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Independent Television Authority
Independent Television Authority logo 1972.png
ITA logo 1969–1972
Agency overview
Formed1954
Superseding agency
HeadquartersUnited Kingdom

The Independent Television Authority (ITA) was an agency created by the Television Act 1954 to supervise the creation of "Independent Television" (ITV), the first commercial television network in the United Kingdom. The ITA existed from 1954 until 1972. It was responsible for determining the location, constructing, building, and operating the transmission stations used by the ITV network, as well as determining the franchise areas and awarding the franchises for each regional commercial broadcaster. The Authority began its operations on 4 August 1954, a mere four days after the Television Act received Royal Assent, under the Chairmanship of Sir Kenneth Clark. The Authority's first Director General, Sir Robert Fraser was appointed by Clark a month later on 14 September.

The physics of VHF broadcasting meant that a comparatively small number of transmitters could cover the majority of the population of Britain, if not the bulk of the area of the country. The ITA determined that the first three franchise areas would cover the London area, the English Midlands, and the North of England (the Lancashire/Yorkshire belt of industrial cities from Liverpool to Hull and the surrounding countryside). All three franchise areas would be awarded on a divided weekday/weekend basis, and it was planned that the franchise holders for these areas would produce the great bulk of network programmes, while the companies given the smaller franchises would produce mainly local programmes for their area only.

Franchises

The ITA awarded franchises to applicant companies, selecting between applicants on the basis of the financial soundness and structure of the company, the proposals for the service to be offered, and often on connections between the applicant company and the area to be served.

Franchises were awarded initially between 1954 and 1961, with the new television stations usually beginning their broadcasting one-to-two years later. During September 1963 the ITA invited new applications for franchises to operate from July 1964 for three years or until the arrival of a second commercial channel, whichever came first, but in fact no changes were made to any franchise holders at that time, except for confirming the merger of the South Wales and the West franchise held by TWW and the Wales West and North franchise held by WWN following the financial collapse of WWN. (In the event, a second commercial channel did not begin until 1982, under the guise of Channel 4.)

Initial franchises awarded in 1954

In January 1955 the ITA authorised the creation of ITN (Independent Television News), a company owned and operated by the ITV companies collectively, to provide a news service for the new network.

On 22 September 1955 the ITV service opened in the London area, where the ITA transmitter could reach a population of nearly 12 million. The first commercial on British television was for "Gibbs SR" toothpaste.

Franchises awarded in 1956

Franchises awarded in 1957

Franchises awarded in 1958

Franchise awarded in 1959

Franchises awarded in 1960

Franchise awarded in 1961

When WWN went on the air on 14 September 1962, the ITV Network was completed. However, due to the late commissioning of two of WWN's three transmitters, the company never received more than half the projected income and the company failed in January 1964; the two Welsh franchises were consequently merged, with TWW broadcasting to the whole of Wales.

Franchise review 1967

The 1967 franchise review involved substantial changes:

The 1967 franchises were subsequently extended in stages to expire in 1976, then 1979, and finally to expire on 31 December 1981. See the entry for the IBA for details of the 1981 and 1991–2 franchise rounds.

Changes from 1972

The Sound Broadcasting Act 1972 gave the ITA responsibility for organising commercial radio in the UK, and reconstituted the ITA as the Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA) with effect from Wednesday 12 July 1972. The IBA was subsequently replaced by the Independent Television Commission (ITC) and the Radio Authority under the provisions of the Broadcasting Act 1990, which themselves were replaced by the Office of Communications (Ofcom) at the end of 2003.

Chairman

Status
  Denotes Acting Chairman
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Honour(s) Prime Minister Monarch
(Reign)
Sir Kenneth Clark
(1903–1983)
4 August 1954 31 August 1957 Baron Clark for life in 1969 Winston Churchill Queen Elizabeth II
(1952–present)
Anthony Eden
Harold Macmillan
No image.svg
Sir Ronald Matthews 1 September 1957 6 December 1957
The Inter-allied Control Commission in Germany, 1944 TR2528.jpg
Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick
(1897–1964)
7 November 1957 6 November 1962
No image.svg
Sir John Carmichael 7 November 1962 30 June 1963
The Baron Hill of Luton
(1904–1989)
1 July 1963 30 August 1967
Sir Alec Douglas-Home
Harold Wilson
The Baron Aylestone
(1905–1994)
1 September 1967 11 July 1972
Edward Heath

[1]

See also

References

Communications regulation and maintenance Regulation of ITV 4 August 1954 – 11 July 1972 Succeeded byIndependent Broadcasting Authority Maintenance of ITV Transmitters 4 August 1954 – 11 July 1972