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Independent Television Commission
AbbreviationITC
SuccessorOfcom
Formation1 January 1991
TypeStatutory corporation
Legal statusCreated by Broadcasting Act 1990
PurposeRegulator and competition authority for broadcasting, telecommunications and radiocommunications spectrum
HeadquartersLondon, England
Location
Region served
United Kingdom
Official language
English, Welsh

The Independent Television Commission (ITC) licensed and regulated commercial television services in the United Kingdom (except S4C in Wales) between 1 January 1991 and 28 December 2003.

History

ITC's former headquarters, now occupied by Ofcom (note the former IBA signage was removed).
ITC's former headquarters, now occupied by Ofcom (note the former IBA signage was removed).

The creation of ITC, by the Broadcasting Act 1990 to replace the television regulation functions of the Independent Broadcasting Authority (formed by the Sound Broadcasting Act 1972) and Cable Authority. From 1 January 1991 it regulated the existing ITV network. The 1990 Act also established the Channel Four Television Corporation to run Channel 4, regulated by the ITC. There was no fanfare, as control was passed from Channel Four Television Company Limited.

Activities

The establishing Act required the auction of Channel 3 licences for the fifteen ITV regions[1] and nationwide breakfast time. Most of the Channel 3 licences were awarded to the incumbent ITV companies; however there were some controversial decisions:

On 1 January 1993 these new arrangements came into force, and the ITC began its job of 'light-touch regulation'. During this time, the ITC regulated the Channel 3 system as well as Channel 4. It issued licences to new satellite broadcasters and awarded the Channel 5 licence in the mid-1990s. It also regulated cable TV.

In the early 2000s, the British government, in a white paper, declared its intention to merge the ITC with the Radio Authority, Office of Telecommunications, and Radiocommunications Agency. This merger, under the Communications Act 2003, took effect on 29 December 2003. Most powers of the ITC are now exercised by the Office of Communications (Ofcom), making some powers – and the ITC itself – defunct. At this point, technical standards regulation, previously carried out in accordance with the IBA engineering "Code of Practice", seems to have disappeared from the regulatory landscape.

The ITC's co-regulators and origins

Timeline of communications regulators (1953–present)

OfcomBBC TrustBoard of Governors of the BBCWelsh Fourth Channel AuthorityOfcomRadiocommunications AgencyHome OfficeMinistry of Posts and TelecommunicationsGeneral Post Office (United Kingdom)OfcomBroadcasting Standards CommissionOfcomATVODOfcomCable AuthorityOfcomIndependent Broadcasting AuthorityOfcomOfcomIndependent Broadcasting AuthorityOfcomIndependent Broadcasting AuthorityIndependent Television AuthorityOfcomRadio AuthorityIndependent Broadcasting AuthorityArqivaIndependent Broadcasting AuthorityIndependent Television AuthorityVideo-on-demandIndependent Local Radio

* Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications [1]

Alongside the ITC, two other independent bodies also dealt with complaints: the Broadcasting Complaints Commission dealt with injustices against individuals, whereas the Broadcasting Standards Council dealt with complaints about the moral content of programs, with no redress for individuals.

Historically, all of independent television (from 22 September 1955) and radio (from 8 October 1973) was governed by the IBA (Independent Broadcasting Authority) – joined by the Cable Authority in 1984. On 1 July 1985, the Home Secretary asked the IBA to review prospects for commercial DBS.

In 1988, the Broadcasting Standards Council was set up to monitor 'taste and decency' on television. In 1990, large-scale changes brought about the Radio Authority, the privatization of the IBA's engineering division as NTL, and formation of the Independent Television Commission.

Since its formation, the BBC has been primarily responsible for its own governance - initially through the Corporation's Board of Governors and since 1 January 2007 through the BBC Trust.

Communications regulation Preceded byIndependent Broadcasting Authority Regulation of ITV 1 January 1991 – 28 December 2003 Succeeded byOfcom Regulation of Channel 4 1 January 1991 – 28 December 2003 Regulation of Satellite Television 1 January 1991 – 28 December 2003 Preceded byCable Authority Regulation of Cable Television 1 January 1991 – 28 December 2003 New creation Regulation of Channel 5 30 March 1997 – 28 December 2003

See also

References