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Wu Chinese has three major schools of romanization.

The most popular school, Common Wu Pinyin (通用吴语拼音), was developed by amateur language clubs and local learners. There are two competing schemes; both adhere to the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and are very similar to each other. The initial scheme was "Wu Chinese Society pinyin" (吴语协会拼音, developed around 2005)[1] and it formed the basis of "Wugniu pinyin" (吴语学堂拼音, around 2016).[2]The name "Wugniu" comes from the Shanghainese pronunciation of 吴语. Either of them is the default romanization scheme in most learning materials.

The second school is the Latin Phonetic Method (吴语拉丁式注音法, French-Wu or Fawu [法吴]). Its use is in decline. It utilizes the similarities between French and Wu phonetics and thus adheres to both IPA and French orthography. It was developed in 2003 by a Shanghai-born surgeon based in Lyon, France.[3][4]

The final, and least used school, adheres to Mandarin-Putonghua pinyin as sanctioned by the State Council. It is the only school developed by professional linguists, mostly working in state-administered universities. While more than 20 competing schemes within this school have been published since the 1980s, the most notable one is the Shanghainese Pinyin (上海话拼音方案, often shortened to Qian's Pin [钱拼]), developed by Qian Nairong in 2006.[5]

Comparison chart

All examples are given in Shanghainese and Suzhounese

Initials

IPA Romanization schemes Characters
Wu Chinese Society Wugniu French-Wu Qian's Pinyin
p p p p b 巴百
ph ph ph p 怕捧
b b b b bh 旁别
m m m m mh 没母
ˀm 'm m mh m 闷美
f f f f f 夫反
v v v v fh 佛犯
ˀv v v vh v [6]
t t t t d 多德
th th th t 体通
d d d d dh 地同
n n n n nh, -n 纳努
ˀn 'n n nh ng 囡呢
ȵ[7] ny gn gn nh 尼女
ˀȵ 'ny gn kn n 研妞
l l l l lh 勒路
ˀl 'l l lh l 拎了
ts ts ts tz z 子张
tsʰ tsh tsh ts c 超参
s s s s s 书三
z z z z sh 传食
c c c j 居尖
tɕʰ ch ch ch q 曲青
j j dj jh 求极
ɕ sh sh x x 需血
ʑ zh zh j xh 谢墙
k k k k g 工各
kh kh kh k 苦客
ɡ g g g gh 共搞
ŋ ng ng ng nhg-, -ng 鹅牙
ˀŋ ng ng nk ng 我砑
h h h h h 好黑
ɦ gh / w / y[8] gh / w / y[8] r hh 红合

Finals

Shanghainese IPA Suzhounese IPA[9] Romanization schemes Characters
Wu Chinese Society Wugniu French-Wu Qian's Pinyin
a ɑ a a a a
ua ua ua ua ua
ia ia ia ia ia
o o o o au o
io io io io iau io
ɿ[7] ɿ y y y y
ɿ ʮ[7] yu yu y y
i i i i i i
u u u u u u
u əu ou ou u u
y y iu iu ü (y)u
ɛ ɛ ae ae e ae
e ɛ e e e e
uae uae ue ue
ɔ æ au au o ao
iau iau io iao
ɤ øʏ eu eu oe ou
iøʏ ieu ieu ioe iou
i ie ie i i
ø ø oe oe eu oe
uoe uoe ueu uoe
ioe ioe ieu ioe
ã ã an an aen an
uan uan uaen uan
ian ian iaen ian
ɑ̃ ɑ̃ aon aon an ang
uɑ̃ uɑ̃ uaon uaon uan uang
iɑ̃ iɑ̃ iaon iaon ian iang
on on on ong
ioŋ ioŋ ion ion ion iong
ən ən en en en eng
uən uən uen uen uen ueng
in in in in in in
yn yn iuin iun ün (y)un
ɐʔ aeh aeq aq ak
uɐʔ uaʔ uaeh uaeq uaq uak
iɐʔ iaʔ iaeh iaeq iaq iak
yɪʔ yaʔ iuaeh iuaeq uiq yuik
ɐʔ ɑʔ ah aq aq ak
uɐʔ uɑʔ uah uaq uaq uak
iɐʔ iɑʔ iah iaq iaq iak
əʔ əʔ eh eq eq ek
uəʔ uəʔ ueh ueq ueq uek
iɪʔ iəʔ ih iq iq ik
yɪʔ yəʔ iuih iuq uiq yuik
oh oq oq ok
ioʔ ioʔ ioh ioq ioq iok
əl ɚ r er er er
m m m m
n n n n
ŋ̍ ŋ̍ ng ng ng ng

Tones

Shanghainese IPA Suzhounese IPA[9] Wenzhounese IPA Romanization schemes Characters
Wu Chinese Society Wugniu French-Wu Qian's Pinyin
˥˧(53) ˥(44) ˧(33) 1 天听知
- ˨˨˦(223) ˨˧(23) 2 人华词
- ˥˩(51) ˧˥(35) 3 可海洗
- - ˧˥(35) 4 尾有近
˨˨˥(334) ˥˨˦(523) ˥˨(42) 5 去会唱
˩˩˧(113) ˨˧˩(231) ˨˧(23) 6 定烂自
˥(55) ˥˧(43) ˨˩˧(213) 7 只不结
˩˨(12) ˨˧(23) ˨˩˧(213) 8 日绝缚

References

  1. ^ "吴语通用拼音教程: 学习吴语自己的拼音". 吴语公众号. 26 April 2020. Archived from the original on 7 August 2021.
  2. ^ "吴语学堂,重新出发". 吴语学堂. 18 March 2018. Archived from the original on 7 August 2021 – via Zhihu.
  3. ^ 唐骋华; 孔亮 (19 August 2007). "都市年轻人为传承上海方言走到一起". Youth Daily [青年报] (in Chinese). Shanghai. Archived from the original on 29 June 2013.
  4. ^ "吳語拼音草案" (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 4 March 2010.
  5. ^ Qian, Nairong (6 December 2006). "首届国际上海方言学术研讨会审定上海话拼音方案". 北大中文论坛 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 16 February 2021.
  6. ^ 出现在三个或以上音节的语音词的第一个音节。
  7. ^ a b c [ɿ ʮ ȵ] are Sinological extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet that are not part of the official IPA
  8. ^ a b If the final begins with "u" or "i", this initial is written with "w" or "y", respectively. If the "u" or "i" is part of the medial, it is replaced by the "w" or "y".
  9. ^ a b 刑雯芝 (3 February 2018). Shíyòng Sūzhōuhuà 实用苏州话 [Practical Suzhou Dialect] (in Simplified Chinese, Wu Chinese, and English). Peking University Press. ISBN 978-7-301-18998-6.