines. 5 (3): 98. doi:10.3390/medicines5030098. PMC 6165352. PMID 30181448.
  40. ^ Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Rinaldi Alvarenga, José Fernando; Leal, Leonel Neto; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M. (2014). "A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: Rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay". Food Chemistry. 154: 299–307. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.12.106. PMID 24518346.
  41. ^ "Rosemary | Professional". Drugs.com. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  42. ^ Birtić, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C.; Roller, Marc (2015-07-01). "Carnosic acid". Phytochemistry. 115: 9–19. Bibcode:2015PChem.115....9B. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.12.026. ISSN 0031-9422. PMID 25639596.
  43. ^ Capuano, Thomas M. (2005). "Las huellas de otro texto médico en Don Quijote: Las virtudes del romero". Romance Notes (in Spanish). 45 (3): 303–310.
  44. ^ a b "Rosemary". Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  45. ^ Shakespeare, William. Scene 13. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  46. ^ Shakespeare, William (2005). The Winter's Tale. Simon & Schuster. p. 139.
  47. ^ Brewer, E. Cobham, Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 14th ed., London: Cassel, Petter, Galpin, and Co., no date [1880 per Google Books], p. 765.
  48. ^ Lang, Andrew (1897). The Pink Fairy Book. Longmans, Green and Co. p. 237.
  49. ^ "Rosemary in the Life of the Danube Swabians by Hans Gehl". www.dvhh.org. Retrieved 2023-09-17.
  50. ^ Kirchweih in Warjasch 2017, retrieved 2023-09-17