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Television Broadcasts Limited
Native name
電視廣播有限公司
Company typePublic
SEHK511
IndustryTelevision broadcasting; media and entertainment
Founded19 November 1967; 56 years ago (1967-11-19) in Broadcast Drive, Kowloon Tong, British Hong Kong
Headquarters77 Chun Choi Street,
Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate, New Territories, Hong Kong
Area served
Cantonese Language Markets (Worldwide)
Key people
ProductsTVB Jade, TVB Pearl, TVB Anywhere, MyTV Super, TVBS, TVBNews, TVB.com, TVB Publishing, TVBUSA, TVB8, TVB.cn
RevenueHK$2.5 billion (2022)
-HK$0.8 billion (2022)
Number of employees
3,200 (2023)
ParentClear Water Bay Land Company Limited
Websitewww.tvb.com
TVB
Traditional Chinese電視廣播有限公司
Simplified Chinese电视广播有限公司

Television Broadcasts Limited (TVB) is a television broadcasting company based in Hong Kong. The company operates five free-to-air terrestrial television channels in Hong Kong, with TVB Jade as its main Cantonese language service, and TVB Pearl as its main English service. TVB is headquartered at TVB City at the Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate.

TVB commenced broadcasting on November 19, 1967. The company was incorporated on July 26, 1965[1] and was co-founded by Sir Run Run Shaw, who was chairman from 1980 to 2012, together with Sir Douglas Clague and Harold Lee Hsiao-wo of the Lee Hysan family.[2] When TVB first began broadcasting it was commonly known and promoted as "Wireless Television" (無綫電視) in Chinese to distinguish it from the then cable television broadcaster, Rediffusion Television (麗的呼聲), which later became ATV (亞洲電視). It is still usually referred to with that name, although ATV later switched to "wireless" (free-to-air) broadcasting as well.

TVB is known primarily for its dramas, and produces the Miss Hong Kong and Miss Chinese International pageants. It has historically been the leading television broadcaster in Hong Kong.[3][4][5]

History

The main TVB transmitter at Temple Hill. TVB was Hong Kong's first "wireless", or free-to-air television station.

Origins

The government set up a working party in the early 1960s to study the idea of setting up a second television station in Hong Kong, where the only television at that time was the wired, subscription-supported Rediffusion Television. There was debate as to whether the second station should be set up as a Crown corporation, like the BBC; a purely commercial enterprise; or a combination of the two. Another challenge lay in procuring enough content for the new station. In 1962, Director of Information Services J. L. Murray stated that while English programming could be purchased from other countries, "no country is producing a mass of suitable pre-recorded material in Chinese". Even though Hong Kong was already regarded as a centre for film production, it was considered a challenge to source enough Chinese-language content for another television station, as most of it would need to be produced in Hong Kong.[6]

Regardless, there was commercial interest in the concept. A government franchise for a new wireless (free-to-air) television station was opened for tenders on 6 February 1965 and closed on 6 August 1965. On 25 January 1966 it was announced that Television Broadcasts Limited had won the franchise.[7]

Opening

The new Television Broadcasts Limited station at 77 Broadcast Drive in Kowloon Tong, Kowloon was officially opened by Governor David Trench on 19 November 1967. The governor spoke of the potential for television to better society, stating that the new station would play a significant role in "helping and enlighting our people", calling television "one of the most potent means of disseminating information there is".[8]

The first images shown on the station were a live transmission of the Macau Grand Prix, which began broadcasting at 9:00 am that day and was interrupted by footage of the opening of the new station. The first colour broadcast was then made, a feature called "London Calling Hongkong" which constituted greetings from former governors Alexander Grantham and Robert Black. Following this was a piano recital by Chiu Yee-ha, who had also performed at the opening of the Hong Kong City Hall.[8]

The new station broadcast both Cantonese-language and English-language channels. The Cantonese channel, called TVB Jade, began regular service on 4:30 pm that day on Channel 21, while the English service (TVB Pearl) began at 6:00 pm on Channel 25.[9] The inaugural programming lineup included Enjoy Yourself Tonight, a Chinese language variety show, and Meet The Press, an English current affairs programme.[8]

Infrastructure development

Hong Kong's mountainous topography posed a challenge to TVB, which was Hong Kong's first television station broadcast wirelessly, using a terrestrial television transmitter instead of a complex coaxial cable network. A network of transmitters, built atop various mountains, helped provide coverage to the territory. The main transmitter was built at Temple Hill, above Kowloon, to reach most of the main populated centre of Hong Kong as well as parts of the New Territories.[10] Two broadcast relay stations were came into operation on 15 May 1968: one at Lamma Island expanded coverage to Pok Fu Lam, Aberdeen, Repulse Bay, and parts of Stanley, while another at Castle Peak covered Tuen Mun, Yuen Long, and Ping Shan.[11]

A third booster station, located on Cloudy Hill, was activated in June 1968 and brought TVB reception to Fanling, Taipo, and Sheung Shui.[12]

Development

Location

TVB Clear Water Bay headquarters in 2002

TVB was originally located on Broadcast Drive in Kowloon Tong, and was neighbours with RTHK and ATV. By the late 1980s, the company had out-grown the facility at Broadcast Drive, and built a new studio complex, named T.V. City, at 220 Clear Water Bay Road in November 1988.[17] The first TVB City was in fact the old Shaw Movie Town complex used by Shaw Brothers since 1958. The old Broadcast Drive headquarters was later converted into apartments. The first TVB City is now used by Celestial Pictures.

To cope with future development and expansion, TVB began planning in 1998 to develop a replacement facility at the Tseung Kwan O Industrial Estate. The new HK$2.2 billion TVB City came into full operation in October 2003. The new headquarters are built on by far the largest piece of land ever leased by the then Hong Kong Industrial Estates Corporation and the first service-providing company in the area. It has a building area of over 110,000 square metres, 30% more than that of the previous facilities at Clear Water Bay. Studio 1 in TVB City, which can seat an audience of six hundred and thirty, is the largest television production studio among commercial television stations in Asia.[18]

News operation

Main article: TVB News

TVB broadcasts several news programmes, such as News at 6:30 (Jade) and News at 7:30 (Pearl). It also operates its own news channel, TVBN. (Chinese: TVB新聞台; Jyutping: TVB san1 man4 toi4) and TVBN2 (Chinese: TVB新聞2台; Jyutping: TVB san1 man4 ji6 toi4), through TVB Network Vision (Chinese: 無綫網絡電視; Jyutping: mou4 sin3 mong5 lok3 din6 si6).

Notable shows from TVB

Main article: List of television programmes broadcast by TVB

Corruption probe

Main article: 2010 TVB corruption scandal

On 11 March 2010, the general manager Stephen Chan Chi Wan and four others were arrested on corruption charges by the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC). TVB confirmed that three of their employees were involved, and that their duties and work had been suspended pending further development. Stephen Chan Chi Wan was charged with corruption in September 2010 with TVB declining to comment on the situation.[19] Stephen Chan and his co-accused were acquitted by a court in September 2011.[20]

Controversy and criticism

Since the 4 June rally in 2000, TVB has been increasingly criticised for its pro-China bias. Netizens of HKGolden and LIHKG have called it "CCTVB", as a reference to China's state-controlled broadcaster CCTV.[21][22]

During the 2014 and 2019–20 Hong Kong protests, TVB's programmes, most especially its news reports were accused of providing biased coverage of the protests, with a pro-China slant.[23] As a result of public boycotts, numerous brands officially pulled out of advertising contracts with TVB, including Pocari Sweat[24][25] and Pizza Hut.[26]

A group of TVB shareholders issued a public letter addressed to the board of directors of TVB in 2023, accusing TVB of misleading its shareholders on the official name of the company that holds executive power; investment failure in SMI and State Reserve Energy Bonds, which resulted in a loss of $HK1bn for the company. It also questioned the company’s investment on its eCommerce platform "Ztore" as the online platform requires improvement and investment in logistics and warehouse, "Sales of ‘Ztore’ increased as it placed a lot of ads on TVB, however this might result in huge loss for TVB.[27]

Decline

On 29 June 2018, the South China Morning Post quoted insider information that TVBI and the Broadcast Operation Department had laid off 100 people for two consecutive days. By July, a cutdown by 30 in the sports department was announced, leaving only 5 people. The long-established show "Sports World" aired its final episode on 7 July 2018. myTV SUPER sports channel will end on 15 August. By July, the "Hong Kong Animation Information Network" Facebook page stated that the dubbing group of about 70 people had been cut to 4, and there would be large-scale layoffs. Netizens expressed anger at this.

TVB's general manager Shin Keong Cheong said he did not renew his contract and denied the layoffs. By August, in the interim results of TV broadcasting, the print version of TVB Weekly had been suspended and switched to an online version. The TVB8 and TVB Galaxy websites serving overseas ceased service in September 2018. MyTV Super's TVB Sports Channel and live news station had also stopped broadcasting with the TVB Travel Channel. It is reported that TVB will lay off 800 people. On 5 October, the same year, TVB announced the reduction of about 150 employees from TVB Weekly, the Production Coordination Department, the Arts Division and non-drama productions, which took effect on the same day. The layoffs included at least one producer and two directors of "Pleasure & Leisure".

In December 2019, Pro-government broadsheet Sing Tao Daily reported that TVB's current chairman, Charles Chan, is about to withdraw from his shares and intends to resign as chairman to leave TV Broadcasting Co., Ltd. On 16 December, chief executive Mark Lee issued an internal notice stating that about 350 employees would be cut, accounting for about 10% of the company's remaining employees. Following this, on 20 December, more than 50 behind-the-scenes staff members were fired, most of them from the variety show and the information, cultural and educational departments. On 20 January 2020, Charles Chan finally resigned as the chairman of the TVB board and as a non-executive director, and will sell all television broadcasting shares.

In 2023, a survey by The Communications Authority showed that some viewers said TVB's reality shows kept up with the current trend and the content was interesting, some said that its dramas and variety shows were repetitive in content, lacking creativity and were not appealing to viewers. In addition, some said there were too many programmes on Greater Bay Area (GBA) which were boring. Some audience was annoyed by the excessive use of product placements in programmes like "Scoop" (東張西望) and "Come Home Love: Lo And Behold" (愛·回家之開心速遞). Indirect advertising of "Big Big Shop" was also considered excessive. There were also views concerning TVB often broadcast programmes with political stances, advertised products of companies in which TVB had an interest and made use of its TV platform for marketing. There was also suggestion that TVB News Channel should be terminated.[28]

Channel list

Hong Kong Free-to-air

MyTV SUPER

TVB Network Vision ceased its service since 1 June 2017,[29] and the OTT platform named MyTV SUPER (expanded from MyTV and GOTV) replace TVB Network Vision to provide the paid television service. In addition, the company name of "TVB Network Vision" became "Big Big Channel".

International

Malaysia

Co-owned with Astro:

Thailand

Cambodia

See also

References

  1. ^ C.R. No:0011781(Television Broadcasts Limited)—The Cyber Search Centre of the Integrated Companies Registry Information System
  2. ^ "When Hong Kong was a colour TV pioneer, 26 November 2016, Post Magazine". 26 November 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  3. ^ Chow, Vivienne (29 March 2015). "Wong Ching, the leading man in ATV's sorry drama". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  4. ^ "Farewell ATV as its survival fight ends". The Standard. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  5. ^ "ATV, World's Oldest Chinese TV Channel, Closes Down". Variety. 2 April 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  6. ^ "Possibility of new T.V. station in Hongkong". South China Morning Post. 7 June 1962. p. 1.
  7. ^ "Wireless TV franchise". South China Morning Post. 26 January 1966. p. 1.
  8. ^ a b c "Governor opens television station: Stresses importance of enlightening people". South China Morning Post. 20 November 1967. p. 6.
  9. ^ "Gift for first baby born on Sunday". South China Morning Post. 15 November 1967. p. 7.
  10. ^ "HK-TVB building booster transmitters". South China Morning Post. 16 February 1968. p. 7.
  11. ^ "Wide coverage of HK-TVB's translators". South China Morning Post. 29 June 1968. p. 16.
  12. ^ "New translator station". South China Morning Post. 4 June 1968. p. 5.
  13. ^ "Stars arrested over 'rigged' awards". BBC. 17 July 2003. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
  14. ^ "舞影行動終止 何麗全曾國強陳家倫慶清白" (in Chinese). 金羊網. 21 January 2005. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
  15. ^ "NAB International Broadcasting Excellence Award". National Association of Broadcasters. Archived from the original on 8 November 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2008.
  16. ^ Chinese Channel Home Page
  17. ^ [ShawMovieTown Shaw Brothers History]
  18. ^ "Grand Opening of Television Broadcasts Limited's TVB City A Significant Milestone of the Broadcasting and Production Industry in Hong Kong". TVB. 10 December 2003. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
  19. ^ MAK, Adrian Yau Kee (11 March 2010). "Announcement" (PDF). Television Broadcasts Limited. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 November 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  20. ^ "TVB boss cleared in corruption case". RTHK. 2 September 2011. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  21. ^ "反送中》親中港媒TVB堅稱立場中立 員工:火上加油 - 國際 - 自由時報電子報". 自由電子報 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 15 July 2019. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  22. ^ 黃梓恒 (12 June 2019). "【逃犯條例】宋芝齡為警察喝采 跟網民罵戰:你點知我睇緊CCTVB". 香港01 (in Chinese (Hong Kong)). Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  23. ^ Hong, Jinshan (10 July 2019). "Hong Kong Broadcaster Accused of Pro-Beijing Protests Coverage". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  24. ^ Yuen, Simon (10 July 2019). "Brands withdraw ads from TVB in possible reaction to HK extradition bill coverage". Marketing Interactive. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  25. ^ "Taking sides in Hong Kong's protests presents opportunities for firms, Taking sides in Hong Kong's protests presents opportunities for firms". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  26. ^ "Pocari Sweat among advertisers ditching Hong Kong's TVB over claims of biased coverage". South China Morning Post. 10 July 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  27. ^ "TVB defends itself against accusations of mismanagement and indebtedness". Marketing-Interactive. 31 January 2023. Retrieved 22 February 2023.
  28. ^ "Survey: HK viewers slam TVB for lacking creativity in programmes, excessive boy groups exposure on ViuTV". Marketing-Interactive. 20 February 2023. Retrieved 22 February 2023.
  29. ^ "TVB NETWORK VISION". www.tvbnetworkvision.com. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  30. ^ "New TVB Magic channel (Ch 124) launch on Astro" (Press release). 14 June 2023. Retrieved 19 June 2023.