Radio Televisyen Malaysia
(Department of Broadcasting, Malaysia)
(Jabatan Penyiaran Malaysia)
(RTM)
TypeCrown corporation
BrandingRadio Televisyen Malaysia (RTM)
Country
First air date
1 April 1946; 76 years ago (1946-04-01) (Radio Malaya)
28 December 1963; 58 years ago (1963-12-28) (Televisyen Malaysia)
AvailabilityNationwide
Radio stationsNational:

Regional:

HeadquartersAngkasapuri, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Broadcast area
Malaysia
Asia (Via satellites)
OwnerGovernment of Malaysia
ParentMinistry of Communications and Multimedia Malaysia
Key people
Dato' Haji Che Roslan bin Che Daud
Director-General of RTM
Launch date
1 April 1946; 76 years ago (1946-04-01) (Radio Malaya)
28 December 1963; 58 years ago (1963-12-28) (Televisyen Malaysia)
Official website
www.rtm.gov.my

Radio Televisyen Malaysia (RTM) (English: Radio Television of Malaysia), also known as the Department of Broadcasting, Malaysia (Malay: Jabatan Penyiaran Malaysia) is the national public broadcaster of Malaysia. Established on 1 April 1946 as Radio Malaya, it is the first and the oldest broadcaster in the country.[1] After Malaysia was formed on 16 September 1963, Radio Malaya was renamed Radio Malaysia. On 28 December the same year, television service in Malaysia began with the establishment of Televisyen Malaysia. In 1969, Radio Malaysia and Televisyen Malaysia merged to form the present day broadcast department.[2] Radio Televisyen Malaysia monopolised the free-to-air television until 1984 and radio until 1988, when private television and radio stations such as TV3 and Best FM begin to exist. Currently, it operates 6 television channels and 34 radio stations nationwide.

History

Voice of Malaysia logo.
Voice of Malaysia logo.
RTM logo (2004–2021).
RTM logo (2004–2021).

The birth of local broadcasting, 1921 to 1946

History of local broadcasting in Malaysia began in 1921 when an electrical engineer from the Johor Government, A.L. Birch, brought the first radio set into British Malaya. He then established the Johor Wireless Association in 1923 and commenced broadcasting through 300 meter waves. Similar associations were also established in Penang (Penang Wireless Association) in 1925 and in Kuala Lumpur (Malayan Wireless Association) in 1928.[3]

In 1930, Sir Earl from the Singapore Port Authority commenced its short wave broadcast every fortnight either on Sundays or Wednesdays. The same effort was emulated by the Malayan Wireless Association, broadcasting from Bukit Petaling, Kuala Lumpur, via 325 meter waves. Penang Wireless Association led by Khoo Sian Ewe launched Station ZHJ – Malaya's first radio station on 24 August 1934, which operates out of George Town, Penang. British Malaya Broadcasting Corporation (BMBC) was formed on 21 July 1935 and awarded a broadcasting license by the British crown on 1 June 1936 as a radio network.[4] On 1 March 1937, Sir Shenton Thomas opened the BMBC Studio and its transmitter at Caldecott Hill in Singapore. The Corporation was taken over by the Straits Settlements Government in 1940, subsequently nationalised and reorganised as the Malaya Broadcasting Corporation and was placed under the British Department of Information.[5]

During World War II in 1942, the Imperial Japanese Army occupied British Malaya and used the existing radio channels in Penang, Malacca, Kuala Lumpur, Seremban and Singapore to transmit Japanese propaganda. Malaya Broadcasting Corporation was renamed Syonan Hoso Kyoku ('Light of the South' Broadcasting Corporation), the local counterpart to the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK). Meanwhile, the Radio Station in Penang was renamed Penang Hoso Kyoku (Penang Broadcasting Corporation).[6] After the war, the British came back into power and reclaimed the radio station, with the station managed by the interim government – British Military Administration (BMA).[7]

Early history, 1946 to 1969

On 1 April 1946, Radio Malaya was established at Caldecott Hill in Singapore. Apart from its headquarters in Singapore, it also had broadcast stations in cities and towns across Malaya such as Penang, Kuala Lumpur, Seremban and Malacca. Radio Malaya consists of five language services – Malay, Aslian, English, Chinese and Tamil language, the latter three became known as the Blue, Green and Red Networks in 1959.[8] Blue, Green and Red Networks were also used to refer to regional stations and programmings and radio broadcastings were done using amplitude modulation (AM) or short and medium wave transmissions during those times.[9][10][11]

In the British Crown Colonies of North Borneo (now Sabah) and Sarawak, Radio Sarawak was launched on 7 June 1954, while Radio Sabah was launched on 9 November 1955 after test broadcast since 1952. These two radio stations offers language services in Malay, Chinese and English, in addition to the native languages of Iban for Sarawak and Kadazan for Sabah.[12][13]

With the independence of Malaya on 31 August 1957, Radio Malaya was split into two separate stations: the original studios in Singapore was taken over by a new station called Radio Singapura and Radio Malaya moved to Kuala Lumpur going on air from the new location – the 5th to 6th floor of the Federal House on 1 January 1959. It would be later renamed Radio Malaysia on 16 September 1963, with the transmissions beginning with its trademark words Inilah Radio Malaysia (This is Radio Malaysia) on the day the Malaysia of today, a federation which consists of the States of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore (until 1965) was born. On the same day, Radio Sabah, Radio Sarawak and Radio Singapura became part of the Radio Malaysia network as state stations for Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore listeners respectively. Radio Malaysia's flagship international shortwave radio service, Voice of Malaysia (Malay: Suara Malaysia, VOM) was launched on 15 February the same year to promote the country, with three languages in the beginning: English, Mandarin and Indonesian.

Television services under the name Televisyen Malaysia or Malaysia Television (Malaysia TV) started on 28 December 1963 in time for the national New Year celebrations in Kuala Lumpur and regional telecasts in the Klang Valley in Selangor state, with its first studios being located in Jalan Ampang.[14][15][16] The then 10-month-old Television Singapura (launched on 15 February 1963) became part of Televisyen Malaysia in January 1964 as its state station for Singapore viewers, a role served until 1965, when Singapore became independent. During its time as part of Malaysia, Singapore like its three other partners–Sabah, Sarawak and Malaya had its own radio network, but it was the only state to have its own television network. The state's radio and television broadcast right was included as an annex in the Malaysia Agreement, which it garnered autonomy in this area, among others.

Upon joining Radio Malaysia, Radio Sabah consisted of two language networks: the main Malay language network and the Blue Network for Kadazan, Murut, Dusun, Bajau, English and Mandarin language. Radio Sarawak on the other hand, consisted of four language networks: the main Malay language network, the Blue network for Bidayuh language, the Green network for Iban and Kayan/Kenyah languages and the Red network for English, Mandarin, Bisaya and Murut language programming.[17]

Merger and expansion of Radio and TV operations, 1969 to 2001

Radio and TV operations merged on 11 October 1969 as the new Angkasapuri headquarters was inaugurated. Thus Radio Malaysia and Televisyen Malaysia's identities merged to become Radio Televisyen Malaysia, abbreviated as RTM. A second TV station opened on 17 November in the same year as its rebranding. On 19 April 1971, Radio Malaysia's Malay language unit became the first radio station to broadcast 24 hours a day nationwide, thus becoming National Network (Malay: Rangkaian Nasional) in the process. On 5 November 1973, RTM launched a radio station named Radio Ibu Kota (Capital City Radio) specifically for the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. On 20 June 1975, Radio Malaysia's first Stereo FM format radio station went on the air, mainly broadcast pop music and initially focus on the Klang Valley area.

By 31 August 1978, Voice of Malaysia had expanded its broadcast to include 5 other language services namely Thai (1 January 1972), Arab (1 November 1972), Tagalog (22 October 1973), Burmese and Malay. On 17 April 1995, an international Islamic service called Voice of Islam was added to the Voice of Malaysia network and broadcasts in English and Malay Languages.[18][19] All language services were transmitted from Kajang, Selangor, except for Tagalog service which was transmitted from Tuaran, Sabah.

Following the construction of earth satellite station near Kuantan, Pahang and Kinarut, Sabah for communications and television broadcast via the Indian Ocean Intelsat III satellite, TV1 was introduced to viewers in the Bornean states of Sabah and Sarawak on 30 August 1975. RTM began broadcasting in colour since 28 December 1978 in Peninsular Malaysia and 31 August 1980 in East Malaysia. TV1 was the first channel to broadcast in colour, followed by TV2 on 7 May 1979. RTM used to have a third TV station solely for Sabah which was launched on 28 December 1971. However, it ceased to air by mid-1985 after TV2 made its debut in East Malaysia on 31 August 1983.[20] Between 1972 and 1999, Televisyen Malaysia shared time with TV Pendidikan - the national education channel in the daytime. TV1 introduced daytime transmissions on 1 March 1994,[21][22] thus resulting in TV Pendidikan ceased broadcasting on TV1, while TV2 introduced daytime transmissions in 2000.

Apart from its headquarters at Angkasapuri, RTM has branches in every state of Malaysia (except Selangor which is based in Angkasapuri) and the Federal Territory of Labuan. In addition to managing radio stations, RTM state branches also publish shows and news content for television broadcast. The Peninsular States began to have their own state radio stations by the early 1990s, with Perlis being the last to do so on 1 June 1991. In East Malaysia, the territorial radio station of Labuan was established on 31 August 1986.[23] RTM began to gradually replace Amplitude Modulation broadcast with Frequency Modulation broadcast since the 1980s and in 1993, adopted numbering system for its Radio Stations. The names of the radio stations were as follows:

Original Malay Melody Radio service (Malay: Radio Irama Melayu Asli, RiMA), precursor of present-day Radio Klasik began broadcast on 11 April 1998.

Radio rebranding and TV digitalisation, 2001 to present

In conjunction with its 59th anniversary on 1 April 2005, RTM's radio stations underwent rebranding and renaming.[24]

On 12 August 2006, Nasional FM merged with Klasik FM to form Klasik Nasional FM, and broadcast classical Malay music together with its main program 24 hours a day.[25] However, the merger survived for only five years, as the station began losing listeners to sister stations and private competitors such as Sinar FM and Era FM, as well as then-upstart Bernama's Radio24. Thus, Klasik Nasional was demerged on 4 January 2012 at midnight and split into the original two radio stations, with Nasional FM using the same frequencies as the former Muzik FM (discontinued in late 2012) and Klasik Nasional became Radio Klasik. Owing to the diminished effectiveness of a shortwave radio service over time with changing technology and media consumption habits, Voice of Malaysia was dissolved on 31 August 2011.

TV1 broadcast overnight many times since the early 1990s, but daily 24-hour transmissions did not come until 2003, which was later cancelled. Permanent 24-hour broadcasting was introduced on 3 April 2006 on TV2 and on 21 August 2012 on TV1. Three new TV channels were launched during the digital television broadcasting era: TV Okey on 21 March 2018, News channel Berita RTM on 25 June 2020 and Sports channel Sukan RTM on 1 April 2021. TV Pendidikan returned to RTM on 6 April 2020 and began to air on TV Okey.[26][27]

Headquarters and branch offices

Name Location Television services Radio services Other
Angkasapuri Kuala Lumpur TV1, TV2, TV Okey, Sukan RTM, Berita RTM Nasional FM, KL FM, Selangor FM, TraXX FM, Ai FM, Minnal FM, Asyik FM, Radio Klasik Headquarters of RTM, Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union (ABU), Tun Abdul Razak Institute for Broadcasting and Information (IPPTAR) and Selangor State Broadcasting Department. It houses RTM's Radio, Television and News divisions and main TV Show and News production studios.
Tuanku Syed Putra Broadcasting Complex Kangar, Perlis Perlis FM Perlis branch office.
Sultan Abdul Halim Information and Broadcasting Complex Alor Setar, Kedah Kedah FM Kedah State main office. Also known by address: Jalan Kuala Kedah.
Kuah Tabung Haji Building Langkawi, Kedah Langkawi FM Langkawi branch office.
Penang State Broadcasting Department George Town, Penang Mutiara FM Penang branch office. Also known by address: Jalan Burma (Burmah Road).
Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah Complex Ipoh, Perak Perak FM Perak branch office. Also known by address: Jalan Raja Musa Mahadi.
Kelantan State Broadcasting Department Kota Bharu, Kelantan Kelantan FM Kelantan branch office. Located in Wakaf Che Yeh Suburb. Site of Kelantan FM transmitter.
Terengganu State Broadcasting Department Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu Terengganu FM Terengganu branch office.
Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Broadcasting Complex Kuantan, Pahang Pahang FM Pahang branch office.
Tuanku Muhammad Broadcasting Complex Seremban, Negeri Sembilan Negeri FM Negeri Sembilan branch office.
Malacca State Broadcasting Department Malacca City, Malacca Melaka FM Malacca branch office. Also known by address: Jalan Taming Sari.
Sultan Iskandar Information and Broadcasting Complex Johor Bahru, Johor Johor FM Johor branch office. Also known by address: Jalan Tasek Utara.
Kuching RTM Building Kuching, Sarawak Sarawak FM, Red FM, Wai FM Iban, Wai FM Bidayuh Sarawak State main office. It houses TV Show and News production studios. Also known by address: Jalan P. Ramlee.
Sri Aman Broadcasting Department Simanggang, Sarawak Sri Aman FM Sri Aman branch office.
Sibu Broadcasting Department Sibu, Sarawak Sibu FM Sibu branch office. Also known by address: Jalan Abang Haji Openg.
Old Bintulu Development Authority Building Bintulu, Sarawak Bintulu FM Bintulu branch office.
Miri Broadcasting Department Miri, Sarawak Miri FM Miri branch office.
Limbang Broadcasting Department Limbang, Sarawak Limbang FM Limbang branch office.
Labuan Broadcasting Department Labuan Labuan FM Labuan branch office. Also known by address: Jalan Tanjung Taras.
Ministry of Communications and Multimedia Integrated Complex Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Sabah FM, Sabah V FM Sabah State main office. It houses TV Show and News production studios. Located in Kepayan suburb along Jalan Lintas.
Keningau Federal House Keningau, Sabah Keningau FM Keningau branch office.
Sandakan Federal Building Sandakan, Sabah Sandakan FM Sandakan branch office.
Tawau Broadcasting Department Tawau, Sabah Tawau FM Tawau branch office. Also known by address: Jalan Chong Thien Vun.

Terrestrial stations

Radio stations

RTM offers 34 FM radio channels - 6 national and 28 local stations, which are collectively known as Radio RTM or Radio Malaysia. Each station has different frequencies, depending on the area of coverage.

Nationwide

Station Language Ref
Radio Klasik Malay [28]
Nasional FM Malay [29]
Asyik FM Malay and Aslian (Semai, Jakun, Temiar and Temuan) [30]
TraXX FM English [31]
Ai FM Chinese (Mandarin, Cantonese, Hokkien, Teochew and Hakka) [32]
Minnal FM Tamil [33]

Local

RTM's local radio network, formerly known as Radio 3, offers localised services to listeners across their respective states and federal territories. Most stations operate from 6:00 am to midnight daily, with simulcasts of Nasional FM taking place during downtime. Others like Sabah V FM, take simulcasts from another national radio network overnight. KL FM, however, operates 24 hours a day. The logos of the local radio stations display colours that match those on Malaysia's individual state or territory flags.

Logo Frequencies (Area/Transmitter) Station Language Ref
Perlis FM logo.png
102.9 MHz (Perlis/Pauh) Perlis FM Malay [34]
Kedah FM logo.png
97.5 MHz (Alor Setar/Mount Jerai)
95.4 MHz (Gulau/Gulau)
105.7 MHz (Langkawi/Gunung Raya)
90.5 MHz (Baling/Bukit Palong)
88.5 MHz (Selama and Bandar Baharu/Bukit Sungai Kecil Hilir)
105.1 MHz (Sik/Bukit Dedap and Sintok/UUM)
Kedah FM Malay [35]
Langkawi FM logo.png
104.8 MHz (Langkawi/Gunung Raya) Langkawi FM Malay [36]
93.9 MHz (North Penang/Mount Jerai)
90.9 MHz (Balik Pulau/Bukit Genting)
95.7 MHz (South Penang/Bukit Penara)
Mutiara FM Malay [37]
Perak FM logo.png
94.7 MHz (Cameron Highlands/Mount Brinchang)
97.3 MHz (Changkat Rembian/Changkat Rembian)
96.2 MHz (Gerik/Gerik)
95.6 MHz (Ipoh/Gunung Kledang)
102.9 MHz (Lawin/Lawin)
94.2 MHz (Lenggong/Bukit Ladang Teh)
104.1 MHz (Taiping/Bukit Larut)
89.6 MHz (Tanjung Malim/Bukit Asa)
Perak FM Malay [38]
Kelantan FM logo.png
107.2 MHz (Dabong/Dabong)
92.0 MHz (Gua Musang/Bukit Chupak)
90.0 MHz (Jeli/Bukit Tangki Air)
102.9 MHz (Kota Bharu/Teliput)
97.3 MHz (Machang/Bukit Bakar)
88.1 MHz (Paloh/Paloh)
107.1 MHz (East Kelantan/Bukit Bintang)
Kelantan FM Malay [39]
Terengganu FM logo.png
96.2 MHz (Besut/Bukit Bintang)
90.7 MHz (Chukai/Bukit Kemuning)
97.7 MHz (Dungun/Bukit Bauk)
90.0 MHz (FELDA Cerul/FELDA Cerul)
88.9 MHz (FELDA Tenang/FELDA Tenang)
88.7 MHz (Kuala Terengganu/Bukit Besar)
Terengganu FM Malay [40]
88.0 MHz (Bandar Muadzam Shah/Bukit Sembilan)
100.3 MHz (Cameron Highlands/Mount Brinchang)
107.2 MHz (Damak/Bukit Botak)
95.5 MHz (Gambang/Bukit Sulai)
92.7 MHz (Jerantut/Bukit Istana)
104.1 MHz (Kuantan/Bukit Pelindung)
92.0 MHz (Maran/Bukit Senggora)
92.6 MHz (Tioman Island/Tioman Island)
102.2 MHz (Raub/Fraser's Hill)
91.9 MHz (Rompin/Rompin)
107.5 MHz (West Pahang/Mount Ulu Kali)
Pahang FM Malay [41]
99.8 MHz (Hulu Langat/Hulu Langat)
100.9 MHz (Selangor/Mount Ulu Kali)
Selangor FM Malay [42]
KL FM logo.png
97.2 MHz (Kuala Lumpur/Kuala Lumpur Tower) KL FM Malay [43]
92.6 MHz (Central Negeri Sembilan/Bukit Telapa Burok)
107.7 MHz (Gemas/Mount Ledang)
95.7 MHz (Tampin/Bukit Tampin)
Negeri FM Malay [44]
102.3 MHz (Malacca/Mount Ledang) Melaka FM Malay [45]
101.9 MHz (Johor Bahru and Singapore/Mount Pulai)
92.1 MHz (Mersing/Bukit Tinggi)
105.3 MHz (Northern Johor/Mount Ledang)
Johor FM Malay [46]
Sarawak FM Malay [47]
RTM Sarawak Red FM.png
Red FM English and Chinese (Mandarin, Foochow and Hakka) [48]
Wai FM logo.png
Wai FM Iban Iban [49]
Wai FM Bidayuh logo.png
Wai FM Bidayuh Bidayuh, Kayan and Kenyah [50]
Sri Aman FM logo.png
Sri Aman FM Malay [51]
Sibu FM logo.png
Sibu FM Malay, Chinese (Mandarin) and Iban [52]
Bintulu FM Malay [53]
Miri FM Malay, Chinese (Mandarin), Iban, Kayan and Kenyah [54]
Limbang FM Malay, Bisaya and Lun Bawang [55]
Labuan FM Malay [56]
Sabah FM logo.png
Sabah FM Malay [57]
Sabah V FM English, Kadazan, Chinese (Mandarin and Hakka), Dusun, Bajau and Murut [58]
Keningau FM Malay, Murut and Dusun [59]
Sandakan FM Malay [60]
Tawau FM Malay [61]

Television Channels

RTM offers six terrestrial TV channels in Malaysia. While Malay and English are main languages used for its programmes, three out of six channels also offer vernacular language programmes for its non-Malay native population (widely known as Bumiputera), as well as Chinese and Indian minorities.

Name Availability Language Programming Ref
TV1 Free-to-air, Satellite, IPTV Malay and English News, culture, entertainment and children [62]
TV2 Free-to-air, Satellite, IPTV Malay, English, Chinese (Mandarin), Indian (Tamil and Hindi), Korean and Turkish News, culture, entertainment and children [63]
TV Okey Free-to-air, Satellite Malay, English, Bajau, Dusun, Kadazan and Iban News, culture, entertainment, children and education [64]
Berita RTM Free-to-air Malay, English, Chinese (Mandarin), Indian (Tamil), Bajau, Dusun, Kadazan and Iban News [65]
Sukan RTM Free-to-air Malay and English Sports
TV6 Free-to-air Malay Films, entertainment, variety and drama series from the RTM archives

Over-the-top media service

RTM Klik (formerly MyKlik and RTM Mobile) is RTM's Over-the-top media service (OTT). It covers viewers across multiple devices such as computers, tablets, smartphones.[66] The service's website contains all RTM television channels and radio stations, as well as online streaming channel RTM Parlimen which was launched on 1 July 2013.

RTM Parlimen broadcasts the parliamentary session from Monday to Thursday from 10 am to 1 pm in the morning session and from 2.30 pm to 5.30 pm or late in the afternoon/evening session. Apart from RTM Klik, RTM Parlimen can also be watched through the RTM Parlimen page channel.[67]

Online News Portal

See also

References

  1. ^ Amree Ahmad (7 June 2009). "Kita bakal 'mabuk' TV" (in Malay). Kosmo!. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  2. ^ Ifqdar Rahman (31 March 2016). "Festival 70 tahun RTM". Utusan Malaysia. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  3. ^ "RTM background".
  4. ^ Adrian Petersen (3 June 2021). "Radio Malaysia Celebrates 75 Years". radioheritage.com.
  5. ^ Teh Liam Seng (19 March 2017). "The sound of history". New Straits Times. Retrieved 15 June 2022.
  6. ^ "A revolutionary freedom fighter used Malaya as a springboard to help India gain independence!". New Straits Times. 3 November 2018. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  7. ^ "Radio broadcasting in Singapore (1924–46)".
  8. ^ "Sejarah Radio 7".
  9. ^ "THE FUTURE OF RADIO MALAYA". Sunday Tribune. 12 January 1947. p. 6. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  10. ^ "Radio Malaya played it!". Indian Daily Mail. 11 September 1952. p. 4.
  11. ^ "RADIO MALAYA, THE QUESTION OF CONTROL". Sunday Tribune. 5 January 1947. p. 6. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  12. ^ "Sabah fm info".
  13. ^ "Sarawak fm info".
  14. ^ "Talivisen sa-lewat2 akhir tahun 63". Berita Harian. 9 January 1962. p. 5. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  15. ^ "TALIVISHEN ALAT REVOLUSI MASHARAKAT — SENU". Berita Harian. 2 October 1964. p. 3. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  16. ^ "TV di-Malaysia: Banyak kemajuan sejak tahun '63". Berita Harian. 2 January 1969. p. 4. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  17. ^ "RTM Sarawak". rtmsarawak.gov.my. Archived from the original on 4 December 2011.
  18. ^ "VOM".
  19. ^ "Latar Belakang - Suara Malaysia".
  20. ^ "rtmkk". rtmsabah.gov.my. Archived from the original on 19 January 2009.
  21. ^ "Early Morning viewing on TV1 and TV3 begins". 1 March 1994.
  22. ^ "RTM History 2006 Archive". Archived from the original on 30 April 2006.
  23. ^ "Milestones".
  24. ^ "Abdul Kadir: RTM Welcomes Competition". 2 April 2005.
  25. ^ "Klasik Nasional FM - Mengenai Kami".
  26. ^ "TV Pendidikan to begin Monday on RTM". New Straits Times. 4 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  27. ^ Kirat Kaur (4 April 2020). "TV learning channel launched for students who can't access Internet during MCO". The Rakyat Post. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  28. ^ Radio Klasik's official page
  29. ^ Nasional FM's official page
  30. ^ Asyik FM's official page
  31. ^ TraXX FM's official page
  32. ^ Ai FM's official page
  33. ^ Minnal FM's official page
  34. ^ Perlis FM's official page
  35. ^ Kedah FM's official page
  36. ^ Langkawi FM's official page
  37. ^ Mutiara FM's official page
  38. ^ Perak FM's official page
  39. ^ Kelantan FM's official page
  40. ^ Terengganu FM's official page
  41. ^ Pahang FM's official page
  42. ^ Selangor FM's official page
  43. ^ KL FM's official page
  44. ^ Negeri FM's official page
  45. ^ Melaka FM's official page
  46. ^ Johor FM's official page
  47. ^ Sarawak FM's official page
  48. ^ Red FM's official page
  49. ^ Wai FM Iban's official page
  50. ^ Wai FM Bidayuh's official page
  51. ^ Sri Aman FM's official page
  52. ^ Sibu FM's official page
  53. ^ Bintulu FM's official page
  54. ^ Miri FM's official page
  55. ^ Limbang FM's official page
  56. ^ Labuan FM's official page
  57. ^ Sabah FM's official page
  58. ^ Sabah V FM's official page
  59. ^ Keningau FM's official page
  60. ^ Sandakan FM's official page
  61. ^ Tawau FM's official page
  62. ^ TV1's official page
  63. ^ TV2's official page
  64. ^ TV Okey's official page
  65. ^ RTM news portal
  66. ^ RTM Klik's official page
  67. ^ RTM Parlimen's official page
  68. ^ One News official website
  69. ^ "RTM launches Internet news channel 'Portal 1news' ⋆ The Malaysian Times". www.themalaysiantimes.com.my. Archived from the original on 12 November 2018.