الجديدة / مازيغن
Location in Morocco
El Jadida (Africa)
|• Total||220 181|
|• Rank||15th in Morocco|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|Official name||Portuguese City of Mazagan (El Jadida)|
|Designated||2004 (28th session)|
El Jadida (Arabic: الجديدة, romanized: al-Jadīda, [ald͡ʒadiːda]; originally known in Berber as Maziɣen or Mazighen; known in Portuguese as Mazagão) is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, located 96 km south of the city of Casablanca, in the province of El Jadida and the region of Casablanca-Settat. It has a population of 170,956 as of 2022.
The fortified city, built by the Portuguese at the beginning of the 16th century and named Mazagan (Mazagão in Portuguese), was taken by the Moroccans in 1769.
El Jadida's old city sea walls are one of the Seven Wonders of Portuguese Origin in the World. The Portuguese Fortified City of Mazagan was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004, on the basis of its status as an "outstanding example of the interchange of influences between European and Moroccan cultures" and as an "early example of the realisation of the Renaissance ideals integrated with Portuguese construction technology". According to UNESCO, the most important buildings from the Portuguese period are the cistern, and the Manueline Church of the Assumption.
The city, and particularly its neighbouring town of Sidi Bouzid, becomes extremely busy in the summer season with an influx of mainly Moroccan holiday-makers. Nearby is the five-star resort complex of Mazagan, which attracts some middle-class and upper-class Moroccans as well as many international visitors from the Arabian Peninsula as well as from Europe and beyond. Mazagan complex has a golf course designed by Gary Player, casino, nightclub and restaurants. Between Mazagan complex and El Jadida is the Pullman Hotel, attached to which is Royal Golf El Jadida, another 18-hole course. The presence of nearby ports and factories is responsible for the pollution of El Jadida's beaches.
The city is expanding as of 2014, partly as a result of increased activity at the nearby Jorf Lasfar port and its industrial zone.
The original name of the city in the Berber language was: Maziɣen / Mazighen, which means "The Berbers".
El Jadida's other names and nicknames in other languages were: Cap Soleis, Portus Rutilis, Rusibis, Mazighen (Arabic: مازيغن), al-Breyja (Arabic: البريجة), Mazagão, al-Mahdouma (Arabic: المهدومة) and Mazagan.
El Jadida was first known as al-Breyja when it was seized by the Portuguese in 1502. Then it became known in the Portuguese language as Mazagão. The Portuguese built a citadel in 1514, and a larger fortification in 1541. The Kingdom of Portugal would continue to control the city until 1769, when they abandoned Mazagão, their last territory in Morocco. Upon their forced departure, the Portuguese destroyed the Governor's Bastion. Most of the Portuguese inhabitants were sent to the colony of Brazil, where they founded a new settlement called Nova Mazagão (the present Mazagão in the state of Amapá). The city was then taken over by Sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah in 1769 and remained largely uninhabited, having been dubbed al-Mahdouma ('The Ruined'). Eventually, Sultan Abd al-Rahman of Morocco ordered that a mosque be built, and the destroyed portions of the city were rebuilt during his reign in the early nineteenth-century. The reinvigorated city was renamed al-Jadida, meaning 'The New'.
Expanded since 1514, this former warehouse (possibly an armory) was converted into a cistern in the sixteenth century. The underground chamber, measuring 34 meters by 34 meters, was constructed with five rows of five stone pillars. The cistern is famous especially for the thin layer of water that covers the floor, and which creates fine and ever-changing reflections from the little light there is and the spartan shapes of the columns and the roof. Its visual qualities are such that several movies have been filmed within the cavernous space, of which Orson Welles' Othello is the best known internationally.
The design of the Fortress of Mazagan is a response to the development of modern artillery in the Renaissance. The star form of the fortress measures c 250m by 300m. The slightly inclined, massive walls are c 8m high on average, with a thickness of 10m, enclosing a patrolling peripheral walkway 2m wide. At the present time the fortification has four bastions: the Angel Bastion in the east, St Sebastian in the north, St Antoine in the west, and the Holy Ghost Bastion in the south. The fifth, the Governor's Bastion at the main entrance, is in ruins, having been destroyed by the Portuguese in 1769. Numerous colonial-era Portuguese cannons are still positioned on top of the bastions.
The fort had three gates: the Seagate, forming a small port with the north-east rampart, the Bull Gate in the north-west rampart, and the main entrance with a double arch in the centre of the south rampart, originally connected to land via a drawbridge. A ditch, c 20m wide and 3m deep, formerly filled with seawater, surrounded the fort. During the time of the French Protectorate the ditch was filled in with earth and a new entrance gate was opened leading to the main street, the Rua da Carreira, and to the Seagate. Along this street are situated the best preserved historic buildings, including the Catholic Church of the Assumption and the cistern.
El Jadida has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa). In winter there is more rainfall than in summer. The average annual temperature in El Jadida is 17.4 °C (63.3 °F). About 372 mm (14.65 in) of precipitation falls annually.
|Climate data for El Jadida|
|Average high °C (°F)||16.8
|Average low °C (°F)||7.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||49
The city houses many post-secondary academic institutions:
Chouaib Doukkali University, including the following institutions:
Office of Vocational Training and Promotion of Labor (OFPPT), including the following institutions:
(Outside El Jadida)
The main football club of the city is Difaâ Hassani El Jadidi, currently playing in the Botola Pro 1.
Near El Jadida, are located the city of Azemmour in the northeast and the town of Sidi Bouzid in the southwest. Within a perimeter of around 120 km or less, are located Casablanca, Berrechid, Settat, Sidi Bennour, Oualidia, Youssoufia, Safi.
El Jadida is twinned with: