Melaka Negeri Bersejarah
Other transcription(s)
 • MalayMelaka (Rumi)
ملاک (Jawi)
 • Chinese马六甲 (Simplified)
馬六甲 (Traditional)
 • Tamilமலாக்கா
Malākkā (Transliteration)
Negeri Bersejarah
The Historic State
Bersatu Teguh
Firmly United
Anthem: "Melaka Maju Jaya"
"Malacca, Onwards Come!"
Map showing the location of the state of Malacca within Malaysia
   Malacca in    Malaysia
Coordinates: 2°12′N 102°15′E / 2.200°N 102.250°E / 2.200; 102.250
(and largest city)
Malacca City[a]
 • TypeParliamentary
 • Yang di-Pertua NegeriMohd Ali Rustam
 • Chief MinisterAb Rauf Yusoh
 • Total1,664 km2 (642 sq mi)
Highest elevation
(Bukit Gapis)
512 m (1,680 ft)
 • Total1,027,500
Human Development Index
 • HDI (2019)0.835 (very high) (4th)
Postal code
75xxx to 78xxx
Calling code06
ISO 3166 codeMY-04
Vehicle registrationM
Malacca Sultanate15th century
Portuguese control[3]24 August 1511
Dutch control[4][5]14 January 1641
British control[4][5][6][7]17 March 1824
Japanese occupation[8][9]11 January 1942
Accession into the Malayan Union[10]1 April 1946
Accession into the Federation of Malaya[11]1 February 1948
Independence as part of the Federation of Malaya[12]31 August 1957
^[a] Ayer Keroh, Hang Tuah Jaya is the state administrative centre and the seat of the Malacca state government (executive branch & legislative branch). However, Malacca City remains the official capital of the Malacca state.

Malacca (Malay: Melaka), officially the Historic State of Malacca (Malay: Melaka Negeri Bersejarah), is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, facing the Strait of Malacca. The state is bordered by Negeri Sembilan to the north and west and Johor to the south. The exclave of Tanjung Tuan also borders Negeri Sembilan to the north. Its capital is Malacca City, which has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008.[13][14]

Malacca has diverse tropical rainforest and experiences an equatorial climate. Situated immediately south of the Titiwangsa Mountains, the state is mostly level and dotted with inselbergs, with Bukit Gapis as the highest point.

Although it was the location of one of the earliest Malay sultanates, namely the Malacca Sultanate, the local monarchy was abolished when the Portuguese conquered it in 1511. The head of state is the Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor, rather than a sultan. Malacca is noted for its unique history and it is one of the major tourist destinations in Malaysia. With a highly strategic state position for international trade routes, Malacca was once a well-known international trade centre in the East. Many traders anchored in Malacca, especially traders from Arabia, China and India, traded at the port of Malacca and from there were born many of the descendants and tribes that exist in Malacca to this day.

A great diversity of races and ethnicities have long existed among the local community reflecting its history. Malays, Chinese, Indians, Baba Nyonya, Kristang, Chitty, Temuan and Eurasians are significant ethnic groups living in the State of Malacca in the present day.[15][16][17]



Historical affiliations

Portuguese Malacca 1511–1641
Dutch East India Company 1641–1795
Dutch East Indies 1818–1825
British Straits Settlements 1825–1946
Crown Colony of Malacca 1946–1957
Federation of Malaya 1957–1963
Malaysia 1963–present

The state's name dates to a popular legend surrounding the founding of the Malacca Sultanate by Parameswara, who sought a new location to establish a kingdom after fleeing a Majapahit invasion of Singapura. As the story goes, Parameswara was resting under a Malacca tree (Malay: pokok melaka) near a river during a hunt, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a good omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided then to found an empire at that spot. He named this empire after the tree where he had just taken shelter.[18] This story shows remarkable similarities with and was probably adapted (as some historians argued) from folk-tales from Kandy, Sri Lanka, and Pasai, Sumatra (both of which pre-date Malacca).[19][20]

The "Malacca tree" was taken as a basis for the species Phyllanthus emblica named by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 through Latinising its original Sanskrit name आमलक (āmalaka), to which the species have since been planted as ornamentals in various state attractions.[21] However, some researchers like those of the Forestry Research Institute of Malaysia speculate that the legendary name-giving tree may have been the species Phyllanthus pectinatus more endemic to Malay Archipelago forests which superficially resemble P. emblica. There is no geographical overlap between the species.[21]

Another account on the origin of the naming of Malacca claims that during the reign of Muhammad Shah (1424–1444), Arab merchants called the kingdom 'Malakat' (Arabic for 'congregation of merchants') because it was home to many trading communities.[22] One theory suggests, as mentioned in the Suma Oriental by Tomé Pires, that it is derived from the Javanese terms melayu or mlayu (to steadily accelerate or to run), to describe the strong current of a river in Sumatra that today bears the name Sungai Melayu ('Melayu river') which was later possibly adopted to be Melaka as denoting a place for the fleeing prince.[23]

Sultanate of Malacca

Main article: Malacca Sultanate

Malacca Sultanate Palace Museum, modern reconstruction of the palace of the Malacca Sultanate.

Before the arrival of the first sultan, the area that's now Malacca was a fishing village. Malacca was founded by Parameswara, also known as Iskandar Shah. He found his way to Malacca around 1402 where he found a good port—it was accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Strait of Malacca.[24] In collaboration with his Proto-Malay privateers allies, called the Orang Laut ("sea-people"), he established Malacca as an international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade.[24]

In 1403, the first official Chinese trade envoy led by Admiral Yin Qing arrived in Malacca. Later, Parameswara was escorted by Zheng He and other envoys in his successful visits. Malacca's relationships with Ming China granted it protection from attacks by Siam and Majapahit. Malacca officially submitted to Ming China as a protectorate. This encouraged the development of Malacca into a major trade settlement on the trade route between China and India, the Middle East, Africa and Europe.[25]

Mao Kun map, from Wubei Zhi, which comes from the early 15th century maps of Zheng He's navigators and cartographers, showing Malacca (滿剌加) near the top left.

During the early 15th century, Ming China actively sought to develop Malacca as a commercial hub and a base of operation for their treasure voyages into the Indian Ocean.[26] Malacca had been a relatively insignificant region, not even qualifying as a polity prior to the voyages according to both Ma Huan and Fei Xin, and was a vassal region of Siam.[26] In 1405, the Ming court dispatched Admiral Zheng He with a stone tablet enfeoffing the Western Mountain of Malacca as well as an imperial order elevating the status of the port to a country.[26] The Chinese also established a government depot (官廠) as a fortified cantonment for their soldiers.[26] Ma Huan reported that Siam did not dare to invade Malacca thereafter.[26] The rulers of Malacca, such as Parameswara in 1411, would pay tribute to the Chinese emperor in person.[26] In 1431, when a Malaccan representative complained that Siam was obstructing tribute missions to the Ming court, the Xuande Emperor dispatched Zheng He carrying a threatening message for the Siamese king saying "You, king should respect my orders, develop good relations with your neighbours, examine and instruct your subordinates and not act recklessly or aggressively."[26] The early kings of Malacca—Parameswara, Megat Iskandar Shah, and Sri Maharaja—understood that they could gain Ming China's protection through skilful diplomacy and thereby could establish a strong foundation to their kingdom against Siam and other potential enemies.[27] Chinese involvement was crucial for Malacca to grow into a key alternative to other important and established ports.[28]

According to local folklore, to enhance relations, Hang Li Po, a daughter of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Mansur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married locals and settled mostly in Bukit Cina.[29]

Map of Malacca 1602

Malacca again sent envoys to China in 1481 to inform the Chinese that, while Malaccan envoys were returning to Malacca from China in 1469, the Vietnamese attacked the Malaccans, killing some of them while castrating the young and enslaving them. The Malaccans reported that Vietnam was in control of Champa and also sought to conquer Malacca, but the Malaccans did not fight back, because they did not want to fight against another state that was a tributary to China without permission from the Chinese. They requested to confront the Vietnamese delegation to China which was in China at the time, but the Chinese informed them since the incident was years old, they could do nothing about it, and the Emperor sent a letter to the Vietnamese ruler reproaching him for the incident. The Chinese Emperor also ordered the Malaccans to raise soldiers and fight back with violent force if the Vietnamese attacked them again.[30][31]

Colonial era

See also: Portuguese Malacca, Dutch Malacca, Straits Settlements, and Crown Colony of Malacca

1630 map of the Portuguese fort and the city of Malacca
The construction of the Middelburg Bastion was carried out in 1660 during Dutch-rule in Malacca, it is strategically located at the mouth of Malacca River

In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1,200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships.[32] They conquered the city on 24 August 1511. After seizing the city Afonso de Albuquerque spared the Hindu, Chinese and Burmese inhabitants but had the Muslim inhabitants massacred or sold into slavery.[3]

It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not also mean that they controlled the Asian trade centred there. The Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties.[33] Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had disrupted the organised network that had existed. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth was now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Strait of Malacca which had made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports that fought amongst each other.[33]

Dutch Malacca, c. 1750

The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546, and 1549. The Dutch launched several attacks on the Portuguese colony during the first four decades of the seventeenth century. The first attack took place in 1606 under the command of Dutch Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge who laid siege to the town with the help of his ally, the Johor Sultanate. He engaged the Portuguese armada which had been sent from Goa to offer armed relief to the besieged port.[34] On 14 January 1641, the Dutch defeated the Portuguese in an effort to capture Malacca, with the help of the Sultan of Johor.[4][5][35] The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1798 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance on Batavia (Jakarta) and Java as their administrative centre. However they still built an administrative building called, Stadthuys, which is now a landmark. In the Dutch era the building was white, the current red paint was from a later date.

Malacca River 1907, Church of St. Francis Xavier in the background

Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra. From 1824 to 1942, Malacca was under the rule of the British, first by the East India Company and then as a crown colony. Due to dissatisfaction with British jurisdiction over Naning, Dol Said, a local chief, fought the East India Company in a war from 1831 to 1832, which resulted in a decisive British victory. It formed part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore and Penang. Malacca went briefly under the rule of Empire of Japan between 1942 and 1945[36] during World War II.

Post colonial era

Flag of the Crown Colony of Malacca between 1951 and 1957.

After the war, Malacca was placed under a military administration until 1946. Subsequently, the Straits Settlements was abolished, as the British sought to consolidate the various political entities in British Malaya under a single polity named the Malayan Union. The now separate Crown Colony of Malacca was consequently merged into the Malayan Union, which was then replaced by the Federation of Malaya in 1948.[10][11] The declaration of independence was made by the first Prime Minister of Malaya, Tunku Abdul Rahman, at Padang Pahlawan on 20 February 1956, which eventually led to the independence of Malaya on 31 August 1957.[12] On 16 September 1963, Malaysia was formed with the merger of Malaya with Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore, and Malacca became part of it.[37]

Malacca in 1971

State capital Malacca City was declared a historical city on 15 April 1989 and granted city status on 15 April 2003 by the Federal Government of Malaysia. The city's historical core has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008. Malacca City along with George Town was confirmed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2011.[14]


Malacca River

The state of Malacca covers an area of 1,664 km2 (642 sq mi).[1] It located on the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula opposite Sumatra, with the state of Negeri Sembilan to the north and west and Johor to the east. Malacca is situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the west coast, 148 km (92 mi) south of Kuala Lumpur and has a central position on the Strait of Malacca. With the exception of some of its small hills, Malacca is generally a lowland area with average elevation of less than 50 metres above sea level.[38] While being relatively isolated from the Titiwangsa Mountains proper, which end near the border with Negeri Sembilan at the neighbouring towns of Pulau Sebang and Tampin, the hills are composed of Titiwangsa granite. The southernmost known Titiwangsa granite outcrop is known to be in Besar Island, off the coast of Jasin District. The 512-metre-tall Bukit Gapis, also known as Mount Melaka, is the state's highest point.

The peninsula of Tanjung Tuan (formerly known as Cape Rachado) is an exclave of the state, situated on the coast of Negeri Sembilan which it borders to the north. The major rivers within Malacca include the Malacca, Linggi and Kesang Rivers. Malacca River (Sungai Melaka) runs roughly north to south down the middle of the state, Linggi River acts as the western border of Malacca with Negeri Sembilan, while Kesang River acts as the eastern border of Malacca with Johor. Malacca has 16 islands off its coast, with Besar Island being the largest.[39]


The climate of Malacca is hot and humid throughout the year with abundant rainfall, highest between September and November. Daytime high temperatures range between 31 and 33 °C (88 and 91 °F) and nighttime lows around 23 °C (73 °F).[40]

Climate data for Malacca (1991–2020 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.2
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 31.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.9
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 23.7
Record low °C (°F) 21.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 102.1
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.0 6.5 10.1 11.9 10.6 9.4 11.7 12.4 11.4 12.1 15.7 12.5 132.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 193.0 202.5 214.8 207.5 210.5 193.9 201.3 191.2 171.5 179.6 156.9 166.8 2,289.5
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[41]
Source 2: NOAA[40]

Urban and suburban areas


Seri Negeri complex, which houses the office of Malacca's chief minister, the Malacca State Legislative Assembly, the State Secretariat office and the official residence of the Governor.

Malacca is one of four Malaysian states without hereditary monarchies, despite being the location of one of the earliest Malay sultanates, as the local monarchy was abolished when the Portuguese conquered it in 1511. The head of state of Malacca is the governor (Malay: Yang di-Pertua Negeri), who is appointed by the King of Malaysia (Malay: Yang di-Pertuan Agong). The current Governor of Malacca, Ali Rustam, assumed office on 4 June 2020. In practice, the governor is a figurehead whose functions are chiefly symbolic and ceremonial.[42]

The Malacca state government has its own executive council and legislature, but they have relatively limited powers in comparison with those of the Malaysian federal government. According to the Constitution of Malaysia, the state may legislate on matters pertaining to Malay customs, land, agriculture and forestry, local government, civil and water works, and state administration, whereas matters that fall under the joint purview of both state and federal authorities include social welfare, wildlife protection and national parks, scholarships, husbandry, town planning, drainage and irrigation, and public health and health regulations.[43]

Executive and Legislature

Main articles: Malacca State Executive Council and Malacca State Legislative Assembly

See also: Chief Minister of Malacca

Political Party/
State Legislative


Barisan Nasional 21 (75.0%) 0
Pakatan Harapan 5 (17.86%) 3 (50.0%)
Perikatan Nasional 2 (7.14%) 3 (50.0%)

Malacca's state legislature is the unicameral 28-seat State Legislative Assembly, the highest authority in the state which decides on policy matters. The State Executive Council is responsible to the assembly and comprises members who are appointed every five years by the political party or coalition in power.

The state government is headed by the chief minister, appointed by the Yang di-Pertua Negeri from among the State Legislative Assembly members of the governing party or coalition. The chief Minister presides over a meeting of State Executive Council ministers weekly at the chief minister's office. The Chief Minister's Department is responsible for the overall administration of the state, as well as its political interest. The current chief minister is Sulaiman Md Ali of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO).

The administrative complex is located at Seri Negeri complex in Ayer Keroh. It houses the chief minister's office, the State Legislative Assembly, the state secretariat office and the official residence of the governor.

Affiliation Coalition/Party Leader Status Seats
2021 election Current
Barisan Nasional
Pakatan Harapan
Sulaiman Md Ali Government 26 26
  Perikatan Nasional Mohd Yadzil Yaakub Opposition 2 2
Total 28 28
Government majority 24 24

Local governments

Malacca has four local governments (one city council and three municipal councils), which regulating traffic and parking, maintaining cleanliness and drainage, managing waste disposal, issuing business licenses, and overseeing public health, provision and maintenance of urban infrastructure.[citation needed] The state is also divided into three administrative districts, each is headed by a district officer. The lands and district office in each district deals with land administration and revenue.

Graha Makmur at Ayer Keroh serves as the headquarters of the Historical Malacca City Council.
Melaka Mall which houses the Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council headquarters.

Foreign relations

Malacca first started twinning in 1984 with the city of Lisbon, Portugal and it is now twinned with or established as a friendship city with the following cities:[44][45]

No. Sister Cities Country Year
1 Lisbon[46][47][48][49]  Portugal 1984
2 Kuala Lumpur[49][50]  Malaysia 1989
3 Hoorn[49][47][51]  Netherlands 1989
4 Valparaíso[52][53][54]  Chile 1991
5 Nanjing[55][56] in Jiangsu Province[57][58][56]  China 2002
6 Changsha[59][60] 2004
7 Sawahlunto[60][61]  Indonesia 2004
8 Padang Panjang[60][62] 2006
9 Kota Tua Jakarta[63][64] 2014
10 Guangdong[65][66]  China 2015

From the late 2000s to late 2010s, two bungalows in the town of Peringgit housed galleries which display and promote foreign artwork and culture.[67][68] Among these were Casa Cuba, which was established by the embassy of Cuba and the Macau Gallery, which was established by the Government of Macau.[69] A gallery promoting the state was also established in Jakarta, Indonesia.[70][71][72][73]



Historical population
1970 404,125—    
1980 446,769+10.6%
1991 506,321+13.3%
2000 605,239+19.5%
2010 790,136+30.5%
2020 998,428+26.4%
Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on
Source: [74]

Malacca has an estimated population of 931,210 as of 2016 with an average annual population growth of 2%.[75][76] As of 2016, 27% of the population were below 15 years old and 8% were above 60 years old.[77] The ethnic composition of Malacca as of 2015 is 66.8% Malays (552,700), 1.4% other Bumiputras (11,500), 26.0% Chinese (215,000), 6.2% Indians and Chitty (51,400) and 0.6% others (4,800).[78] Malacca has small communities of Kristang, Dutch Eurasian and Temuan people.

The Malay population of Malacca is generally divided into two cultural groups: those practicing Adat Temenggong[further explanation needed] and the other who are ethnically of Minangkabau origin practicing Adat Perpatih in Naning northside (absorbed from Negeri Sembilan following the Naning War).[79] The remaining traditional Malay village in Malacca City is the Morten Village.[80]

Jonker Walk is the Chinatown area of Malacca. It was once known for its antique shops but have since turned into a well-known tourist destination that features clothes, food and crafts. The Peranakan people in Malacca show unique features, such as furniture, porcelain, crockery, style and food. Their culture is showcased at the Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum.

Indians in Malacca are predominantly Tamils, many of whom used to work at the rubber plantation.[81] However, many of them now work in the jewellery, fabric, retail, merchant and money lending sectors.[82] Many of them reside in Little India. There is also Chitty Village for the minority Chitty people which houses the Chitty Museum.

A small number of Malayalees who speak Malayalam and Telugus who speak Telugu exist among the Indians in Malacca. Malacca Kerala Samajam is an association that represents the Malayalam speaking community in Malacca. A branch of Telugu Association Malaysia is situated in Ayer Keroh to represent the Telugu speaking community in Malacca.

A sizeable number of Punjabi Sikhs residing in Malacca, and Sikhs from Malacca and abroad congregate in the gurdwara (Sikh temple) situated in Jalan Temenggong.[83] They celebrate the Guru Nanak's birthday and Vasakhi new year annually.

Portuguese Settlement (Saint John's Village)

A population of Portuguese descent, who speak a Portuguese creole, are the descendants of colonists from the 16th and 17th centuries.[84] To this day, many of the traditions originating with the Portuguese occupation are still practised, i.e. "Intrudu" from Portuguese word "Entrudo" (a water festival that marks the beginning of Lent, the Catholic fasting period), "branyu" (traditional dance), "Santa Cruz" (a yearly Festival of street celebrations). Many of them settled down around the Portuguese Settlement area, which has a population of about 1,200 residents.[85]

The indigenous population, mostly ethnic Temuan is relatively small. They generally reside in rural settlements, the edge of the woods and along the coast facing the Strait of Malacca. Malacca houses the Aborigines Museum in Ayer Keroh.[86]


Malacca is a multi-linguistic state. Malaysian Malay is the official language of Malacca and is used in the government and public sectors. English is widely used in the business and tourism sectors. A local form of Malay, known as Malaccan Malay is spoken within the state of Malacca. It has its own distinct pronunciation and vocabulary compared to the rest of Malaysia. Other minority languages such as Hokkien, Mandarin, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Punjabi, Kristang (Portuguese creole) and various Malay-based creoles such as Baba Malay and Malaccan Creole Malay are also spoken.[87] The Temuan language is commonly spoken by Orang Asli within Malacca.


Religion in Malacca - 2010 Census[88]
religion percent
Unknown / None
Chinese Ethnic Religion
No Religion

According to the 2010 census, the population of Malacca is 66.1% Muslim, 24.2% Buddhist, 5.7% Hindu, 3.0% Christian, 0.4% of unknown affiliation, 0.2% non-religious, 0.2% Taoist or Chinese religion follower, and 0.2% of followers of other religions.[88]

Statistics from the 2010 census indicate that 91.6% of the Chinese population in Malacca identify as Buddhists, with significant minorities identifying as Christians (6.7%), Chinese folk religions (0.7%) and Muslims (0.4%). The majority of the Indian population are Hindus (86.3%), with significant minorities identifying as Christians (6.6%), Muslims (3.4%) and Buddhists (2.8%). The non-Malay bumiputera community are predominantly Christians (46.8%), with significant minorities identifying as Muslims (24.2%) and Buddhists (12.0%).[89]

As the definition of a "Malay" in the Malaysian constitution requires that the person professes the religion of Islam, all Malays are necessarily Muslims.[89][90]


Serkam industrial area
Melaka International Trade Centre

Despite being in a location without any significant natural resources, the economy of Malacca dates back more than 500 years, due to its strategic location. As the centre of the spice trade, Malacca attracted many colonial powers that engaged in wars to control it.[91]

The Port of Tanjung Bruas, located in Tanjung Kling, was constructed in the late 1970s and commenced operations in the early 1980s to provide port facilities and services to the local business communities and to handle the exportation of hinterland goods as well as the importation of raw materials.[92][93] Container ship handling services began in 2019, with the MV West Scent became the first container vessel to dock at the port.[94][95]

The Port of Kuala Sungai Linggi, commercially known as Linggi International Floating Transshipment & Trading HUB (LIFT-HUB), is a transshipment area for liquid bulk transshipments and break-bulking located offshore of Linggi River in the Strait of Malacca. It was gazetted in 2006, covers an area of 154 km2 (45 sq mi) and is among the largest designated Ship-to-ship cargo transfer areas in Malaysia.[96][97]

Sungai Udang houses the PETRONAS Malacca Refinery Complex consisting of two refining trains, established in 1994 and 1999 and owned by PETRONAS Penapisan (Melaka) Sdn. Bhd. and Malaysian Refining Company Sdn. Bhd. respectively. The total capacity of the refinery is 270,000 barrels of oil per day.[98][99]

The Melaka International Trade Centre (MITC) in Ayer Keroh which opened in June 2003 is the leading commercial centre and the centre for meetings, incentives, conferencing and exhibitions (MICE) which plays an important role in the development of trade in Malacca.[100]

On 20 October 2010 an event was held to announce that Malacca had met the benchmark of 'Developed State' as set out by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and a declaration of "Melaka Maju 2010" (Progressive Malacca 2010) was made.[101][102]

As of 2012, service sector had the largest share of Malacca's economy at 46.9%, followed by manufacturing at 43.5%, agriculture at 6.5%, construction at 2.9% and mining at 0.1%.[103] In terms workforce numbers, as of 2013, there were 275,000 people working in the industrial sectors, 225,000 people working in the service sectors, 35,000 people working in the entrepreneurship sectors and 12,300 people working in the agricultural sectors.[77]

Malacca has successfully opened itself up to foreign investors since the early 1970s. By 1997, the state has registered a total investment of over MYR16 billion. In 2014, the state achieved a total MYR4.4 billion worth of investment, in which MYR1.8 billion came from foreign investors.[104]

In 2013, Malacca had a GDP of MYR22,646 million with a GDP per capita of MYR34,109. It had 3.2% GDP growth in 2013. The inflation rate in 2012 was 1.6%. As of 2015, the Malacca State Government has an outstanding MYR861.7 million of loan to the federal government. In 2014, the state government's reserve amounted to MYR206.61 million.[105] The unemployment rate in 2014 was 0.9% or around 3,500 people.[75] The state has a relatively well-educated population, with a youth literacy rate of 99.5% as reported by Malaysia Millennium Development Goals Report 2015.[106]

Currently there are 23 industrial areas which are centred along the edges of the city proper in suburbs which include Ayer Keroh, Batu Berendam, Cheng, Taman Tasik Utama and Tanjung Kling. While outside Malacca City, industrial areas include Alor Gajah and Sungai Udang. There are around 500 factories in the state which come from Germany, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, United States etc. For small and medium-sized enterprises, a number of estates have been established by the state government.[107][108]

In 2016, Malacca became the safest place to live in Malaysia.[109] The state crime rates dropped by 15.5 per cent in 2017 with 3,096 cases recorded compared to 3,663 in 2016.[110] Malacca recorded a gross domestic product (GDP) growth of 8.1% in 2017, the second highest in the country after Sabah. Services sector remained the main contributor to the state’s economy at 44.8% of GDP. The GDP per capita also expanded 11.2% to RM46,015 in 2017, surpassing the national-level figure of RM42,228.[111] The State Socioeconomic Report 2017 published on 26 July 2018 reported that Malacca was the state that recorded the lowest unemployment rate in 2017 with only 1.0 percent.[112][113]


Primary and secondary education

Catholic High School
Malacca High School

As of 2022, there are 238 primary schools and 78 secondary schools in Malacca.[114] The Malacca High School is the second oldest recorded school in the country. The Catholic High School was the first government-funded school in the state.[115] One branch of centre for juvenile convicts, Henry Gurney School, is located in Telok Mas. This centre runs rehabilitation programs for male juvenile offenders.

Malacca has five international schools – the KYS International School, Melaka International School, Malacca Expatriate School (MES), Planetarium International School and UUM International School Melaka, staffed by expatriate teachers, which specialise in teaching Cambridge International A Levels and cater for both the local and expatriate communities.

Higher education

Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

Institutions include: Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) campuses that are located at Lendu, Malacca City and Jasin, Manipal University College Malaysia (MUCM) in Bukit Baru is the foremost institution for medical education in the state, Multimedia University (MMU) at Bukit Beruang, Malaysian Maritime Academy (ALAM) at Kuala Sungai Baru, Malaysian Han Studies (MAHANS) at Hang Tuah Jaya.

There are several institutions that offer nursing education: Institut Kesihatan Sains & Kejururawatan Pantai, Institut Sains Kesihatan Dan Kejururawatan Mahkota, Kolej Kejururawatan & Kesihatan Nilam, and Kolej Perubatan Komplementari Melaka. Institut Kesihatan Sains & Kejururawatan Pantai is linked to Pantai Hospital at Ayer keroh while Institut Sains Kesihatan Dan Kejururawatan Mahkota is linked to Mahkota Medical Centre.

Skill-Tech Institute provides training in agriculture, homestay, biotechnology, ranching, aquaculture, estate supervision, landscaping, and food processing. It has two branches in Machap, Durian Tunggal and Taman Tasik Utama, Ayer Keroh.[116]

Part-time study is available at Open University Malaysia (OUM), while those who wish to obtain an academic diploma can enroll at University of Malaya Centre for Continuing Education (UMCCE) at Sinar College.

Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) lectures and examinations are provided at Sinar College at Malacca City. Sinar College is the only institution in the state that offers complete accounting education. Sinar College is the only approved training centre for tourism courses. Other academic institutions include International College of Yayasan Melaka (ICYM), Melaka International College of Science and Technology (MiCoST)[117] and Malacca College of Complementary Medicine.

The state government of Malacca provides financial assistance mainly in the form of loans to local citizens via Malacca Education Trust Fund (TAPEM).[118] Among the facilities provided by TAPEM are Higher Education Loan, Minor Scholarship/Incentive Scholarship for Secondary School, and School Assistance to Primary School Students.[119]

Health care

Malacca General Hospital

Malacca houses a number of government and private hospitals and clinics. Medical institutions are located all over Malacca, providing uniform and equitable healthcare to the residents. Health-related affairs in Malacca are governed by Malacca State Health Department by providing basic health service to the residents and oversee all government health facilities in the state among hospitals, community polyclinic, rural health clinics and clinics.[120]

Malacca is also a popular place for health care and medical tourism for Indonesian people from Sumatra due to its close proximity to the state, followed by Singapore.[121][122] In 2014, Malacca received over 500,000 tourists for medical tourism-related reasons.[123]

Government hospitals in Malacca are the Malacca General Hospital and Jasin District Hospital, while private hospitals are the Putra Hospital, Pantai Hospital Ayer Keroh, Mahkota Medical Centre and Oriental Melaka Straits Medical Centre.


Dondang Sayang is a traditional Malay art still practised in Malacca by four communities: the Malay, Baba Nyonya, Chitty and Portuguese communities and is recognized by UNESCO. The practice combines elements of music (violins, gongs and tambourines or the tambour), songs and chants, and features melodious strains of poetry. Also known as love ballads, the songs are used by communities to convey feelings of love and give advice on special topics such as love and kindness.[124][125] For food, Malacca received recognition from the World Street Food Congress for Nyonya Siamese Noodles (34th) and Coolie Street Satay (43rd).[126] The various street dishes and delicacies of Malacca include satay celup; chicken rice balls; duck noodles; Malacca-style wonton noodles; nyonya laksa; pai tee (also known as pie tee and top hats); ayam pongteh; asam pedas with fish; Portuguese grilled fish and seafood; fishball lobak; coconut shake; nyonya cendol; putu piring; and nyonya kuih.[127]

Street art

ProjectARM was a street art project brought about by nine artists to create street art along the river in Jalan Kampung Hulu that would highlight Melacca's beauty.[128][129]


Melaka International Motorsport Circuit

Sports-related affairs of Malacca are governed by the Malacca State Sports Council (Malay: Majlis Sukan Negeri Melaka) under the Malacca State Government.[130] Another governing body of sports in Malacca is the Department of Youth and Sports (Malay: Jabatan Belia dan Sukan Negeri Melaka). Malacca is home to several football stadiums, such as Hang Jebat Stadium, Hang Tuah Stadium and Tun Fatimah Stadium. Built in 1954, Hang Tuah Stadium is the oldest stadium in Malacca.[131] Established under the Malacca Stadium Corporation Enactment of 2004, the Malacca Stadium Corporation is the entity that manages stadiums in Malacca which started its operation on 16 September 2004.[132]

There is also a motorsport racetrack in Durian Tunggal named the Melaka International Motorsport Circuit. Melaka International Bowling Centre in Ayer Keroh with 52 lanes is the largest bowling centre in Malaysia.[133]

There are four golf courses in Malacca, namely Ayer Keroh Golf and Country Club in Ayer Keroh, Orna Golf and Country Club in Bemban and Tiara Melaka Golf and Country Club in Bukit Katil and A'Famosa Golf Resort in Simpang Ampat.[134] Golf-related paraphernalia in Malacca is showcased at the Malacca Golf Gallery.

Malacca was the host venue for the 2010 Sukma Games held on 10–19 June 2010.

Malacca also has a football team known as Melaka United representing Malacca in the Malaysian football league. The Melaka United football team won the first Malaysia Premier League title in 1983, in addition they were the champion of the third division of the Malaysia football league, FAM League Cup, in 2015 before won the second Premier League title a year after it. Melaka United uses the Hang Jebat Stadium in Krubong as their home ground with a capacity of 40,000 spectators.


See also: List of tourist attractions in Malacca

Ruins of St Paul's Church first built in 1521, the oldest church in Southeast Asia
Christ Church

Tourism is a booming industry in Malacca. It is a popular travel destinations for Singaporeans during the weekends.[citation needed] Malacca has adopted as its slogan, "Visiting Malacca Means Visiting Malaysia" ("Melawat Melaka Bererti Melawati Malaysia"). There is a tourist map provided by Malacca.[135][136]

In 2017, the state recorded 16.79 million tourist arrivals, the highest number to date. Despite been a small state spanning 1,644 km2, Malacca has been a destination of choice for travellers from China, Singapore, Indonesia, Taiwan and Hong Kong.[137] During the first six months (January–June) 2018, over 8.73 million tourists were recorded visiting Malacca which is over seven percent compared to 8.14 million tourists for the first six months of 2017. It showed an increase of 599,037 tourists. The increase was contributed by the increase of domestic tourists to Malacca which was more than 72,000 or 1.36 percent. For domestic tourists, five states reportedly visited the most are from Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Johor, Terengganu and Negeri Sembilan. Most of these tourists love to enjoy grilled fish and asam pedas in Malacca. In addition, foreign tourist arrivals also experienced a sharp increase of more than 520,000 or 19.03 percent. Travellers from five countries recorded the highest rates are China, Singapore, Indonesia, South Korea and Vietnam.[138]

In recent years, Malacca has received numerous international accolades. The city has been listed by several publications, including Forbes and Lonely Planet, as one of Asia's and World's Top Travel Destinations.[139][140] Malacca listed as one of 10 Best Destinations in Malaysia by Tripadvisor.[141] Waze App recognized Malacca with 'The Best City to Drive In' Award.[137] Globally, the historic city is ranked ahead of other major metros like Sydney, Lisbon, and Barcelona.[142] The city also has been recognised by HuffPost as 15 of the Best Street Art Cities.[143] In addition, Time publication placed Malacca as one of the best places to live and retire.[144]

Visit Melaka Year 2024 introduced.[145][146][147][148][149]

Tourist attractions

Fortress of Malacca

Malacca has numerous historical places and buildings. In order to preserve those sites, numerous museums have been built to preserve those legacies. Most of the museums in the state are managed by Malacca Museum Corporation (PERZIM; Malay: Perbadanan Muzium Melaka), which is headquartered at the heritage complex in Malacca City centre.[150] Museums in Malacca are Aborigines Museum, Agricultural Museum, Malacca Al-Quran Museum, Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum, Beauty Museum, Cheng Ho Cultural Museum, Chitty Museum, Customs Department Museum, Democratic Government Museum, Education Museum, Malacca Forestry Museum, Governor's Museum, History and Ethnography Museum, Malacca Islamic Museum, Malacca Kite Museum, Malacca Literature Museum, Malacca Sultanate Palace Museum, Malay and Islamic World Museum, Malaysia Architecture Museum, Maritime Museum, Navy Museum, People's Museum, Prison Museum, Pulau Besar Museum, Stamp Museum, Straits Chinese Jewellery Museum, Submarine Museum, Toy Museum, Tradition and Custom Museum, UMNO Museum and Youth Museum.

Jonker Walk

The other historical buildings and structures are Fortress of Malacca, Alor Gajah British Graveyard, Bastion Middleburg, Dutch Graveyard, Hang Jebat Mausoleum, Hang Kasturi Mausoleum, Hang Li Poh's Well, Hang Tuah Mausoleum, Hang Tuah's Well, Malacca Light, Malacca Warrior Monument, Portuguese Well, Proclamation of Independence Memorial, Ruins of Saint Paul's Church, Clock Tower, Saint John's Fort, Stadthuys, Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba Memorial and Tun Teja Mausoleum.

There are also galleries displaying various aspects of life in Malacca, which include, Chief Minister’s Gallery, Demang Abdul Ghani Gallery, Folks Art Gallery, Malacca Gallery, Gallery of Admiral Cheng Ho, Macau Gallery, Malacca Art Gallery, Melaka Bee Gallery and Malacca House.

Malacca Chinese Mosque

Theme parks, education centres, resorts and zoos in Malacca are A' Famosa Resort, Al-Khawarizmi Astronomy Complex, Malacca Bird Park, Malacca Butterfly and Reptile Sanctuary, Malacca Crocodile Farm, Malacca Planetarium, Malacca Wonderland, Malacca Zoo, Mini Malaysia and ASEAN Cultural Park, Pirate Park and Taming Sari Tower.

Coastal side of Malacca

Malacca has natural-related tourist sites, such as Ayer Keroh Lake, Bukit Batu Lebah Recreational Forest, Cape Rachado, Garden of Thousand Flowers, Klebang Beach, Malacca Botanical Garden, Malacca River, Malacca Tropical Fruit Farm, Paya Laut Linggi Recreational Forest, Pengkalan Balak Beach, Puteri Beach, Saint Paul's Hill and Sungai Udang Recreational Forest. Malacca has also hot springs, namely Gadek Hot Spring and Jasin Hot Spring.

Malacca is a multi-religious society, therefore various worshiping places can be found around the state, namely Cheng Hoon Teng Temple, Chinese Mosque, Christ Church, Kampung Hulu Mosque, Kampung Kling Mosque, Poh San Teng Temple, Xiang Lin Si Temple, Saint Francis Xavier Church, Saint Peter's Church, Straits Mosque, Sri Poyatha Moorthi Temple, State Mosque and Tranquerah Mosque.

Public squares in Malacca are 1Malaysia Square, Alor Gajah Square, Ayer Keroh Square and Jasin Square.

Some night markets can be found along Jonker Walk in Chinatown during weekends evening and along Puteri Beach in Tanjung Kling. In total, there are around 87 night markets around Malacca.[151] During the Islamic fasting month, special night markets are opened along many major roads throughout the month.[152]


Malacca International Airport
Elaborately decorated rickshaws are available in Malacca


Malacca International Airport (IATA: MKZ, ICAO: WMKM) (formerly known as Batu Berendam Airport) is an airport located in Batu Berendam, Malacca, Malaysia. The airport serves the state of Malacca, as well as northern Johor, with links to Pekanbaru.[153] Scheduled flights from the airport have not resumed since the COVID-19 pandemic; Kuala Lumpur International Airport is a two-hour drive from Malacca City.


There are currently two Keretapi Tanah Melayu railway stations in Malacca, which are the Pulau Sebang/Tampin Station in Pulau Sebang, Alor Gajah and Batang Melaka Station in Batang Melaka, Jasin.

There were railway tracks from Pulau Sebang to Malacca City before World War II, but these were dismantled by the Japanese for the construction of the Burmese Death Railway.[154] On 10 October 2015, Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) commuter service has introduced a new route, shuttle service between Seremban-Sebang/Tampin-Gemas station.[155][156]

A 1.6-km line of Melaka Monorail was launched in October 2010, served the route along the Malacca River. Due to several technical glitches months into its operation, the system was left idle in 2013. However, in June 2015 the Malacca State Government decided to revive the project.[157] On 4 December 2017, Melaka Monorail has re-operate[158] with enhanced safety features such as lightning-prevention devices and the addition of a rescue vehicle to attract wagons in the event of a technical problem.[159] The previous incident is believed will not recur as tests had been performed for two months before re-operation. The Melaka Monorail operating hours are 10.00 am to 10.00 pm on weekdays and continued until 12.00 midnight on Saturdays and Sundays.[160]


Daily ferries run from Malacca to the Indonesian cities of Bengkalis, Dumai and Pekanbaru departing from Harbour Master's Jetty.[161] Regular boat services to Big Island depart from mainland Malacca in Umbai. Several jetties around the state, such as in Merlimau, are used by fishermen.[162]

Two existing container ports in Malacca are the Port of Kuala Sungai Linggi and Port of Tanjung Bruas.[163]


Travelling to Malacca by bus is favored by most people. This is because Malacca is well connected to the PLUS highway via three major exits. The Ayer Keroh exit at the North–South Expressway is the main entry to Malacca, connected by Ayer Keroh highway to Malacca City. There are two additional exits along the North–South Expressway, namely the Simpang Ampat and Jasin exits. The Syed Abdullah Aziz Road or Malacca Coastal Highway roughly connects the western and eastern sides of Malacca separated by the Malacca River through the Malacca Coastal Bridge. It is also easy to access Malacca by bus because Malacca has three main bus hubs such as Melaka Sentral, Alor Gajah Sentral and Jasin Sentral. The location of the bus stations are based on their districts, Melaka Tengah, Alor Gajah and Jasin.[164] The Melaka Sentral bus station, combined with taxi terminal, serves cities around Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore.[165] The Panorama Melaka bus is the public bus serving Malacca City and major landmarks.[166]

Efforts are also being undertaken to promote pedestrianisation and the use of bicycles as an environmentally friendly mode of transportation.[167][168] Dedicated bicycle lanes are being built on several main roads in this historic city.[169]

Many of the heavily decorated cycle rickshaws (Malay: beca) equipped with sound system can be seen on the streets in Malacca. Most of them are used to bring tourist around the town for sightseeing. The average size can accommodate two average adult with probably a child.[170]


Art of culture and entertainment

Malacca is a popular filming location for domestic and international film production companies with the presence of various tourist attractions and historical remains. Iconic Bollywood artist, Shah Rukh Khan described Malacca as beautiful and said he would return for acting and holiday in the state.[171] The films and the music videos published in Malacca include:

Radio broadcasting

Malaysian state broadcaster Radio Televisyen Malaysia (RTM) has a branch in the state's capital city along Jalan Taming Sari, which operates local radio channel Melaka FM.[183]


Tanjung Kling Power Station
Durian Tunggal Reservoir

Electric supply

Malacca houses three power stations, namely the 330 MW Tanjung Kling Power Station in Tanjung Kling and 440 MW Telok Gong Power Station 1 and 720 MW Telok Gong Power Station 2 in Telok Gong, with a total installed generation capacity of 1,490 MW.[184]

Green energy

On 16 December 2013, the Malacca State Government unveiled the draft 8,000 hectares special area called the Melaka World Solar Valley in Rembia, Alor Gajah applying solar energy as the primary alternative in all municipal activity sectors.[185][186] By 2020, the government-run 7,248ha Melaka World Solar Valley aims to power most of the daily activities of manufacturers, housing developers, farmers, and other stakeholders. Recently, a public-private partnership installed 100,000 LED street lamps along the Alor Gajah–Melaka Tengah–Jasin (AMJ) highway, which will improve road safety and reduce carbon dioxide emissions.[187]

Water supply

Water supply-related matters in Malacca is administered by Syarikat Air Melaka Berhad (Malacca Water Company Limited) which is headquartered at Malacca City. It was established on 1 July 2006 after it was upgraded from its predecessor Malacca Water Corporation (Malay: Perbadanan Air Melaka). The company is also responsible for the maintenance and delivery infrastructure of clean water in the state.[188]

Currently, there are three dams located in Malacca supplying its residents with water, which are Durian Tunggal Dam in Alor Gajah, Jus Dam and Asahan Dam in Jasin. The fourth dam, Jernih Dam, will be constructed in Taboh Naning in Alor Gajah and expected to be completed by 2018.[189] There are three major retention basins in the state, which are Kesang Satu Lake, Kesang Dua Lake and Ayer Keroh Lake. Raw water is supplied from the Malacca River, Kesang River and Gerisik River.[190]

Daily water consumption for Malacca is 500 million litres and each resident consumes 220 litres per day, higher than the national average of 180 litres per day. The Malacca State Government signed an agreement with Johor State Government on a water supply agreement in 1993 and additional water supply agreement in 2013.[191][192] Another water supply agreement is planned to be signed with Negeri Sembilan in the future.[193]

See also



  1. ^ a b "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. 27. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  2. ^ "Anggaran penduduk semasa" [Current population estimates] (PDF). Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia [Department of Statistics Malaysia]. 2023.
  3. ^ a b Headrick (2010), pp. 63
  4. ^ a b c "Melaka Jatuh Ke Tangan Belanda -". Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  5. ^ a b c Mat Rofa Ismail (2015). Kerdipan Bintang Melayu Dilangit Turki. Alaf 21. ISBN 9789678604864 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ Wong, John; Zou, Keyuan; Zeng, Huaqun, eds. (2006). China-ASEAN Relations: Economic and Legal Dimensions. Singapore: World Scientific. ISBN 9789814478618.
  7. ^ "Signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty (Treaty of London) of 1824 - Singapore History".
  8. ^ Singapore, National Library Board. "Malayan Campaign - Infopedia".
  9. ^ "Info" (PDF).
  10. ^ a b "Penubuhan Malayan Union". Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  11. ^ a b "Federation of Malaya is inaugurated - Singapore History".
  12. ^ a b "Official Portal of Malaysia National Archives". Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  13. ^ "Community Involvement for Sustainable World Heritage Sites: The Melaka Case" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2018.
  14. ^ a b "Making Melaka liveable, resilient, and future-proof". Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  15. ^ Ravichandran Moorthy (2009). "The Evolution of the Chitty Community of Melaka" (PDF). Jebat: Malaysian Journal of History, Politics & Strategic Studies. 36: 1–15.
  16. ^ "Plone site".
  17. ^ "Eurasian community". Singapore Infopedia. 2013.
  18. ^ "Know your Malacca tree". The Star Online. 29 July 2006. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  19. ^ Winstedt, R. O. (1922). "Two legends of Malacca". Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 85: 40.
  20. ^ Adam, Ahmat (2019). Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai. Petaling Jaya: SIRD. p. 71.
  21. ^ a b Ng, Francis (5 November 2011). "What tree did Parameswara really see in Malacca?". Star Bizweek. The Star. p. 23. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  22. ^ Ahmad Sarji 2011, p. 112
  23. ^ Ptak, Roderich (15 November 2018). "Suma Oriental, by Tomé Pires, edited by Rui Manuel Loureiro. Lisbon: Centro Científico e Cultural de Macau and Fundação Jorge Álvares; Macau: Fundação Macau, 2017, 335 pages, bibl., index. ISBN 978-972-8586-52-2". Archipel. Études interdisciplinaires sur le monde insulindien (96): 176–179. doi:10.4000/archipel.858. S2CID 166201438 – via
  24. ^ a b Ricklefs (1993), p. 19
  25. ^ Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, translated by Wade, Geoff, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, 2005, archived from the original on 4 March 2016, retrieved 18 August 2019
  26. ^ a b c d e f g Sen, Tansen (2016). "The Impact of Zheng He's Expeditions on Indian Ocean Interactions". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 79 (3): 615. doi:10.1017/S0041977X16001038.
  27. ^ Wang, Gungwu (2005). "The First Three Rulers of Malacca". In Suryadinata, Leo (ed.). Admiral Zheng He & Southeast Asia. Singapore: International Zheng He Society. p. 40. ISBN 981-230-329-4.
  28. ^ Sen, Tansen (2016). "The Impact of Zheng He's Expeditions on Indian Ocean Interactions". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 79 (3): 620–621. doi:10.1017/S0041977X16001038.
  29. ^ Jin, Shaoqing (2005). Office of the People's Government of Fujian Province (ed.). Zheng He's voyages down the western seas. Fujian, China: China Intercontinental Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-7-5085-0708-8. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
  30. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Straits Branch, Reinhold Rost (1887). Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China: reprinted for the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society from Dalrymple's "Oriental Repertory," and the "Asiatic Researches" and "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 1. London: Trübner & Co. p. 252. Retrieved 9 January 2011. .
  31. ^ Shih-shan Henry Tsai (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved 28 June 2010. Other reports condemned Annamese alleged violation of an Asian "diplomatic protocol" as they killed and enslaved several Southeast Asian envoys who carried tributary missions to China in 1469. Older members of the mission were all killed while younger members were castrated and sold into slavery
  32. ^ Ricklefs (1993), p. 23
  33. ^ a b Ricklefs (1993), pp. 23–24
  34. ^ Borschberg (2015), pp. 65–74
  35. ^ Borschberg (2010), pp. 157–158
  36. ^ "Hari Ini Dalam Sejarah". Archived from the original on 17 August 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  37. ^ "Portal Rasmi Arkib Negara Malaysia". Archived from the original on 3 December 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  38. ^ "Elevation of Melaka, Malaysia Elevation Map, Topography, Contour". Archived from the original on 16 March 2015.
  39. ^ "Beautiful beaches and island in Malacca, Malaysia".
  40. ^ a b "Malacca Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  41. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1991–2020". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  42. ^ "Institusi TYT Melaka". Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  43. ^ "Constitution of Malaysia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
  44. ^ "At A Glance [TwinCities 2017]". Melaka Historic City Council. Archived from the original on 31 December 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  45. ^ "MBMB MUO With Twin Cities". Melaka Historic City Council. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  46. ^ "Acordos de Geminação, de Cooperação e/ou Amizade da Cidade de Lisboa" [Lisbon - Twinning Agreements, Cooperation and Friendship]. Camara Municipal de Lisboa (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  47. ^ a b "New Sunday Times - Google News Archive Search".
  48. ^ "Consulta".
  49. ^ a b c "News" (PDF). 1992. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  50. ^ "Twincities".
  51. ^ "MDDP - In the Press =- Malacca, a Dutch conquest forgotten". 25 September 2015. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
  52. ^ Marina Tan (9 January 1998). "Valpairaso, land of steep hills, trains, sea and curves". New Straits Times. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  53. ^ "Portal - Anniversary of the twinning of the Cities of Melaka and Valparaiso - Year 2007". Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  54. ^ "Portal - Melaka is keen to get Valparaiso's help - Year 2007".
  55. ^ "Penerbangan khas Nanjing-Melaka guna LTAM". Utusan Online. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  56. ^ a b "jinping's visit to further bolster ties between nations" – via PressReader.
  57. ^ Jiangsu. (2017). Retrieved from Jiangsu Provincial People's Government website:
  58. ^ "Melaka jalin hubungan dengan wilayah Jiangsu". Utusan Online.
  59. ^ Government, Hunan. "Hunan Government Website".
  60. ^ a b c kamarul (11 May 2016). "MBMB MUO With Twin Cities".
  61. ^ wiguna, surya (2007). sawahlunto malaka. '50 tahun Merdeka: Hubungan Indoensia Malaysia', di University Malaya, Kualalumpur, 17-21 Juli 2007.
  62. ^ "Twincities". 31 December 2017. Archived from the original on 31 December 2017.
  63. ^ Edna Tarigan (2 January 2014). "Jakarta's 'Kota Tua' and Melaka are now sister cities". The Jakarta Post. The Jakarta Post Travel. Archived from the original on 6 February 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  64. ^ "Melaka, Kembaran Kota Tua Jakarta di Malaysia".
  65. ^ Chan (23 September 2015). "Guangdong & Malacca sign sister relationship memo". News Guangdong. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  66. ^ "Document" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  67. ^ "Cuba comes to Malacca". Bernama. The Star. 9 July 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  68. ^ Fadzli Ramli (4 July 2011). "Casa Cuba Exposes Malaysia To Cuban Culture". Bernama. South-South Information Gateway. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  69. ^ "Casa Cuba meets Melaka heritage city". Bernama. The Brunei Times. 5 July 2011. Archived from the original on 22 June 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  70. ^ "Perasmian Galeri Melaka". Archived from the original on 14 June 2015.
  71. ^ Al Amin (22 February 2013). "Ada Galeri Melaka, Jokowi harap turis Malaysia banjiri Jakarta".
  72. ^ "Malaysia Dirikan Galeri Kebudayaan di Jakarta - Tempo Metro". Tempo. 14 September 2012.
  73. ^ Kompas Cyber Media (10 April 2013). "Melawat Melaka Lewat Galeri Melaka".
  74. ^ "Key Findings of Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 2020" (pdf) (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. ISBN 978-967-2000-85-3.
  75. ^ a b "Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Website". Archived from the original on 15 June 2015.
  76. ^ "Fact & Number". Archived from the original on 1 June 2015.
  77. ^ a b "E-MELAKA". Archived from the original on 4 July 2015.
  78. ^ "Population by States and Ethnic Group". Department of Information, Ministry of Communications and Multimedia, Malaysia. 2015. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
  79. ^ "Kebudayaan — Bahasa Melayu" (in Malay). Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  80. ^ "Malacca's most famous Malay village, Kampung Morten, is named after a british-era collector of land revenue". Malaysia Premier Property and Real Estate Portal.
  81. ^ Khoo, Kay Kim (18 August 1979). "Melaka dalam zaman moden". Jebat: Malaysian Journal of History, Politics and Strategic Studies. 09: 32–43. Archived from the original on 5 March 2018.
  82. ^ "Culture — English". Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  83. ^ "Sikhs gather from all over the world to celebrate for four days - Community - The Star Online".
  84. ^ In Joseph, C. (2018). Policies and politics in Malaysian education: Education reforms, nationalism and neoliberalism.
  85. ^ Rizanizam, A. H. (1 January 2009). "Perkampungan Portugis jadi tarikan". Utusan Malaysia. Archived from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
  86. ^ "Community In Melaka".
  87. ^ "Travelling information one should know while in Malaysia".
  88. ^ a b "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (PDF). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2012. p. 13
  89. ^ a b "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (PDF) (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 86. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  90. ^ Harding, Andrew (27 July 2012). "Chapter 8 - Religion and the Constitution". The Constitution of Malaysia: A Contextual Analysis. Hart Publishing. ISBN 9781847319838.
  91. ^ Juli Paul. "Malacca business, the Malacca economy & the booming tourist industry".
  92. ^ "History of Tanjung Bruas Port". Tanjung Bruas Port. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  93. ^ "Tanjung Bruas Port Sdn Bhd". MMC Group. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  94. ^ "Tanjung Bruas Port now offers container ships services". The Malaysian Reserve. 3 May 2019. Archived from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  95. ^ Lee Hong Liang (23 April 2019). "Malacca port Tanjung Bruas expands services to handle containerships". Seatrade Maritime News. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  96. ^ GAC Logistics "Linggi International Floating Transshipment HUB", 26 April 2007 Archived 12 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  97. ^ Utusan Malaysia "Kuala Linggi New Maritime HUB in Malacca Straits", 05 April 2012 Archived 13 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  98. ^ "Melaka Refinery".
  99. ^ "PETRONAS Penapisan (Melaka) Sdn Bhd".
  100. ^ "Melaka International Trade Centre". Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  101. ^ "MELAKA MAJU 2010" [PROGRESSIVE MELAKA 2010]. 1KLIK (in Malay). Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  102. ^ "Rakyat iktiraf Melaka Maju 2010" [Malaysians recognize Progressive Malacca 2010]. Utusan ONLINE (in Malay). 18 November 2018. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  103. ^ "Economy In Melaka". Archived from the original on 22 June 2015.
  104. ^ "Step up Malacca-China bilateral cooperation to boost economy". Bernama. 2 March 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  105. ^ "Melaka expects RM5.4b in green technology investments by 2020". 30 May 2023.
  106. ^ "Malaysia Millennium Development Goals Report 2015" (PDF). ECONOMIC PLANNING UNIT PRIME MINISTER'S DEPARTMENT MALAYSIA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  107. ^ "Industrial Area". Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  108. ^ "The historic state and city : Melaka today".
  109. ^ "Terengganu second safest place to live in after Malacca". NEW STRAITS TIMES. 27 November 2018. Archived from the original on 19 February 2016.
  110. ^ "Kadar jenayah di Melaka turun 15.5 peratus" [Crime rates in Melaka fell by 15.5 percent]. Sinar ONLINE (in Malay). 18 November 2018. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  111. ^ "Melaka posts second-highest GDP growth in Malaysia". FMT news. Archived from the original on 30 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  112. ^ Mohd Uzir, M. "Laporan Sosioekonomi Negeri 2017".
  113. ^ "Isu Tenaga Kerja Antara Fokus Exco Melaka G. Saminathan" [Manpower Issue Among Focus by Melaka Exco G. Saminathan]. (in Malay). 30 November 2018. Archived from the original on 30 November 2018.
  114. ^ Senarai Sekolah Rendah dan Menengah Jun 2022 [List of Primary and Secondary Schools June 2022] (XLSX) (Report) (in Malay). 2 September 2022. Archived from the original on 23 September 2022. Retrieved 6 November 2022.
  115. ^ "甲公教中學科學館開幕教育局長主持典禮同時舉行科學展覽會及展出學生各科成績". 南洋商報 [Nanyang Siang Pau] (in Traditional Chinese). 2 December 1961. p. 14. Retrieved 25 April 2023.
  116. ^ "Institut Skill-Tech | Kemahiran Untuk Semua".
  117. ^ "Laman Utama".
  118. ^ "Bapa lega dapat bantuan TAPEM, MAIM" [Father relieved after TAPEM, MAIM help]. Harian Metro (in Malay). 20 November 2018. Archived from the original on 15 August 2018.
  119. ^ "Tabung Amanah Pendidikan Negeri Melaka — English". Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  120. ^ "Health".
  121. ^ "Melaka International Airport". Archived from the original on 13 June 2015.
  122. ^ "Muzium Melaka akan dibina di China". 19 March 2015.
  123. ^ "Malacca medical tourism hits over 500,000 tourists seeking treatments - Community - The Star Online".
  124. ^ "Dondang Sayang". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  125. ^ "Dondang Sayang terima pengiktirafan UNESCO" [Dondang Sayang receives UNESCO recognition] (in Malay). astro AWANI. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  126. ^ "Top 50 World Street Food Masters" (PDF). world street food congress 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  127. ^ "15 Malaccan Dishes You Should Try Before You Die". SAYS. 28 April 2016. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  128. ^ "Street Art in Malacca (Melaka)". the Culture Map. 27 February 2015. Archived from the original on 29 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  129. ^ "The Best Mural Artworks in Malaysia". culture trip. 8 August 2017. Archived from the original on 29 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  130. ^ "Melaka State Sports Council (MSNM)".
  131. ^ "Hang Tuah Stadium". Archived from the original on 5 April 2015.
  132. ^ "Profile". Archived from the original on 26 June 2015.
  133. ^ "Melaka International Bowling Centre". Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015.
  134. ^ Golfasian (16 December 2013). "Golf Courses in Malacca".
  135. ^ "Melaka State Map" (PDF).
  136. ^ "Melaka Town Map" (PDF).
  137. ^ a b "MELAKA". New Straits Times. Archived from the original on 14 August 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  138. ^ "Melaka catat kedatangan lebih 8.73 juta pelancong" [Melaka recorded more than 8.73 million visitors] (in Malay). astro AWANI. Archived from the original on 20 November 2018. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  139. ^ "The 10 Coolest Cities Around the World to Visit in 2018". Forbes. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  140. ^ "Lonely Planet's Best in Asia 2017". lonely planet. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  141. ^ "Top 10 Destinations — Malaysia". tripadvisor MALAYSIA. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  142. ^ "Waze Says This Historic City Is The Best Place To Drive In Malaysia". SAYS. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  143. ^ "15 of the Best Street Art Cities -- an Alternative List". LIFE. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  144. ^ "4 Under-the-Radar Countries Where You Can Retire for Cheap". Money. Archived from the original on 16 May 2021. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  145. ^ 姚, 美芹 (1 January 2024). "旅游年开跑迎客来 新酒店 整装待发". 中國報 [China Press] (in Chinese (Malaysia)). Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  146. ^ 黄, 钰苹 (1 January 2024). "旅游部带来新年礼物 甲州政府获额外200万推广旅游年". 东方日报 [Oriental Daily News (Malaysia)] (in Chinese (Malaysia)). Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  147. ^ "张庆信:旅游部额外拨款 200万推广甲旅游年". 星洲日报 [Sin Chew Daily] (in Chinese (Malaysia)). 1 January 2024. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  148. ^ "马六甲元旦大礼 加码200万推广旅游". 八度空间华语新闻 [8TV Mandarin News] (in Chinese (Malaysia)). 1 January 2024. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  149. ^ "Govt gives Melaka RM2mil more for Visit Melaka Year 2024". Free Malaysia Today. 1 January 2024. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  150. ^ "PERZIM - Background of PERZIM". PERZIM.
  151. ^ "NIGHT MARKET". Archived from the original on 4 July 2015.
  152. ^ "Tahun ini terlalu mahal". HM Online. 20 June 2015.
  153. ^ "Melaka mahu buka semula laluan penerbangan domestik, antarabangsa di LTAM - Astro Awani".
  154. ^ Nor Shahid, M. N. (24 July 2015). We can revive Tampin-Malacca rail service. New Straits Times. Retrieved from
  155. ^ KTMB perkenal perkhidmatan komuter baharu dari Seremban ke Gemas. (1 October 2015). Berita Harian. Retrieved from
  156. ^ "Komuter guna jadual baru mulai esok". 2 February 2018.
  157. ^ "Malacca wants to revive monorail line to promote river". AsiaOne. Archived from the original on 25 June 2015.
  158. ^ "Lebih 17,000 guna Monorel Melaka sejak beroperasi semula". Utusan Borneo Online. 3 February 2018.
  159. ^ "Kos taman tema, naik taraf kawasan monorel Melaka RM109 juta - Astro Awani".
  160. ^ "Monorel Melaka beroperasi semula esok - The Malaysian Insight".
  161. ^ "Ferries to Malaysia-ferries from Indonesia". Tourist Attractions in Malaysia. Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  162. ^ "Malaysia Truly Asia - Tourism Travel Information Guide: Merlimau Pantai Jetty - Jetty Nelayan Merlimau Pantai".
  163. ^ "Longer runway and international port for Malacca". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 22 June 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  164. ^ "Getting to Melaka: By Bus". MelakaCool. 17 April 2013. Archived from the original on 3 June 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  165. ^ "Melaka Sentral".
  166. ^ "Routes & Schedules - Panorama Melaka".
  167. ^ "Making Melaka Resilient". TheStar. 9 August 2020. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Alt URL
  168. ^ "Motif kuda belang di lintasan pejalan kaki Melaka" [The motif of a zebra at the Melaka pedestrian crossing]. BHOnline (in Malay). 9 August 2020. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020.
  169. ^ "Riding a green wave in Malacca". TheStar. 9 August 2020. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020.
  170. ^ "Trishaw or Beca rides in Malacca town". 27 July 2011.
  171. ^ "Malaysia syurga penggambaran" [Malaysia is paradise of filming]. Kosmo! Online (in Malay). 19 November 2018. Archived from the original on 28 July 2018.
  172. ^ "Tragic Hero (1987)". RETRO JUNK. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  173. ^ "7 Hollywood Movies Filmed in Malaysia". ExpatGo. 13 July 2013. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  174. ^ "Shah Rukh Khan terima pingat Datuk" [Shah Rukh Khan accepts Datukship]. Kosmo! Online (in Malay). 19 November 2018. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018.
  175. ^ "Big Little Nyonya". THE Star ONLINE. 19 November 2018. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018.
  176. ^ "10 Movies You Didn't Know Were Filmed In Malaysia. Spot The Bas Sekolah!". SAYS. 2 March 2015. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  177. ^ "Nora Danish: 'Suami aku ustaz'" [My husband is an ustaz]. Sinar ONLINE (in Malay). 19 November 2018. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018.
  178. ^ "Exco Melaka, wartawan teruja jumpa sendiri Rajinikanth" [Melaka exco, journalist excitedly met Rajinikanth himself]. PROJEK mm (in Malay). Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  179. ^ "Ayda Jebat Tampil Dengan Telefon Edisi Istimewa" [Ayda Jebat Appear With Special Edition Phone]. COSMOPOLITAN (in Malay). Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  180. ^ "Memang penat tapi berbaloi" [It is tiring but worth it]. Harian Metro (in Malay). 19 November 2018. Archived from the original on 14 September 2018.
  181. ^ "Belajar Bahasa Isyarat, Ayda Jebat Menangis" [Learn Sign Language, Ayda Jebat Cries]. GEMPAK (in Malay). Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  182. ^ "Fendy berubat kampung sakit misteri" [Fendy use traditional medicine to treat his mystery illness]. my Metro (in Malay). 19 November 2018. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018.
  183. ^ "Info".
  184. ^ Administrator. "Company Profile - Powertek Berhad Group". Archived from the original on 27 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  185. ^ "Malacca unveils draft plan for solar valley". 19 May 2022.
  186. ^ "Melaka World Solar Valley".
  187. ^ "Go green like Melaka | New Straits Times".
  188. ^ "Latar Belakang".
  189. ^ "RM190m Jernih Dam scheduled to be completed by 2018".
  190. ^ "Mengambil iktibar daripada pengurusan air Melaka". Archived from the original on 19 September 2015.
  191. ^ Star Media Group Berhad. "Malacca to start water rationing after Mar 29 if dry spell continues - Nation - The Star Online".
  192. ^ "Learning efficient water supply management from Malacca". The Rakyat Post. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  193. ^ khalid. "RM190 Million Jernih Dam Scheduled To Be Completed By 2018". MyNewsHub. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.