A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by animals and humans — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds. In horticultural usage, the term "fruit tree" is limited to those that provide fruit for human food. Types of fruits are described and defined elsewhere (see Fruit), but would include "fruit" in a culinary sense, as well as some nut-bearing trees, such as walnuts.
The scientific study and the cultivation of fruits is called pomology, which divides fruits into groups based on plant morphology and anatomy. Some of those groups are pome fruits, which include apples and pears, and stone fruits, which include peaches/nectarines, almonds, apricots, plums and cherries.
Fruit trees can withstand the variability of rainfall better than annual crops due to the deep root systems and the perennial growth habit.
Climate change is significantly impacting fruit trees, with effects varying depending on the geographical region and type of fruit tree. The annual temperature in Japan, for example, has risen at a rate of 0.124°C per decade from 1898 to 2019, influencing fruit tree flowering times and potentially leading to a physiological disorder known as "flowering disorder" in Japanese pear, which may result from abnormal flowering or dormancy or both. In Australia, climate change is predicted to prompt a major shift in the fruit farming industry by 2030, affecting the winter chill period necessary for fruit production.
In addition, climate change has caused challenges like early spring and late frosts, flooding, drought, and extreme heat, all of which effect fruit trees. Severe droughts and flooding affect the trees' growth, making them more susceptible to pests and diseases. Extreme heat can damage growing fruit directly on the tree. 
This situation is exacerbated by global trends towards reduced organic matter in soil, necessitating innovative water conservation and management strategies to ensure crop yield and quality.
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