This is a list of sugars and sugar products. Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources.
Generally speaking, chemical names ending in -ose indicate sugars. "Syrup" indicates a sugary solution.
Malting is a way of processing starchy grains like wheat and barley into sugar, so "malt extract" will be mostly sugar. Sugar is mostly extracted from plants by juicing them, then drying the purified juice, so "evaporated cane juice crystals" or "concentrated grape juice" are also very similar to pure sugars.