Brown coconut sugar

Coconut sugar (also known as coco sugar, coconut palm sugar, coco sap sugar or coconut blossom sugar) is a palm sugar produced from the sap of the flower bud stem of the coconut palm.[1]

Other types of palm sugar are made from the kithul palm (Caryota urens), Palmyra palm, the date palm, the sugar date palm, the sago palm or the sugar palm.

Used as a sweetener in many countries, coconut sugar has no significant nutritional or health benefits over other sweeteners.


Coconut sugar comes in crystal or granule form, block or liquid.[citation needed]

Producing coconut sugar is a two-step process.[2] It starts with harvesting or "tapping" the flower bud stem of a coconut tree.[3] Farmers make a cut on the spadix and the sap starts to flow from the cut into bamboo containers. The sap collected is then transferred into large woks and placed over moderate heat to evaporate the moisture content of the sap. The sap is translucent and is about 80% water. At this point it is known as coconut neera or nira (Indonesia), and as coconut toddy (Sri Lanka), namwan maphrao (Thailand), or lagbi (North Africa). As the water evaporates, it starts to transform into a thick sap syrup.[2] From this form, it may or may not be further reduced to crystal, block or soft paste form.[citation needed]

The brown colour which develops as the sap is reduced is mostly due to caramelization.[2]

Culinary use

Coconut sugar is widely used in Sri Lanka as an unrefined syrup or as jaggery, referred to as pol hakuru(පොල් හකුරු), though the jaggery made from the Kithul palm is preferred.[citation needed]

In Indonesian cuisine coconut sugar is called gula jawa (Javanese sugar) or gula merah (red sugar), while gula aren refers to palm sugar specifically made from aren palm.[1] Some Indonesian foodstuffs are made with coconut sugar, including kecap manis (a sweet soya sauce) and dendeng (a meat preparation).[2]

Gula melaka is a Southeast Asian name for palm sugar[4] or "malacca sugar",[5] probably named for its origin in the state of Malacca, Malaysia.[6] It is usually derived from coconut palms, but sometimes from other palms.[5] It is used in savory dishes, but mainly in local desserts and cakes of the Southeast Asian region.[citation needed]

Taste and flavor

Coconut sugar is subtly sweet almost like brown sugar but with a slight hint of caramel. The flavor and sweetness is usually similar to table sugar or brown sugar.[3][7] However, since coconut sugar is not highly processed, the color, sweetness and flavor can vary depending on the coconut species used, season when it was harvested, where it was harvested and/or the way the "sap" or "toddy" was reduced.[citation needed]

Nutrition and health claims

This section needs more reliable medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources, specifically: see talk page. Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Coconut sugar" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2017)

Although its use as a sweetener has become more common in developed countries,[8] there is no scientific evidence that coconut sugar is more nutritious or healthier than any other sweetener. The nutritive value is similar to the empty calories found in table sugar or brown sugar.[3][7] The principal carbohydrates of coconut sugar are sucrose (70–79%), glucose, and fructose (3–9% each).[3] Coconut sugar also contains mannose, inositol and amino acids. Presumably due to the heat during cooking, it further contains pyroglutamate in comparatively high concentrations. [9]

The glycemic index (GI) of coconut sugar was reported by the Philippine Coconut Authority to be 35 and by that measure is classified as a low glycemic index food.[10] However, the University of Sydney (Australia) Glycemic Index Research Service measured the GI of coconut sugar to be 54,[11] and considers any GI over 55 to be high.[12]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Coconut Sugar (Gula Jawa, Gula Merah) | Indonesia Eats | Authentic Online Indonesian Food Recipes". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  2. ^ a b c d Purnomo H (2007). "Volatile Components of Coconut Fresh Sap, Sap Syrup and Coconut Sugar" (PDF). ASEAN Food Journal. 14 (1): 45–49. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-11-24. Retrieved 2017-10-07.
  3. ^ a b c d Beck L (16 June 2014). "Coconut sugar: Is it healthier than white sugar, or just hype?". The Globe & Mail. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  4. ^ Wee, S. (2012). Growing Up In A Nyonya Kitchen: Singapore Recipes from my Mother. Marshall Cavendish International (Asia) Private Limited. p. 38. ISBN 978-981-4435-00-0. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
  5. ^ a b Eckhardt, Robyn (January 10, 2017). "Confessions of a Palm Sugar Addict". Saveur. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
  6. ^ Loh, A. (2015). Malacca Reminiscences. Partridge Publishing Singapore. p. 254. ISBN 978-1-4828-5489-3. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
  7. ^ a b "Coconut palm sugar". American Diabetes Association. 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-08-19. Retrieved 2014-11-06.
  8. ^ Shallow, Parvati (6 November 2014). "The trendiest foods for 2015". CBS News. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  9. ^ Bachmann, René; Horns, Anna Lena; Paasch, Nele; Schrieck, Robbin; Weidner, Markus; Fransson, Iris; Schrör, Jan-Philipp (2022-05-01). "Minor metabolites as chemical marker for the differentiation of cane, beet and coconut blossom sugar. From profiling towards identification of adulterations". Food Control. 135: 108832. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2022.108832. ISSN 0956-7135. S2CID 246031008.
  10. ^ "Glycemic Index of Coco Sugar" (PDF). Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Republic of Philippines. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-08. Retrieved 2014-02-23.
  11. ^ "Glycemic index of coconut sugar". Glycemic Index Research Service, Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, Australia. 2011. Archived from the original on 2021-02-11. Retrieved 2015-02-22.
  12. ^ "Glycemic index". Glycemic Index Research Service, Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, University of Sydney, Australia. 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.