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Korean Broadcasting System
Native name
한국방송공사
Hanja韓國放送公社
Revised RomanizationHan-guk Bangsong Gongsa
McCune–ReischauerHan'guk Pangsong Kongsa
TypeStatutory corporation
IndustryBroadcasting
Predecessors
  • Kyeongseong/Keijō Broadcasting Station (1927-1932)
  • Chōsen Broadcasting Corporation (1932-1945)
Founded
  • 16 February 1927; 94 years ago (1927-02-16) (as Kyeongseong/Keijō Broadcasting Station) (Radio)
  • December 1961; 59 years ago (1961-12) (television)
  • 3 March 1973; 48 years ago (1973-03-03) (as Public Broadcasting organization)
FounderJapanese colonial government in Korea
Headquarters,
South Korea
Area served
Key people
Yang Seung-dong, President
Products
OwnerIndependent (publicly owned)
Number of employees
4,701 (As of 1 June 2020)
Subsidiaries
WebsiteCorporation website

The Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) (Korean한국방송공사; Hanja韓國放送公社; RRHan-guk Bangsong Gongsa; MRHan'guk Pangsong Kongsa) is the national public broadcaster of South Korea. It was founded in 1927, and operates radio, television, and online services. As of 2021, it is one of South Korea's largest broadcasters.

History

Early radio broadcasts

KBS headquarters in Seoul
KBS headquarters in Seoul

The KBS began as Keijo Broadcasting Station (경성방송국, 京城放送局) with call sign JODK, established by the Governor-General of Korea on 16 February 1927. It became the Chōsen Broadcasting Corporation (Japanese: 朝鮮放送協会, Hepburn: Chōsen Hōsō Kyōkai, RR: Joseon Bangsong Hyeobhoe) in 1932. This second radio station started using the call sign HLKA in 1947 after the Republic of Korea was granted the ITU prefix HL. After doing a national broadcast, the radio was renamed Seoul Central Broadcasting Station in 1948.

1950s–1960s – Move into television

Television broadcasts in South Korea began on 12 May 1956 with the first television station HLKZ-TV. After financial difficulties, it was acquired by KBS in 1961.

1970s – Expansion

KBS station status changed from government to broadcasting station on 3 March 1973. Construction of KBS headquarters in Yeouido started in 1976. In 1979 KBS radio began broadcasting on the FM band with the launch of KBS Stereo (now KBS 1FM).

1980s – Advertising started after controversial merger

KBS began accepting advertising in 1980, differing from the norm of advert-free broadcasting by public broadcasters, after the forced merger of several private broadcasters into KBS by the military government of Chun Doo-hwan (see Controversies).[1]

1990s – Spinoff of EBS

In 1981, KBS launched KBS 3TV and Educational FM and on 27 December 1990, the channels split from KBS to form the Educational Broadcasting System (EBS).

After a revision of the television licensing fee system in 1994, 1TV and Radio1 stopped broadcasting commercials.

2010s

After first broadcasting HD programmes in 2001, KBS completely transferred to digital broadcasting in 2012.

In March 2013, computer shutdowns hit South Korean television stations including the KBS.[2] The South Korean government asserted a North Korean link in the March cyberattacks, which has been denied by Pyongyang.[3]

In 2013, KBS World Radio commemorated its 60th anniversary, and KBS World TV celebrated 10 years of its foundation.

In 2014, KBS World 24 was launched, mainly for Koreans abroad.

In 2015, KBS was honored to have its archives of the KBS Special Live Broadcast, Finding Dispersed Families, inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World Register. This makes KBS only the world's second broadcaster to have a broadcast programme on the prestigious list.

The KBS network dedicated to deliver the exclusive Special Live Broadcast, Finding Dispersed Families, via its primary channel, KBS1. KBS News served as the program's producer. The program made its premiere telecast on 10:15 pm KST on 30 June 1983. After more than 6 months, the special live programme ended at 4 am on 14 November 1983. This marks a total duration of 453 hours and 45 minutes of live broadcast over the period of 138 days, aired nationwide on KBS1. The whole live broadcast was recorded. The KBS’ archives of Special Live Broadcast, Finding Dispersed Families include; 463 video tapes of the original recordings, and many kinds of associated materials, generated in the course of the extraordinary broadcast, such as the posters carrying the participating dispersed family members’ capsule stories, cue sheets, programming schedules, radio recording materials, and related photographs. A total of 20,522 such assorted materials have been preserved in the archives.[4] The program was the biggest public affairs program ever produced by KBS in the decade, and was the first to tackle the issue of families separated because of the long Korean War (1950-1953), which garnered even international coverage.

In 2017, KBS launched the world's first terrestrial UHD broadcasting service.

In 2018, KBS led the operation of the IBC (International Broadcasting Centre) inside the KINTEX (Korea International Exhibition Center), located in Goyang City, as Host Broadcaster for the April 2018 inter-Korean summit.[5] During the summit, KBS successfully delivered all the moments associated with the historic summit for more than 3,000 local and overseas media representatives, gathered at the IBC. Throughout the day of the summit, KBS delivered live coverage and the latest developments of the event through its continuous special news bulletins. Also, its prime-time news programmes, KBS News 9 and KBS Newsline provided audiences with highlights and implications of the historic summit through comprehensive and analytical reports. Also, KBS World TV delivered Live Coverage of April 2018 Inter-Korean summit with English subtitles for its audiences across 117 countries worldwide.

In 2019, as the public service broadcaster in South Korea, KBS undertook a major reform in its Disaster Broadcast System in order to provide exclusive emergency services for people in the country in times of emergency. To be headed by President and CEO of KBS, the renewed system will allow the use of maximum resources of the organization under emergency circumstances. Under the reform, KBS will focus on; swift and efficient emergency broadcast and coverage; to deliver essential information in innovative ways with the ultimate aim to minimise losses and damages; to strengthen its digital platforms to better serve a wide-ranging audience groups. In particular, KBS signed contracts with nine sign language interpreters in an effort to enhance broadcast services for audiences with disabilities. In addition, KBS is committed to improve its English subtitle services for people from overseas.

Structure

KBS Cool FM Radio studios
KBS Cool FM Radio studios
KBS regional broadcasting station in Changwon
KBS regional broadcasting station in Changwon

KBS is a public corporation (공사, 公社) funded by the South Korean government and license fees, but is managed independently. As part of the Constitution, the president of KBS is chosen by the President of South Korea, after being recommended by its board of directors. Political parties in South Korea also have the right to name members of the KBS board of directors.

Because of this system, which gives politicians effective control over choosing the president of KBS, as well as its board of directors, people who are critical of the system cite political intervention in KBS's governance as reason for revising the current system of recruiting.

In order to uphold and defend independence, KBS, since 2018, created a ‘Public Advisory Group’, as part of the selection process of new KBS President and CEO. New President and CEO of KBS is recommended by the KBS Board of Governors, once the selection process by the Group is completed. The Group examines Presidential candidates in the form of a presentation, a panel discussion, and an interview. New President and CEO of KBS will finally be appointed by the President of Republic of Korea, after going through the mandatory parliamentary audit by the National Assembly.

Around 49% of KBS' revenue comes from a mandatory television licence fee of 2,500 won, with another 18.7% coming from commercial advertisement sales.[6]

In addition to 18 regional stations and 12 overseas branches, there are eight subsidiary companies such as KBSN, KBS Business and KBS Media, which manage KBS content.

CEOs

Generation Name Start Retirement Note
1 Hong Kyung-mo February 1973 February 1979 N/A
2
3 Choi Se-kyung [ko] February 1979 July 1980
4 Lee Won-hong July 1980 February 1985
5
6 Park Hyun-tae February 1985 August 1986
7 Jung Koo-ho August 1986 November 1988
8 Seo Young-hoon [ko] November 1988 March 1990
9 Seo Ki-won [ko] April 1990 March 1993
10 Hong Doo-pyo [ko] March 1993 April 1998
11
12 Park Kwon-sang [ko] 20 April 1998 10 March 2003
13
14 Seo Dong-koo 22 March 2003 2 April 2003
15 Jung Yeon-joo [ko] 28 April 2003 11 August 2008 Dismissed
16
17
18 Lee Byung-soon [ko] 28 August 2008 23 November 2009 N/A
19 Kim In-kyoo [ko] 24 November 2009 23 November 2012
20 Kil Hwan-young [ko] 23 November 2012 10 June 2014 Dismissed after strike
21 Jo Dae-hyun [ko] 28 July 2014 23 November 2015 N/A
22 Ko Dae-young [ko] 24 November 2015 23 January 2018 Dismissed after strike
23 Yang Seung-dong 9 April 2018 23 November 2018 N/A
24 24 November 2018 Incumbent

Channels

Terrestrial television

KBS1 and KBS2 phased out analogue services on 31 December 2012 as part of the switchover to digital television.

Cable and satellite television

These six channels are carried by cable and satellite operators in South Korea. There are 100+ cable operators in South Korea, and Skylife is the sole satellite television service provider. These channels are managed and operated by KBS N, a subsidiary company of KBS.

KBS World

Main article: KBS World

KBS World is the international television and radio service of KBS. It was officially launched on 1 July 2003. It is broadcast on a 24-hour schedule with programs including news, sports, television dramas, entertainment, and children's. KBS World television is broadcast locally and around the world. As of July 2007, around 65% of its programs are broadcast with English subtitles, it is available in 32 countries, and reportedly more than 40 million households around the world can access KBS World.[citation needed] It has two overseas subsidiaries: KBS America and KBS Japan. KBS Japan is independently operated by a KBS subsidiary in Japan, and most programs are provided with Japanese subtitles.

KBS World television is a television channel that mainly broadcasts programs commissioned for KBS' 2 terrestrial networks: KBS1 and KBS2. KBS World television is distributed over several international communication and broadcasting satellites such as IS-19, IS-20, IS-21, Measat 3, Apstar 6 & 7, Eutelsat Hotbird 13A, Galaxy 11, 18 & 23, Badr 6, Vinasat 1, Palapa D, SES 7, Telkom 1, Thaicom 5, EchoStar 15, Anik F3. Local cable and/or satellite operators receive the signal from one of these satellite and carry the signal to end subscribers of their own networks. KBS doesn't allow individual viewer to receive the signal from IS-19, IS-20, IS-21, Measat 3, Asiasat 5, and Galaxy 18. The signal from Badr 6 and Eutelsat Hotbird 13A is Free-to-Air.

KBS World TV commenced its serve via YouTube in 2007. The YouTube subscribers reached 10 million in May 2019, and recorded 13.5 million in July 2020. KBS World TV is also available on various social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and LINE. Its social media surpassed 20 million subscribers in April 2020.

Radio

Programmes

Further information: List of programmes broadcast by the Korean Broadcasting System

Foreign partners

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Americas

Country Public television
Argentina Radio y Televisión Argentina
Bolivia Bolivia TV
Brazil Empresa Brasil de Comunicação
Canada Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Chile Televisión Nacional de Chile
Colombia RTVC Sistema de Medios Públicos
Costa Rica Trece Costa Rica Televisión
Cuba Cuban Institute of Radio and Television
Dominica Corporación Estatal de Radio y Televisión
Ecuador Medios Públicos EP
El Salvador TVES (El Salvador)
Honduras Televisión Nacional de Honduras
Mexico Sistema Público de Radiodifusión del Estado Mexicano
Nicaragua Sistema Nacional de Televisión
Paraguay Paraguay TV
Peru Instituto Nacional de Radio y Televisión del Perú
United States American Broadcasting Company, PBS
Uruguay Televisión Nacional Uruguay and TV Ciudad
Venezuela Bolivarian Communication and Information System

Europe

Country Public television
Belgium Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie
Finland Yle
France France Televisions
Germany ARD
Italy Radiotelevisione Italiana
Netherlands Nederlandse Publieke Omroep
Norway Norsk Rikskringkasting
Poland Telewizja Polska
Portugal Rádio e Televisão de Portugal
Russia VGTRK
Spain Televisión Española
Sweden Sveriges Television
Ukraine UA:PBC
United Kingdom BBC

Asia

Country Public television
Cambodia National Television of Kampuchea
China China Central Television
India Doordarshan
Indonesia Televisi Republik Indonesia
Japan Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai, Tokyo Broadcasting System
Malaysia Radio Televisyen Malaysia
Mongolia Mongolian National Broadcaster
Thailand National Broadcasting Services of Thailand
Taiwan Public Television Service
Turkey Turkish Radio and Television Corporation
Vietnam VTV

Oceania

Country Public television
Australia Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Special Broadcasting Service
New Zealand Television New Zealand

Operational status

Headquarters

KBS carried out a large-scale organizational reform on 1 March 2019. The focus of the reform is to; further strengthen the KBS’ capabilities of content creation; enhance the organization's digital work flow; and improve audience services. As part of the new strategy, KBS created Content Production 2 Division, a new integral body, responsible for a highly efficient operation of production, marketing, as well as content businesses. The new division ultimately aims to bring outstanding dramas and entertainment programming by boosting creative nature of the production function, and minimizing its decision-making process. [12]

The new reform strategy introduced Public Service Media Strategy team under Strategy and Planning Division. Public Service Media Strategy is mainly responsible for developing KBS’ digital strategies for different audiences to enjoy KBS content via assorted digital media platforms. The reform brought changes in Programming Division as Digital Media department has further expanded its roles under the division. Digital News department attached to News and Sports Division has also strengthened its functions in line with the recent reform initiative. Another significant change in the reform is that new ‘Audience Relations Center’ has become an executive department, to be operated directly by KBS President and CEO. The Audience Relations Center will dedicate its resources to further enhance audience services, and create more opportunities for audiences to take part in various initiatives developed by KBS. And Local Stations Management has been reorganized to be supervised under KBS Executive Vice President, as KBS has a plan to build a regional broadcasting system in response to a growing demand for greater regional autonomy.

Controversies

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KBS, as one of Korea's oldest broadcasters, had more controversies than SBS and MBC. It also earned nicknames such as Soonkyu Bangsong and The Department of Last Resort.

1980 – Forced merger of KBS with private broadcasters

During the Chun Doo-hwan regime of the eighties, the president passed a law to force several public broadcasters to merge with the public-run KBS. After these broadcasters had shown news stories against Chun, he used this law to stifle their criticism of him. It included:

Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) was also affected. MBC was, at first, a federation of 20 loosely affiliated member stations located in various parts of Korea. Although they shared much of their programming, each member station was privately owned. After the consolidation, however, affiliates were forced to give up a majority of shares to the MBC based in Seoul. MBC Seoul, in turn, was forced to give up their majority of its shares to KBS.[13]

Consequences

In 2009, president Lee Myung-bak said that the law was unconstitutional, and in 2011 TBC and DBS were revived as JTBC and Channel A respectively.

2011 – Wiretapping scandal at TV license fee meeting

In 2011, Sohn Hak-kyu, the chairman of the opposition Democratic Party, accused KBS of wiretapping the party's closed-door meeting on TV subscription charges.[15]

Sohn said, "We believe the firm bugged the meeting to secure information about our party's handling of the TV subscription policy. KBS should admit that it resorted to the deplorable method of gathering information."[citation needed]

The ruling Grand National Party initially sought to put a bill concerning the TV subscription charge to a vote. However, it failed to do so amid strong opposition from the Democrats.

The National Assembly's subcommittee on culture, tourism, broadcasting and communication, was scheduled to deliberate on 28 June 2011, but the meeting was cancelled due to the Democrats' protest.

The scandal erupted on 23 June when Han Sun-kyo, chairman of the parliamentary subcommittee, criticized the Democrats' opposition to increasing the TV subscription charge during a subcommittee meeting.

The GNP lawmakers eventually approved a bill raising the charge by 1,000 won to 3,500 won at a subcommittee meeting in the absence of Democrat lawmakers. That led to a Democrat boycott of a June extraordinary parliamentary session for half a day on 21 June 2011.

2011 – Praising Chinilpa

Bak Han-yong (박한용), head of the Institute for Research in Collaborationist Activities, criticized KBS for censoring negative remarks from a documentary about Chinilpa individuals, and Rhee Syngman, who had pardoned them.[16] This includes the Chinilpa Paik Sun-yup.[17]

2012 – KBS journalists strikes and Reset KBS News 9

The journalists working for KBS (along with MBC, SBS and YTN) have protested against the biased journalism practices that favor the Lee Myung-bak government.[18][19][20] The new union for KBS headed by Kim Hyeon-seok released a video clip "Reset KBS News 9" (리셋 KBS 뉴스9) on the internet that discusses the Prime Minister's Office Civilian Surveillance Incident and the controversial money-spending on renovating President Lee Myung-bak's alleged birth house on 13 March 2012.[21]

2013 – You Are The Best! name controversy

Further information: You Are the Best!

Global Youth League DN filed an injunction at Seoul Central District Court against KBS for using the name "Lee Soon-shin" in the title of the drama. The injunction requested KBS to (1) immediately stop the broadcast, (2) remove "Lee Soon-shin" from the title, and (3) change the name of one of its characters. The group claimed that historical figure Lee Soon-shin (or Yi Sun-sin), an admiral famed for his victories against the Japanese Navy in the Imjin War during the Joseon Dynasty, is an official national symbol whose status will "deteriorate" when associated with the "weak and clumsy" protagonist that lead actress IU plays.[22][23][24][25] KBS and production company AStory responded that they had no plans of changing the title or character name. Instead, they altered the original drama poster where several cast members are sitting on a pile of 100 won coins that have an image of Admiral Yi, by digitally replacing the coins with a plain gold platform.[26][27]

2014 – 1st KBS strike against pro-government bias of its president

In early May 2014, Gil Hwan-young removed the KBS news chief after alleged improper remarks over the sinking of the ferry Sewol. The chief then accused Gil of interference with news editing, with an alleged pro-government bias.

After the board postponed a decision on whether or not to dismiss Gil, two of the broadcaster's largest unions went on strike.

As a result of the boycott, most of the broadcaster's news output was affected. The hour-long KBS News 9 ran for just 20 minutes, and during local elections on 4 June 2014, KBS was unable to send reporters to interview candidates.

The strike ended after the board of directors voted to dismiss Gil. The board passed a motion on 5 June 2014 demanding the discharge of President Gil. The majority vote decision was sent to be approved by the country's president Park Geun-hye, who has the power to appoint the broadcaster's head.[28][29][30]

2017 – 2nd KBS strike against pro-government bias of its president

In August 2017, KBS union decided to hold a strike, which began on 4 September, due to allegedly influencing news coverage to be in favor of former president Park Geun-hye's administration.[31][32] As a result of the boycott, there has been a severe reduction in the airing of KBS news programs, culture programs, radio shows, and variety shows due to most staff members taking part in the strike.[33] After 141 days, the strike was over when the broadcasting company's board of directors approved the dismissal of KBS president Ko Dae-young.[34][35]

See also

References

  1. ^ 김, 세옥. ""Chun Doo-hwan new military department", media integration". 피디저널(PD저널).
  2. ^ Choe Sang-Hun, "Computer Networks in South Korea Are Paralyzed in Cyberattacks", The New York Times, 20 March 2013.
  3. ^ Lee Minji (10 April 2013). "(2nd LD) Gov't confirms Pyongyang link in March cyber attacks". Yonhap News.
  4. ^ "Finding Dispersed Families | The Archives of the KBS Special Live Broadcast". KBS. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  5. ^ Lim Jeong-yeo (26 April 2018). "[2018 Inter-Korean summit] Cheong Wa Dae shares live footage from press center for South-North summit". The Korea Herald.
  6. ^ ""2019 Korean Broadcasting System Annual Report"" (PDF).
  7. ^ a b "Channel Info". KBS English. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  8. ^ "Broadcasting Tests Begin for Ultra High Definition". KBS English. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  9. ^ "KBS Launches Children's Channel". Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union. 29 May 2012.
  10. ^ "Korea debuts cable channel dedicated to women". Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union. 25 January 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g "Channel Info". KBS English. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  12. ^ "About KBS - Organization Structure".
  13. ^ "Media Strike in Korea". Ask a Korean!. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  14. ^ Park, In-Kyu (2005). "Public service broadcasting in the market place: the BBC and KBS in the 1990s" (PDF). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ Se-jeong, Kim (1 July 2011). "DP leader hits KBS for alleged wiretapping". The Korea Times. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  16. ^ Cho (조), Hyeon-ho (현호) (7 June 2011). "KBS는 정권재창출 위한 독재자·친일파 방송". MediaToday (in Korean). Retrieved 23 June 2011.
  17. ^ Cho (조), Hyeon-ho (현호) (25 June 2011). "KBS 친일파를 영웅으로···시청자 '경악' "친일방송축하"". MediaToday (in Korean). Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  18. ^ "SKorea journalists protest alleged pro-gov't bias". Associated Press. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  19. ^ "Massive Media Strike in South Korea". Sampsonia Way. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  20. ^ "Special Show to Celebrate the Retirement of Parachute Executives". WORLDYAN NEWS. 19 March 2012. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  21. ^ Cho (조), Hyeon-ho (현호) (14 March 2012). 이명박 태어나지도 않은 생가에 혈세 펑펑. MediaToday (in Korean). Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  22. ^ Kim, Tong-hyung (12 March 2013). "Group protests IU's TV drama". The Korea Times. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  23. ^ Kim, Ji-yeon (12 March 2013). "Korean drama sued over title". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  24. ^ Lee, Sun-min (12 March 2013). "Group protests Lee Soon Shin drama". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  25. ^ Choi, Eun-hwa (12 March 2013). "You′re the Best Lee Soon Shin Gets KBS Involved in Another Title Controversy". enewsWorld. CJ E&M. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
  26. ^ '최고다이순신' 동전포스터, 어떻게 바뀌었나?. TV Report (in Korean). 18 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  27. ^ Lee, Sun-min (19 March 2013). "After outcry, KBS alters drama poster". Korea JoongAng Daily. Archived from the original on 24 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  28. ^ "KBS unions on strike demanding CEO's resignation". NHK. 29 May 2014. Archived from the original on 7 June 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  29. ^ "Boycott at KBS leads to shortening of programs". NHK. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  30. ^ "KBS board OKs dismissal of chief". NHK. Archived from the original on 7 June 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  31. ^ girlfriday. "KBS, MBC union workers go on strike, programs halt production". DramaBeans (30 August 2017). Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  32. ^ Qian. "MBC-KBS Media Strike: Once More, With Feeling". Seoul Beats (12 September 2017). Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  33. ^ Shin, Hyo-ryung (29 October 2017). "KBS 파업 '1박2일' 결방···'슈퍼맨이 돌아왔다'만 방송". Newsis (in Korean). Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  34. ^ Kim, Ka-young (22 January 2018). "KBS이사회, 고대영 사장 해임제청…총파업 141일 만". TV Report (in Korean). Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  35. ^ Kim, Mi-Ji (22 January 2018). "[공식입장] KBS 총파업 141일 만에 고대영 사장 퇴출…노조 "우리가 이겼다"". Xsport News (in Korean). Retrieved 22 January 2018.

Coordinates: 37°31′31″N 126°54′59″E / 37.52538°N 126.916361°E / 37.52538; 126.916361