Lovage
Liebstöckel.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Subfamily: Apioideae
Genus: Levisticum
Hill
Species:
L. officinale
Binomial name
Levisticum officinale

Lovage (/ˈlʌvɪ/), Levisticum officinale, is a tall perennial plant, the sole species in the genus Levisticum in the family Apiaceae, subfamily Apioideae.[1][2] It has been long cultivated in Europe, the leaves being used as a herb, the roots as a vegetable, and the seeds as a spice, especially in southern European cuisine.

Description

Lovage flowers
Lovage flowers

Lovage is an erect, herbaceous, perennial plant growing to 1.8–2.5 m (6–8 ft) tall, with a basal rosette of leaves and stems with further leaves, the flowers being produced in umbels at the top of the stems. The stems and leaves are shiny glabrous green to yellow-green and smell somewhat similar to celery when crushed. The larger basal leaves are up to 70 cm (28 in) long, tripinnate, with broad triangular to rhomboidal, acutely pointed leaflets with a few marginal teeth; the stem leaves are smaller, and less divided with few leaflets. The flowers are yellow to greenish-yellow, 2–3 mm (11618 in) diameter, produced in globose umbels up to 10–15 cm (4–6 in) diameter; flowering is in late spring. The fruit is a dry two-parted schizocarp 4–7 mm (31614 in) long, mature in autumn.[3]

Distribution

The exact native range is disputed; some sources cite it as native to much of Europe and southwestern Asia,[4] others from only the eastern Mediterranean region in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia,[5] and yet others only to southwestern Asia in Iran and Afghanistan, citing European populations as naturalised.[6][7] It has been long cultivated in Europe, the leaves being used as an herb, the roots as a vegetable, and the seeds as a spice, especially in southern European cuisine.[5]

Properties and uses

The leaves can be used in salads, or to make soup or season broths, and the roots can be eaten as a vegetable or grated for use in salads. Its flavour and smell are reminiscent both of celery and parsley, only more intense and spicy than those of either. The seeds can be used as a spice in the same way as fennel seeds.[5]

The roots, which contain a heavy, volatile oil, are used as a mild aquaretic.[13] Lovage root contains furanocoumarins which can lead to photosensitivity.[14]

Etymology

A lovage plant beginning to bloom in June, 2.78 m (9 ft 1 in) tall
A lovage plant beginning to bloom in June, 2.78 m (9 ft 1 in) tall

The name "lovage" is from "love-ache", ache being a medieval name for parsley; this is a folk-etymological corruption of the older French name levesche, from late Latin levisticum, in turn thought to be a corruption of the earlier Latin ligusticum, 'of Liguria' (northwest Italy), where the herb was grown extensively.[15] In modern botanical usage, both Latin forms are now used for different (but closely related) genera, with Levisticum for (culinary) lovage, and Ligusticum for Scots lovage, a similar species from northern Europe, and for related species.[15]

References

  1. ^ Pimenov, M. G. & Leonov, M. V. (1993). The Genera of the Umbelliferae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 0-947643-58-3.
  2. ^ Downie, S. R., Plunkett, G. M., Watson, M. F., Spalik, K., Katz-Downie, D. S., Valiejo-Roman, C. M., Terentieva, E. I., Troitsky, A. V., Lee, B.-Y., Lahham, J., and El-Oqlah, A. (2001). "Tribes and clades within Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: the contribution of molecular data". Edinburgh Journal of Botany. 58 (2): 301–330. doi:10.1017/s0960428601000658.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Interactive Flora of NW Europe: Levisticum officinale (Lovage)
  4. ^ Den virtuella floran: Levisticum officinale (in Swedish), with map
  5. ^ a b c Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  6. ^ Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Illustrated Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2.
  7. ^ "Levisticum officinale". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  8. ^ Thyra (2017-06-30). "Thyra: Lovage/Løvstikke". Thyra. Retrieved 2020-09-30.
  9. ^ "Blogwatching: white asparagus – A Dutch ritual". DutchNews.nl. Retrieved 2020-09-30.
  10. ^ "În ce fel de ciorbe este indicat să folosim leuşteanul. Cât de multe frunze puternic aromate putem pune". adevarul.ro. 23 February 2017. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
  11. ^ "Cum faci cele mai gustoase murături". Adevarul newspaper. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  12. ^ Information on Lovage Cordial Archived 2011-10-06 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "Community herbal monograph on Levisticum officinale Koch, radix" (PDF). European Medicines Agency. 2012-03-27. Retrieved 2015-07-28.
  14. ^ Ashwood-Smith MJ, Ceska O, Yeoman A, Kenny PG (May 1993). "Photosensitivity from harvesting lovage (Levisticum officinale)". Contact Dermatitis. 26 (5): 356–7. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1992.tb00138.x. PMID 1395606. S2CID 30154586.
  15. ^ a b "lovage". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)