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Jyutping
Jyutping Romanization
Traditional Chinese粵拼
Simplified Chinese粤拼
JyutpingJyut6ping3
Cantonese YaleYuhtping
Literal meaningYue (i.e. Cantonese) spelling
This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong Cantonese Romanization Scheme. The LSHK advocates for and promotes the use of this romanisation system.

The name Jyutping (itself the Jyutping romanisation of its Chinese name, 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms Jyut6jyu5 (粵語, meaning "Yue language") and ping3jam1 (拼音 "phonetic alphabet", also pronounced as "pinyin" in Mandarin).

History

The Jyutping system[1] marks a departure from all previous Cantonese romanisation systems (approximately 12, including Robert Morrison's pioneering work of 1828, and the widely used Standard Romanization, Yale and Sidney Lau systems) by introducing z and c initials and the use of eo and oe in finals, as well as replacing the initial y, used in all previous systems, with j.[2]

In 2018, the Jyutping system was updated to include the -a and -oet finals, to reflect syllables recognized to be part of Cantonese phonology in 1997 by the Jyutping Work Group of the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong.[3]

Initials

b
/p/
p
/pʰ/
m
/m/
f
/f/
d
/t/
t
/tʰ/
n
/n/
l
/l/
g
/k/
k
/kʰ/
ng
/ŋ/
h
/h/
gw
/kʷ/
kw
/kʷʰ/
w
/w/
z
/ts/
c
/tsʰ/
s
/s/
j
/j/

Finals

aa
/aː/
aai
/aːi̯/
aau
/aːu̯/
aam
/aːm/
aan
/aːn/
aang
/aːŋ/
aap
/aːp̚/
aat
/aːt̚/
aak
/aːk̚/
a
/ɐ/
[1]
ai
/ɐi̯/
西
au
/ɐu̯/
am
/ɐm/
an
/ɐn/
ang
/ɐŋ/
ap
/ɐp̚/
at
/ɐt̚/
ak
/ɐk̚/
e
/ɛː/
ei
/ei̯/
eu
/ɛːu̯/
[2]
em
/ɛːm/
[3]
  eng
/ɛːŋ/
ep
/ɛːp̚/
[4]
  ek
/ɛːk̚/
i
/iː/
  iu
/iːu̯/
im
/iːm/
in
/iːn/
ing
/ɪŋ/
ip
/iːp̚/
it
/iːt̚/
ik
/ɪk/
o
/ɔː/
oi
/ɔːy̯/
ou
/ou̯/
  on
/ɔːn/
ong
/ɔːŋ/
  ot
/ɔːt̚/
ok
/ɔːk̚/
u
/uː/
ui
/uːy̯/
    un
/uːn/
ung
/ʊŋ/
  ut
/uːt̚/
uk
/ʊk/
  eoi
/ɵy̯/
    eon
/ɵn/
    eot
/ɵt̚/
 
oe
/œː/
        oeng
/œːŋ/
  oet
/œːt̚/
[5]
oek
/œːk̚/
yu
/yː/
      yun
/yːn/
    yut
/yːt̚/
 
      m
/m̩/
  ng
/ŋ̩/
     

Tones

Main article: Cantonese phonology § Tones

There are nine tones in six distinct tone contours in Cantonese. However, as three of the nine are entering tones (Chinese: 入聲; Jyutping: jap6sing1), which only appear in syllables ending with p, t, and k, they do not have separate tone numbers in Jyutping (though they do in Cantonese Pinyin; these are shown in parentheses in the table below). A mnemonic which some use to remember this is 「風水到時我哋必發達」or “Feng Shui [dictates that] we will be lucky.”

Tone name jam1ping4
(陰平)
jam1soeng5
(陰上)
jam1heoi3
(陰去)
joeng4ping4
(陽平)
joeng4soeng5
(陽上)
joeng4heoi3
(陽去)
gou1jam1jap6
(高陰入)
dai1jam1jap6
(低陰入)
joeng4jap6
(陽入)
Tone number 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 (7) 3 (8) 6 (9)
The tone name in English high level or high falling mid rising mid level low falling low rising low level entering high level entering mid level entering low level
Contour[4] ˥ 55 / ˥˧ 53 ˧˥ 35 ˧ 33 ˨˩ 21 / ˩ 11 ˩˧ 13 ˨ 22 ˥ 5 ˧ 3 ˨ 2
Character example 分/詩 粉/史 訓/試 焚/時 奮/市 份/是 忽/識 發/錫 佛/食
Example fan1/si1 fan2/si2 fan3/si3 fan4/si4 fan5/si5 fan6/si6 fat1/7/sik1/7 faat3/8/sek3/8 fat6/9/sik6/9

Comparison with Yale romanisation

Jyutping and the Yale Romanisation of Cantonese represent Cantonese pronunciations with the same letters in:

But they differ in the following:

Comparison with Cantonese pinyin

Jyutping and Cantonese Pinyin represent Cantonese pronunciations with the same letters in:

But they have some differences:

Examples

Traditional Simplified Romanization
廣州話 广州话 Gwong2 zau1 waa2
粵語 粤语 Jyut6 jyu5
你好 你好 nei5 hou2

Sample transcription of one of the 300 Tang Poems:

春曉
孟浩然
Ceon1 Hiu2
Maang6 Hou6 Jin4
春眠不覺曉, Ceon1 min4 bat1 gok3 hiu2,
處處聞啼鳥。 cyu3 cyu3 man4 tai4 niu5.
夜來風雨聲, Je6 loi4 fung1 jyu5 sing1,
花落知多少? faa1 lok6 zi1 do1 siu2?

Jyutping input method

The Jyutping method (Chinese: 粵拼輸入法) refers to a family of input methods based on the Jyutping romanization system.

The Jyutping method allows a user to input Chinese characters by entering the jyutping of a Chinese character (with or without tone, depending on the system) and then presenting the user with a list of possible characters with that pronunciation.

List of Jyutping keyboard input utilities

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "The Jyutping Scheme". The Linguistic Society of Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 26 April 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  2. ^ Kataoka, Shin; Lee, Cream (2008). "A System without a System: Cantonese Romanization Used in Hong Kong Place and Personal Names". Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics: 94–98.
  3. ^ a b LSHK (2018-12-01). "Updates of the Jyutping Romanization System(粵拼系統的修訂)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-12-16. Retrieved 2019-12-16.
  4. ^ Matthews, S.; Yip, V. Cantonese: A Comprehensive Grammar; London: Routledge, 1994
  5. ^ FAQ: How to select Cantonese Phonetic IME (CPIME) in Windows 10

Further reading