Vanilla planifolia, flower
Dried vanilla beans

Vanilla is a spice derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily obtained from pods of the flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia).[1]

Vanilla is not autogamous, so pollination is required to make the plants produce the fruit from which the vanilla spice is obtained.[2] In 1837, Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact and pioneered a method of artificially pollinating the plant. The method proved financially unworkable and was not deployed commercially. In 1841, Edmond Albius, a 12-year-old slave who lived on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, discovered that the plant could be hand-pollinated.[3] Hand-pollination allowed global cultivation of the plant. Noted French botanist and plant collector Jean Michel Claude Richard falsely claimed to have discovered the technique three or four years earlier. By the end of the 20th century, Albius was considered the true discoverer.[4]

Three major species of vanilla currently are grown globally, all of which derive from a species originally found in Mesoamerica, including parts of modern-day Mexico. They are V. planifolia (syn. V. fragrans), grown on Madagascar, Réunion, and other tropical areas along the Indian Ocean; V. × tahitensis, grown in the South Pacific; and V. pompona, found in the West Indies, Central America, and South America. The majority of the world's vanilla is the V. planifolia species, more commonly known as Bourbon vanilla (after the former name of Réunion, Île Bourbon) or Madagascar vanilla, which is produced in Madagascar and neighboring islands in the southwestern Indian Ocean, and in Indonesia. Madagascar's and Indonesia's cultivations produce two-thirds of the world's supply of vanilla.

Vanilla is the second-most expensive spice (as measured in terms of average price by unit of weight) after saffron because growing the vanilla seed pods is labor-intensive. Nevertheless, vanilla is widely used in both commercial and domestic baking, perfume production, and aromatherapy, as only small amounts are needed to impart its signature flavor and aroma.


Drawing of the Vanilla plant from the Florentine Codex (c. 1580) and description of its use and properties written in the Nahuatl language

Vanilla planifolia traditionally grew wild around the Gulf of Mexico from Tampico around to the northeast tip of South America, and from Colima to Ecuador on the Pacific side, as well as throughout the Caribbean. The Totonac people, who live along the eastern coast of Mexico in the present-day state of Veracruz, were among the first people to domesticate vanilla, cultivated on farms since at least 1185. The Totonac used vanilla as a fragrance in temples and as a good-luck charm in amulets, as well as flavoring for food and beverages. The cultivation of vanilla was a low-profile affair, as few people from outside these regions knew of it.

Although the Totonacs are the most famously associated with human use of vanilla, it is speculated that the Olmecs, who also lived in the regions of wild vanilla growth thousands of years earlier, were one of the first people to use wild vanilla in cuisine.[5][6][7][8]

Aztecs from the central highlands of Mexico invaded the Totonacs in 1427, developed a taste for the vanilla pods, and began using vanilla to flavor their foods and drinks, often mixing it with cocoa in a drink called "xocolatl" that later inspired modern hot chocolate. The fruit was named tlilxochitl, wrongly interpreted as "black flower" instead of the more probable "black pod"[9] because the matured fruit shrivels and turns a dark color shortly after being picked. For the Aztecs, much like earlier Mesoamerican peoples before them, it is probable that vanilla was used to tame the otherwise bitter taste of cacao, as sugarcane was not harvested in these regions at the time and there were no other sweeteners available.

Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s.[10] In Europe, vanilla was seen mostly as an additive to chocolate until the early 17th century when Hugh Morgan, a creative apothecary in the employ of Queen Elizabeth I, created chocolate-free, vanilla-flavored "sweetmeats". By the 18th century, the French were using vanilla to flavor ice cream.[11]

Until the mid-19th century, Mexico was the chief producer of vanilla.[12] In 1819, French entrepreneurs shipped vanilla fruits to the islands of Réunion and Mauritius in hopes of producing vanilla there. After 1841, when Edmond Albius discovered how to pollinate the flowers quickly by hand, the pods began to thrive. Soon, the tropical orchids were sent from Réunion to the Comoros Islands, Seychelles, and Madagascar, along with instructions for pollinating them. By 1898, Madagascar, Réunion, and the Comoros Islands produced 200 metric tons of vanilla beans, about 80% of world production in that year. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization 2019 data, Madagascar, followed by Indonesia, were the largest producers of vanilla in 2018.[13]

Vanilla cultivation

After a tropical cyclone ravaged key croplands, the market price of vanilla rose sharply in the late 1970s and remained high through the early 1980s despite the introduction of Indonesian vanilla. In the mid-1980s, the cartel that had controlled vanilla prices and distribution since its creation in 1930 disbanded.[14] Prices dropped 70% over the next few years, to nearly US$20 per kilogram; prices rose sharply again after tropical cyclone Hudah struck Madagascar in April 2000.[15] The cyclone, political instability, and poor weather in the third year drove vanilla prices to US$500/kg in 2004, bringing new countries into the vanilla industry. A good crop, coupled with decreased demand caused by the production of imitation vanilla, pushed the market price down to the $40/kg range in the middle of 2005. By 2010, prices were down to $20/kg. Cyclone Enawo caused a similar spike to $500/kg in 2017.[16]

An estimated 95% of "vanilla" products are artificially flavored with vanillin derived from lignin instead of vanilla fruits.[17]

Although it is scientifically accepted that vanilla was domesticated in Mesoamerica and subsequently spread to the Old World, in 2019 researchers published a paper stating that the use of an unidentified, Old World-endemic Vanilla species is attested in Canaan/Israel during the Middle Bronze Age and later.[18][19] Traces of vanillin were found in wine jars in Jerusalem, which were used by the Judahite elite before the city was destroyed in 586 BCE.[19]


The word vanilla is derived from the Spanish word vainilla meaning "little pod", which is the diminutive of the Latin vagina (sheath) describing the shape of the pods.[20][21] The word "vanilla" entered the English language in 1754, when the botanist Philip Miller wrote about the genus in his Gardener’s Dictionary.[22]


Vanilla orchid

Main article: Vanilla planifolia

Vanilla extract displays its distinctive color.
V. planifolia – flower

The main species harvested for vanilla is V. planifolia. Although it is native to Mesoamerica and South America, it is now widely grown throughout the tropics. Indonesia and Madagascar are the world's largest producers. Additional sources include V. pompona and V. tahitiensis (grown in Niue and Tahiti), although the vanillin content of these species is much less than V. planifolia.[23][24][25]

Vanilla grows as a vine, climbing up an existing tree (also called a tutor), pole, or other support. It can be grown in a wood (on trees), in a plantation (on trees or poles), or in a "shader", in increasing orders of productivity. Its growth environment is referred to as its terroir, and includes not only the adjacent plants, but also the climate, geography, and local geology. Left alone, it will grow as high as possible on the support, with few flowers. Every year, growers fold the higher parts of the plant downward so the plant stays at heights accessible by a standing human. This also greatly stimulates flowering.

The distinctively flavored compounds are found in the fruit, which results from the pollination of the flower. These seed pods are roughly a third of an inch (8 mm) by six inches (15 cm), and brownish red to black when ripe. Inside of these pods is an oily liquid full of tiny seeds.[26] One flower produces one fruit. V. planifolia flowers are hermaphroditic: they carry both male (anther) and female (stigma) organs. However, self-pollination is blocked by a membrane which separates those organs. Despite various claims otherwise, the only pollinators definitively documented to date are orchid bees in the genus Eulaema,[27] and all commercial vanilla production takes place via hand pollination by humans. The first vanilla orchid to flower in Europe was in the London collection of the Honourable Charles Greville in 1806. Cuttings from that plant went to Netherlands and Paris, from which the French first transplanted the vines to their overseas colonies. The vines grew, but would not fruit outside Mexico. The only known way to produce fruits is artificial pollination. Today, even in Mexico, hand pollination is used extensively.

In 1837, botanist Charles François Antoine Morren began experimenting with hand pollination of Vanilla orchids in cultivation in Europe.[28] The method proved financially unworkable and was not deployed commercially.[29] A few years later in 1841, a simple and efficient artificial hand-pollination method was developed by a 12-year-old slave named Edmond Albius on Réunion, a method still used today.[30] Using a beveled sliver of bamboo,[31] an agricultural worker lifts the membrane separating the anther and the stigma, then, using the thumb, transfers the pollinia from the anther to the stigma. The flower, self-pollinated, will then produce a fruit. The vanilla flower lasts about one day, sometimes less, so growers have to inspect their plantations every day for open flowers, a labor-intensive task.

The fruit, a seed capsule, if left on the plant, ripens and opens at the end; as it dries, the phenolic compounds crystallize, giving the fruits a diamond-dusted appearance, which the French call givre (hoarfrost). It then releases the distinctive vanilla smell. The fruit contains tiny, black seeds. In dishes prepared with whole natural vanilla, these seeds are recognizable as black specks. Both the pod and the seeds are used in cooking.

Like other orchids' seeds, vanilla seeds will not germinate without the presence of certain mycorrhizal fungi. Instead, growers reproduce the plant by cutting: they remove sections of the vine with six or more leaf nodes, a root opposite each leaf. The two lower leaves are removed, and this area is buried in loose soil at the base of support. The remaining upper roots cling to the support, and often grow down into the soil. Growth is rapid under good conditions.


A bottle of vanilla extract

The term French vanilla is often used to designate particular preparations with a strong vanilla aroma, containing vanilla grains and sometimes also containing eggs (especially egg yolks). The appellation originates from the French style of making vanilla ice cream with a custard base, using vanilla pods, cream, and egg yolks. Inclusion of vanilla varietals from any of the former French dependencies or overseas France may be a part of the flavoring. Alternatively, French vanilla is taken to refer to a vanilla-custard flavor.


Main article: Vanillin

Chemical structure of vanillin

Vanilla essence occurs in two forms. Real seedpod extract is a complex mixture of several hundred different compounds, including vanillin, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, furfural, hexanoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, eugenol, methyl cinnamate, and isobutyric acid.[36] Synthetic essence consists of a solution of synthetic vanillin in ethanol. The chemical compound vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) is a major contributor to the characteristic flavor and aroma of real vanilla and is the main flavor component of cured vanilla beans.[37] Vanillin was first isolated from vanilla pods by Gobley in 1858.[38] By 1874, it had been obtained from glycosides of pine tree sap, temporarily causing a depression in the natural vanilla industry. Vanillin can be easily synthesized from various raw materials, but the majority of food-grade (> 99% pure) vanillin is made from guaiacol.[39]


Vanilla × tahitensis in cultivation
A vanilla plantation in a forest of Réunion Island

In general, quality vanilla only comes from good vines and through careful production methods. Commercial vanilla production can be performed under open field and "greenhouse" operations. The two production systems share these similarities:

Vanilla grows best in a hot, humid climate from sea level to an elevation of 1,500 m.[41] The ideal climate has moderate rainfall, 1,500–3,000 mm, evenly distributed through 10 months of the year. Optimum temperatures for cultivation are 15–30 °C (59–86 °F) during the day and 15–20 °C (59–68 °F) during the night. Ideal humidity is around 80%, and under normal greenhouse conditions, it can be achieved by an evaporative cooler. However, since greenhouse vanilla is grown near the equator and under polymer (HDPE) netting (shading of 50%), this humidity can be achieved by the environment. Most successful vanilla growing and processing is done in the region within 10 to 20° of the equator.[41]

Soils for vanilla cultivation should be loose, with high organic matter content and loamy texture. They must be well drained, and a slight slope helps in this condition. Soil pH has not been well documented, but some researchers have indicated an optimum soil pH around 5.3.[42] Mulch is very important for proper growth of the vine, and a considerable portion of mulch should be placed in the base of the vine.[43] Fertilization varies with soil conditions, but general recommendations are: 40 to 60 g of N, 20 to 30 g of P2O5 and 60 to 100 g of K2O should be applied to each plant per year besides organic manures, such as vermicompost, oil cakes, poultry manure, and wood ash. Foliar applications are also good for vanilla, and a solution of 1% NPK (17:17:17) can be sprayed on the plant once a month. Vanilla requires organic matter, so three or four applications of mulch a year are adequate for the plant.

Propagation, preparation and type of stock

Dissemination of vanilla can be achieved either by stem cutting or by tissue culture. For stem cutting, a progeny garden needs to be established. All plants need to grow under 50% shade, as well as the rest of the crop. Mulching the trenches with coconut husk and micro irrigation provide an ideal microclimate for vegetative growth.[44] Cuttings between 60 and 120 cm (24 and 47 in) should be selected for planting in the field or greenhouse. Cuttings below 60 to 120 cm (24 to 47 in) need to be rooted and raised in a separate nursery before planting. Planting material should always come from unflowered portions of the vine. Wilting of the cuttings before planting provides better conditions for root initiation and establishment.[40]

Before planting the cuttings, trees to support the vine must be planted at least three months before sowing the cuttings. Pits of 30 × 30 × 30 cm are dug 30 cm (12 in) away from the tree and filled with farm yard manure (vermicompost), sand and top soil mixed well. An average of 2000 cuttings can be planted per hectare (2.5 acres). One important consideration is that when planting the cuttings from the base, four leaves should be pruned and the pruned basal point must be pressed into the soil in a way such that the nodes are in close contact with the soil, and are placed at a depth of 15 to 20 cm (5.9 to 7.9 in).[43] The top portion of the cutting is tied to the tree using natural fibers such as banana or hemp.

Tissue culture

Tissue culture was first used as a means of creating vanilla plants during the 1980s at Tamil Nadu University. This was the part of the first project to grow V. planifolia in India. At that time, a shortage of vanilla planting stock was occurring in India. The approach was inspired by the work going on to tissue culture other flowering plants. Several methods have been proposed for vanilla tissue culture, but all of them begin from axillary buds of the vanilla vine.[45][46] In vitro multiplication has also been achieved through culture of callus masses, protocorms, root tips and stem nodes.[47] Description of any of these processes can be obtained from the references listed before, but all of them are successful in generation of new vanilla plants that first need to be grown up to a height of at least 30 cm (12 in) before they can be planted in the field or greenhouse.[40]

Scheduling considerations

In the tropics,[where?] the ideal time for planting vanilla is from September to November, when the weather is neither too rainy nor too dry, but this recommendation varies with growing conditions. Cuttings take one to eight weeks to establish roots, and show initial signs of growth from one of the leaf axils. A thick mulch of leaves should be provided immediately after planting as an additional source of organic matter. Three years are required for cuttings to grow enough to produce flowers and subsequent pods. As with most orchids, the blossoms grow along stems branching from the main vine. The buds, growing along the 6 to 10 in (15 to 25 cm) stems, bloom and mature in sequence, each at a different interval.[44]


External videos
video icon Hand Pollination of Vanilla Planifolia Flowers, YouTube video

Flowering normally occurs every spring, and without pollination, the blossom wilts and falls, and no vanilla bean can grow. In the wild in the New World, the only organisms ever observed to carry Vanilla pollen are orchid bees in the genus Eulaema, though direct evidence documenting seed set is lacking.[27] Claims that pollination is achieved by stingless bees of the genus Melipona or hummingbirds have never been substantiated, though they do visit the flowers.[27] Even within the range of orchid bees, wild vanilla orchids have only a 1% chance of successful pollination. As a result, all vanilla grown today is pollinated by hand. Each flower must be hand-pollinated within 12 hours of opening. A small splinter of wood or a grass stem is used to lift the rostellum or move the flap upward, so the overhanging anther can be pressed against the stigma and self-pollinate the vine. Generally, one flower per raceme opens per day, so the raceme may be in flower for over 20 days. A healthy vine should produce about 50 to 100 beans per year, but growers are careful to pollinate only five or six flowers from the 20 on each raceme. The first flowers that open in each raceme are usually the only ones that are pollinated, so the resulting beans are similar in age and mature together. This agronomic practice facilitates harvest and increases bean quality, as over-pollination results in diseases and inferior bean quality.[43] The fruits require five to six weeks to develop, but around six months to mature. A vine remains productive between 12 and 14 years.

Pest and disease management

Vanilla is susceptible to many fungal and viral diseases. Fusarium, Sclerotium, Phytophthora, and Colletrotrichum species cause rots of root, stem, leaf, bean, and shoot apex. Development of most diseases is favoured by unsuitable growing conditions such as overwatering, insufficient drainage, heavy mulch, overpollination, and too much shade. Fungal diseases can be controlled by spraying Bordeaux mixture (1%), carbendazim (0.2%) and copper oxychloride (0.2%).

Biological control of the spread of such diseases can be managed by applying to the soil Trichoderma (0.5 kg (1.1 lb) per plant in the rhizosphere) and foliar application of pseudomonas (0.2%). Mosaic virus, leaf curl, and cymbidium mosaic potexvirus are the common viral diseases. These diseases are transmitted through the sap, so affected plants must be destroyed. The insect pests of vanilla include beetles and weevils that attack the flower, caterpillars, snakes, and slugs that damage the tender parts of shoot, flower buds, and immature fruit, and grasshoppers that affect cutting shoot tips.[43][44] If organic agriculture is practiced, insecticides are avoided, and mechanical measures are adopted for pest management.[40] Most of these practices are implemented under greenhouse cultivation, since such field conditions are very difficult to achieve.

Artificial vanilla

Most artificial vanilla products contain vanillin, which can be produced synthetically from lignin, a natural polymer found in wood. Most synthetic vanillin is a byproduct from the pulp used in papermaking, in which the lignin is broken down using sulfites or sulfates. However, vanillin is only one of 171 identified aromatic components of real vanilla fruits.[48]

The orchid species Leptotes bicolor is used as a natural vanilla replacement in Paraguay and southern Brazil.

In 1996 the US Food and Drug Administration cautioned that some vanilla products sold in Mexico were made from the cheaper tonka bean which as well as vanillin also contains the toxin coumarin. They advised consumers to always check the ingredients label and avoid suspiciously cheap products.[49]

Nonplant vanilla flavoring

In the United States, castoreum, the exudate from the castor sacs of mature beavers, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a food additive,[50] often referenced simply as a "natural flavoring" in the product's list of ingredients. It is used in both food and beverages,[51] especially as vanilla and raspberry flavoring, with a total annual U.S. production of less than 300 pounds.[51][52] It is also used to flavor some cigarettes and in perfume-making, and is used by fur trappers as a scent lure.


Harvesting vanilla fruits is as labor-intensive as pollinating the blossoms. Immature, dark green pods are not harvested. Pale yellow discoloration that commences at the distal end of the fruits is not a good indication of the maturity of pods. Each fruit ripens at its own time, requiring a daily harvest. "Current methods for determining the maturity of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beans are unreliable. Yellowing at the blossom end, the current index, occurs before beans accumulate maximum glucovanillin concentrations. Beans left on the vine until they turn brown have higher glucovanillin concentrations but may split and have low quality. Judging bean maturity is difficult as they reach full size soon after pollination. Glucovanillin accumulates from 20 weeks, maximum about 40 weeks after pollination. Mature green beans have 20% dry matter but less than 2% glucovanillin."[53] The accumulation of dry matter and glucovanillin are highly correlated. To ensure the finest flavor from every fruit, each individual pod must be picked by hand just as it begins to split on the end. Overmatured fruits are likely to split, causing a reduction in market value. Its commercial value is fixed based on the length and appearance of the pod.

If the fruit is more than 15 cm (5.9 in) in length, it is categorized as first-quality. The largest fruits greater than 16 cm (6.3 in) and up to as much as 21 cm (8.3 in) are usually reserved for the gourmet vanilla market, for sale to top chefs and restaurants. If the fruits are between 10 and 15 cm long, pods are in the second-quality category, and fruits less than 10 cm (3.9 in) in length are in the third-quality category. Each fruit contains thousands of tiny black vanilla seeds. Vanilla fruit yield depends on the care and management given to the hanging and fruiting vines. Any practice directed to stimulate aerial root production has a direct effect on vine productivity. A five-year-old vine can produce between 1.5 and 3 kg (3.3 and 6.6 lb) of pods, and this production can increase up to 6 kg (13 lb) after a few years. The harvested green fruit can be commercialized as such or cured to get a better market price.[40][43][44]


Several methods exist in the market for curing vanilla; nevertheless, all of them consist of four basic steps: killing, sweating, slow-drying, and conditioning of the beans.[54][55]


The vegetative tissue of the vanilla pod is killed to stop the vegetative growth of the pods and disrupt the cells and tissue of the fruits, which initiates enzymatic reactions responsible for the aroma. The method of killing varies, but may be accomplished by heating in hot water, freezing, or scratching, or killing by heating in an oven or exposing the beans to direct sunlight. The different methods give different profiles of enzymatic activity.[56][57]

Testing has shown mechanical disruption of fruit tissues can cause curing processes,[58] including the degeneration of glucovanillin to vanillin, so the reasoning goes that disrupting the tissues and cells of the fruit allow enzymes and enzyme substrates to interact.[56]

Hot-water killing may consist of dipping the pods in hot water (63–65 °C (145–149 °F)) for three minutes, or at 80 °C (176 °F) for 10 seconds. In scratch killing, fruits are scratched along their length.[57] Frozen or quick-frozen fruits must be thawed again for the subsequent sweating stage. Tied in bundles and rolled in blankets, fruits may be placed in an oven at 60 °C (140 °F) for 36 to 48 hours. Exposing the fruits to sunlight until they turn brown, a method originating in Mexico, was practiced by the Aztecs.[56]


Sweating is a hydrolytic and oxidative process. Traditionally, it consists of keeping fruits, for 7 to 10 days, densely stacked and insulated in wool or other cloth. This retains a temperature of 45–65 °C (113–149 °F) and high humidity. Daily exposure to the sun may also be used, or dipping the fruits in hot water. The fruits are brown and have attained much of the characteristic vanilla flavor and aroma by the end of this process, but still retain a 60–70% moisture content by weight.[56]


Reduction of the beans to 25–30% moisture by weight, to prevent rotting and to lock the aroma in the pods, is always achieved by some exposure of the beans to air, and usually (and traditionally) intermittent shade and sunlight. Fruits may be laid out in the sun during the mornings and returned to their boxes in the afternoons, or spread on a wooden rack in a room for three to four weeks, sometimes with periods of sun exposure. Drying is the most problematic of the curing stages; unevenness in the drying process can lead to the loss of vanillin content of some fruits by the time the others are cured.[56]


Conditioning is performed by storing the pods for five to six months in closed boxes, where the fragrance develops. The processed fruits are sorted, graded, bundled, and wrapped in paraffin paper and preserved for the development of desired bean qualities, especially flavor and aroma. The cured vanilla fruits contain an average of 2.5% vanillin.


See also: Food grading

Grading vanilla beans at Sambava, Madagascar

Once fully cured, the vanilla fruits are sorted by quality and graded. Several vanilla fruit grading systems are in use. Each country which produces vanilla has its own grading system,[59] and individual vendors, in turn, sometimes use their own criteria for describing the quality of the fruits they offer for sale.[60] In general, vanilla fruit grade is based on the length, appearance (color, sheen, presence of any splits, presence of blemishes), and moisture content of the fruit.[59][61] Whole, dark, plump and oily pods that are visually attractive, with no blemishes, and that have a higher moisture content are graded most highly.[62] Such pods are particularly prized by chefs for their appearance and can be featured in gourmet dishes.[60] Beans that show localized signs of disease or other physical defects are cut to remove the blemishes; the shorter fragments left are called "cuts" and are assigned lower grades, as are fruits with lower moisture contents.[61] Lower-grade fruits tend to be favored for uses in which the appearance is not as important, such as in the production of vanilla flavoring extract and in the fragrance industry.

Higher-grade fruits command higher prices in the market.[59][61] However, because grade is so dependent on visual appearance and moisture content, fruits with the highest grade do not necessarily contain the highest concentration of characteristic flavor molecules such as vanillin,[63] and are not necessarily the most flavorful.[60]

Example of a vanilla fruit grading system, used in Madagascar[59][64][65][66][67]
Grade Color Appearance / feel Approximate
moisture content†
Black dark brown to black supple with oily luster > 30%
TK (Brown, or Semi-Black) dark brown to black sometimes with a few red streaks like Black but drier/stiffer 25–30%
Red Fox (European quality) brown with reddish variegation a few blemishes 25%
Red American quality brown with reddish variegation similar to European red but more blemishes and drier/stiffer 22–25%
Cuts short, cut, and often split fruits, typically with substandard aroma and color

moisture content varies among sources cited

vanilla-grading in Madagascar
vanilla-grading in Madagascar

A simplified, alternative grading system has been proposed for classifying vanilla fruits suitable for use in cooking:[60]

Simplified vanilla fruit grading system for cooks
Grade A /
Grade I
15 cm and longer, 100–120 fruits per pound Also called "Gourmet" or "Prime". 30–35% moisture content.
Grade B /
Grade II
10–15 cm, 140–160 fruits per pound Also called "Extract fruits". 15–25% moisture content.
Grade C /
Grade III
10 cm

Under this scheme, vanilla extract is normally made from Grade B fruits.[60]


Vanilla production—2020
Country Production
 Madagascar 2,975
 Indonesia 2,306
 Mexico 589
 Papua New Guinea 495
 China 433
All others 816
World 7,614
Source: FAOSTAT[68]

In 2020, world production of vanilla was 7,614 tonnes, led by Madagascar with 39.1% of the total, and Indonesia with 30.3% (table). Due to drought, cyclones, and poor farming practices in Madagascar, there were concerns about the global supply and costs of vanilla in 2017 and 2018.[69][70] The intensity of criminal enterprises against Madagascar farmers is high, elevating the worldwide cost of using Madagascar vanilla in consumer products.[71]


A vanilla powder preparation made from sucrose and vanilla bean extracts
Vanilla rum, Madagascar

The four main commercial preparations of natural vanilla are:

Vanilla flavoring in food may be achieved by adding vanilla extract or by cooking vanilla pods in the liquid preparation. A stronger aroma may be attained if the pods are split in two, exposing more of a pod's surface area to the liquid. In this case, the pods' seeds are mixed into the preparation. Natural vanilla gives a brown or yellow color to preparations, depending on the concentration. Good-quality vanilla has a strong, aromatic flavor, but food with small amounts of low-quality vanilla or artificial vanilla-like flavorings are far more common, since true vanilla is much more expensive.

Regarded as the world's most popular aroma and flavor,[74][75][76] vanilla is a widely used aroma and flavor compound for foods, beverages and cosmetics, as indicated by its popularity as an ice cream flavor.[77] Although vanilla is a prized flavoring agent on its own, it is also used to enhance the flavor of other substances, to which its own flavor is often complementary, such as chocolate, custard, caramel, coffee, and others. Vanilla is a common ingredient in Western sweet baked goods, such as cookies and cakes.[76][15] Despite the expense, vanilla is highly valued for its flavor.[78]

The food industry uses methyl and ethyl vanillin as less-expensive substitutes for real vanilla. Ethyl vanillin is more expensive, but has a stronger note. Cook's Illustrated ran several taste tests pitting vanilla against vanillin in baked goods and other applications, and to the consternation of the magazine editors, tasters could not differentiate the flavor of vanillin from vanilla;[79] however, for the case of vanilla ice cream, natural vanilla won out.[80] A more recent and thorough test by the same group produced a more interesting variety of results; namely, high-quality artificial vanilla flavoring is best for cookies, while high-quality real vanilla is slightly better for cakes and significantly better for unheated or lightly heated foods.[81]

The liquid extracted from vanilla pods was once believed to have medical properties, helping with various stomach ailments.[82]

Contact dermatitis

Illustration of allergic contact dermatitis

The sap of most species of vanilla orchid which exudes from cut stems or where beans are harvested can cause moderate to severe dermatitis if it comes in contact with bare skin. The sap of vanilla orchids contains calcium oxalate crystals, which are thought to be the main causative agent of contact dermatitis in vanilla plantation workers.[83][84]



  1. ^ "HS1348/HS1348: Vanilla Cultivation in Southern Florida". Archived from the original on 25 December 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  2. ^ Maryland Grows (9 November 2020). "Vanilla and food: not plain when it comes to pollination". Maryland Grows. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  3. ^ "The Little Boy Who Should've Vanished, but Didn't". Science. 16 June 2015. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  4. ^ "Edmond Albius–The boy who revolutionised the vanilla industry". The Linnean Society. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  5. ^ Rain, Patricia; Lubinsky, Pesach (2011). "Vanilla Use in Colonial Mexico and Traditional Totonac Vanilla Farming". In Odoux, Eric; Grisoni, Michel (eds.). Vanilla. USA: CRC Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-1-4200-8337-8.
  6. ^ "Vanilla History". Rodelle Kitchen. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  7. ^ Gulley, Beth (4 December 2018). "The Vanilla Bean Orchid". Gulley Greenhouse. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  8. ^ Rain, Patricia (26 February 2009). "History of Vanilla".
  9. ^ Correll, Donovan S. (1953). "Vanilla: Its Botany, History, Cultivation and Economic Import". Economic Botany. 7 (4): 291–358. doi:10.1007/BF02930810. ISSN 0013-0001. JSTOR 4287786. S2CID 34061570.
  10. ^ The Herb Society of Nashville. "The Life of Spice". The Herb Society of Nashville. Archived from the original on 20 September 2011. Following Montezuma's capture, one of Cortés' officers saw him drinking "chocolatl" (made of powdered cocoa beans and ground corn flavored with ground vanilla pods and honey). The Spanish tried this drink themselves and were so impressed by this new taste sensation that they took samples back to Spain.' and 'Actually it was vanilla rather than the chocolate that made a bigger hit and by 1700 the use of vanilla was spread over all of Europe. Mexico became the leading producer of vanilla for three centuries. – Excerpted from 'Spices of the World Cookbook' by McCormick and 'The Book of Spices' by Frederic Rosengarten, Jr
  11. ^ Rebecca Rupp (23 October 2014). "The History of Vanilla". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  12. ^ Rain, Patricia; Lubinsky, Pesach (2011). "Vanilla Production in Mexico". In Odoux, Eric; Grisoni, Michel (eds.). Vanilla. USA: CRC Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-1-4200-8337-8.
  13. ^ "Crops, Vanilla". FAO Global Statistical Yearbook. 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  14. ^ Bleu, The Chefs of Le Cordon (21 April 2010). Le Cordon Bleu Cuisine Foundations. Cengage Learning. ISBN 9781435481374. Archived from the original on 28 April 2016 – via Google Books.
  15. ^ a b Zhu, Annah (21 November 2018). "Hot money, cold beer: Navigating the vanilla and rosewood export economies in northeastern Madagascar". American Ethnologist. 45 (2): 253–267. doi:10.1111/amet.12636.
  16. ^ Forani, Jonathan (20 September 2017). "Eager bakers may face a cake crisis as vanilla supply evaporates". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  17. ^ "Rainforest Vanilla Conservation Association". RVCA. Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  18. ^ Linares, V.; Adams, M. J.; Cradic, M. S.; Finkelstein, I.; Lipschits, O.; Martin, M. A. S.; Neumann, R.; Stockhammer, P. W.; Gadot, Y. (June 2019). "First evidence for vanillin in the old world: Its use as mortuary offering in Middle Bronze Canaan". Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 25: 77–84. Bibcode:2019JArSR..25...77L. doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2019.03.034. S2CID 181608839.
  19. ^ a b Amir, A.; Finkelstein, I.; Shalev, Y.; Uziel, J.; Chalaf, O.; Freud, L.; Neumann, R.; Gadot, Y. (2022). "Amir A, Finkelstein I, Shalev Y, Uziel J, Chalaf O, Freud L, et al. (2022) Residue analysis evidence for wine enriched with vanilla consumed in Jerusalem on the eve of the Babylonian destruction in 586 BCE. PLoS ONE 17(3)". PLOS ONE. 17 (3): e0266085. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0266085. PMC 8963535. PMID 35349581.
  20. ^ Ackerman, James D. (2002). "Vanilla". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 26. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 29 February 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008 – via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. Spanish vainilla, little pod or capsule, referring to long, podlike fruits
  21. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Archived from the original on 12 March 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  22. ^ Correll D (1953) Vanilla: its botany, history, cultivation and economic importance. Econ Bo 7(4): 291–358.
  23. ^ Brockman, Terra (11 June 2008). "Types of Vanilla". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 16 June 2008. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  24. ^ Lubinsky, Pesach; Bory, Séverine; Hernández Hernández, Juan; Kim, Seung-Chul; Gómez-Pompa, Arturo (2008). "Origins and Dispersal of Cultivated Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Jacks. [Orchidaceae])". Economic Botany. 62 (2): 127–38. doi:10.1007/s12231-008-9014-y. S2CID 11744202.
  25. ^ Besse, Pascale; Silva, Denis Da; Bory, Séverine; Grisoni, Michel; Le Bellec, Fabrice; Duval, Marie-France (2004). "RAPD genetic diversity in cultivated vanilla: Vanilla planifolia, and relationships with V. Tahitensis and V. Pompona". Plant Science. 167 (2): 379–85. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.04.007.
  26. ^ Diderot, Denis (September 2007). "Vanilla". Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert – Collaborative Translation Project. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  27. ^ a b c Lubinsky, Pesach; Van Dam, Matthew; Van Dam, Alex (2006). "Pollination of Vanilla and Evolution in the Orchidaceae". Lindleyana. 75 (12): 926–9. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  28. ^ Morren, C. (1837). "Note sur la première fructification du Vanillier en Europe (Note on the first fruiting of vanilla in Europe)". Annales de la Société Royale d'Horticulture de Paris. 20: 331–334. Morren describes the process of artificially pollinating vanilla on p. 333: "En effet, aucun fruit n'a été produit que sur les cinquante-quatre fleurs auxquelles j'avais artificiellement communiqué le pollen. On enlève le tablier ou on le soulève, et on met en contact avec le stigmate une mass pollinique entière, ou seulement une partie de cette masse, car une seule de celles-ci, coupée en huit ou dix pièces, peut féconder autant de fleurs." (In effect, fruit has been produced only on fifty-four flowers to which I artificially communicated pollen. One removes the labellum or one raises it, and one places in contact with the stigma a complete mass of pollen [i.e., pollinium], or just a part of that mass, for just one of these, cut into eight or ten pieces, can fertilize as many flowers.) Available on-line at:
  29. ^ Janet Hazen (1995). Vanilla. Chronicle Books. ISBN 9780811802543.
  30. ^ Silver Cloud Estates. "History of Vanilla". Silver Cloud Estates. Archived from the original on 19 February 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2008. In 1837 the Belgian botanist Morren succeeded in artificially pollinating the vanilla flower. On Reunion, Morren's process was attempted, but failed. It was not until 1841 that a 12-year-old slave by the name of Edmond Albius discovered the correct technique of hand-pollinating the flowers.
  31. ^ "Flower with money power". The Hindu. 10 May 2004. Archived from the original on 23 June 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  32. ^ Mushet, Cindy; Table, Sur La (21 October 2008). The Art and Soul of Baking. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 9780740773341. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017.
  33. ^ "Tahitian Vanilla Originated in Maya Forests, Says UC Riverside Botanist". University of California at Riverside, Newsroom. 21 August 2008. Archived from the original on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  34. ^ "What are The Best Vanilla Beans to Buy and Why?". Slofoodgroup. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  35. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Vanilla pompona". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Archived from the original on 9 October 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
  36. ^ Margraf, Marelke (July 2015). "Comparison of Compounds in Bourbon Vanilla Extract and Vanilla Flavour". The Application Notebook. The Application Notebook-07-01-2015.
  37. ^ Bomgardner, M.M. (2016). "The problem with vanilla". Chemical and Engineering News. 94 (36): 38–42. doi:10.1021/cen-09436-cover. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017.
  38. ^ Gobley, N.-T. (1858). "Recherches sur le principe odorant de la vanilla" [Research on the fragrant substance of vanilla]. Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie. Series 3. 34: 401–405. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016.
  39. ^ "Vanillin | Baking Ingredients". BAKERpedia. 17 November 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  40. ^ a b c d e Anilkumar, A. S. (February 2004). "Vanilla cultivation: A profitable agri-based enterprise" (PDF). Kerala Calling: 26–30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 February 2013.
  41. ^ a b Stehlé, Henri (1952). "Le Vanillier et sa culture: Histoire - Botanique - Géographie - Écologie du vanillier". Fruits (in French). 7: 50–56.
  42. ^ Berninger, F., Salas, E., 2003. "Biomass dynamics of Erythrina lanceolata as influenced by shoot-pruning intensity in Costa Rica." Agro-forestry Systems, 57:19–28.
  43. ^ a b c d e Davis, Elmo W. (1983). "Experiences with growing vanilla (Vanilla planifolia)". Acta Horticulturae. 132 (132): 23–9. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.1983.132.2.
  44. ^ a b c d Elizabeth, K. G. (2002). "Vanilla: an orchid spice". Indian Journal of Arecanut Spices and Medicinal Plants. 4 (2): 96–8.
  45. ^ George, P. S.; Ravishankar, G. A. (1997). "In vitro multiplication of Vanilla planifolia using axillary bud explants". Plant Cell Reports. 16 (7): 490–494. doi:10.1007/BF01092772. PMID 30727638. S2CID 25158520.
  46. ^ Kononowicz, H.; Janick, J. (1984). "In vitro propagation of Vanilla planifolia". HortScience. 19 (1): 58–9. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.19.1.58. S2CID 89492752.
  47. ^ Giridhar P, Ravishankar GA (2004). "Efficient micropropagation of Vanilla planifolia Andr. under influence of thidiazuron, zeatin and coconut milk". Indian Journal of Biotechnology. 3 (1): 113–118. Archived from the original on 6 May 2014.
  48. ^ "About Vanilla – Vanilla imitations". Cook Flavoring Company. 2011. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
  49. ^ "IMPORT ALERT IA2807: "DETENTION WITHOUT PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF COUMARIN IN VANILLA PRODUCTS (EXTRACTS – FLAVORINGS – IMITATIONS)"". U.S. Food and Drug Administration Office of Regulatory Affairs. January 1998. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2007.
  50. ^ Burdock GA (2007). "Safety assessment of castoreum extract as a food ingredient". Int. J. Toxicol. 26 (1): 51–55. doi:10.1080/10915810601120145. PMID 17365147. S2CID 39977652.
  51. ^ a b Kennedy, C Rose (2015). "What's in a flavor? Vanillin dreams". Science in the News. The Flavor Rundown: Natural vs. Artificial Flavors. Boston, MA: Harvard University, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016.
  52. ^ Burdock, George A. (3 December 2004). Fenaroli's Handbook of Flavor Ingredients. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-3787-6.
  53. ^ S. Van Dyk; P. Holford; P. Subedi; K. Walsh; M. Williams; W.B. McGlasson (2014). "Determining the harvest maturity of vanilla beans". Scientia Horticulturae. 168: 249–257. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2014.02.002.
  54. ^ Havkin-Frenkel D, French JC, Graft NM (2004). "Interrelation of curing and botany in vanilla (vanilla planifolia) bean". Acta Horticulturae. 629 (629): 93–102. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2004.629.12. S2CID 90867600.
  55. ^ Havkin-Frenkel, D.; French, J. C.; Pak, F. E.; Frenkel, C. (2003). "Botany and curing of vanilla". Journal of Aromatic Medicinal Plants.
  56. ^ a b c d e Frenkel, Chaim; Ranadive, Arvind S.; Vázquez, Javier Tochihuitl; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna (2010). "Curing of Vanilla". In Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith (eds.). Handbook of Vanilla Science and Technology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 79–106 [87]. ISBN 978-1-4443-2937-7. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016.
  57. ^ a b Arana, Francisca E. (October 1944). "Vanilla curing and its chemistry". Bulletin (42): 1–17. Archived from the original on 27 April 2016.
  58. ^ Methods of dehydrating and curing vanilla fruit[permanent dead link] US Patent 2,621,127
  59. ^ a b c d Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C. (2011). Handbook of Vanilla Science and Technology. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 142–145. ISBN 978-1-4051-9325-2.
  60. ^ a b c d e "Vanilla". Vanilla Review. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  61. ^ a b c Nielsen, Chat Jr. (1985). The Story of Vanilla. Chicago: Nielsen-Massey Vanillas.
  62. ^ "Vanilla". Spices Board of India. Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India. Archived from the original on 27 October 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  63. ^ K. Gassenheimer; E. Binggeli (2008). Imre Blank; Matthias Wüst; Chahan Yeretzian (eds.). "Vanilla Bean Quality – A Flavour Industry View" in Expression of Multidisciplinary Flavour Science: Proceedings of the 12th Weurman Symposium (Interlaken, Switzerland 2008). Wädensil, Switzerland: Zürich University of Applied Sciences. pp. 203–206. ISBN 978-3-905745-19-1.
  64. ^ "LFIE Vanilla Products". Lopat Frederic Import Export. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  65. ^ "Vanilla Bourbon". SA. VA. Import – Export. Retrieved 16 January 2012.[permanent dead link]
  66. ^ "Vanilla Products". Gascar Trading Company. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  67. ^ "Vanilla Bean Products". Vanexco. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  68. ^ "Vanilla production in 2020; Production/Crops/Production Quantity from Elements". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2020. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  69. ^ "Revival of Indonesian Vanilla Production amid Production Decrease in Madagascar". Tridge. 7 January 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2020.[permanent dead link]
  70. ^ "Transforming the vanilla supply chain in Madagascar". Medium. 17 September 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  71. ^ Kacungira, Nancy (19 August 2018). "Fighting the vanilla thieves of Madagascar". BBC. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  72. ^ The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires at least 12.5% of pure vanilla (ground pods or oleoresin) in the mixture Archived 29 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  73. ^ The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires at least 35% vol. of alcohol and 13.35 ounces of pod per gallon Archived 1 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  74. ^ Rain, Patricia (2004). Vanilla: The Cultural History of the World's Most Popular Flavor and Fragrance. Tarcher. ISBN 9781585423637.
  75. ^ Le Cordon Bleu (2009). Le Cordon Bleu Cuisine Foundations. Cengage learning. p. 213. ISBN 978-1-4354-8137-4.
  76. ^ a b Parthasarathy, V. A.; Chempakam, Bhageerathy; Zachariah, T. John (2008). Chemistry of Spices. CABI. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-84593-405-7.
  77. ^ "Vanilla remains top ice cream flavor with Americans". International Dairy Foods Association, Washington, DC. 23 July 2013. Archived from the original on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  78. ^ Rosengarten, Frederic (1973). The Book of Spices. Pyramid Books. ISBN 978-0-515-03220-8.
  79. ^ "Pure versus Imitation Vanilla Extract". Cooks Illustrated. 1 March 2009. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  80. ^ "Tasting lab: Vanilla Ice Cream". Cooks Illustrated. 1 May 2010. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  81. ^ "Vanilla Extract". 1 March 2009. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
  82. ^ Jaucourt, Louis (1765). "Vanilla". Encyclopédie Ou Dictionnaire Raisonné des Sciences, des Arts et des Métiers. hdl:2027/spo.did2222.0000.830.
  83. ^ "Vanilla planifolia Andrews – Plants of the World Online – Kew Science". Archived from the original on 22 November 2017.
  84. ^ "Vanilla". Plants for a Future. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017.

Further reading