Negeri Sembilan
Nogoghi Sombilan
Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus
نݢري سمبيلن دار الخصوص
Other transcription(s)
 • Jawiنݢري سمبيلن
 • Chinese森美兰 (Simplified)
森美蘭 (Traditional)
 • Tamilநெகிரி செம்பிலான்
Nekiri Cempilāṉ (Transliteration)
Nickname(s): 
Negeri Beradat
Customary State
Anthem: Berkatlah Yang DiPertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan
Bless the Great Ruler of Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan in Malaysia.svg
   Negeri Sembilan in    Malaysia
OpenStreetMap
Coordinates: 2°45′N 102°15′E / 2.750°N 102.250°E / 2.750; 102.250Coordinates: 2°45′N 102°15′E / 2.750°N 102.250°E / 2.750; 102.250
CapitalSeremban
Royal capitalSeri Menanti
Government
 • TypeParliamentary constitutional elective monarchy
 • Yang di-Pertuan BesarMuhriz
 • Menteri BesarAminuddin Harun (PH-PKR)
Area
 • Total6,686 km2 (2,581 sq mi)
Highest elevation
(Mount Besar Hantu)
1,462 m (4,796 ft)
Population
 (2015)[2]
 • Total1,098,500
 • Density160/km2 (430/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Negeri Sembilanese
Negri (i.e. "Negriwoman", "Negri folk" etc.)
Human Development Index
 • HDI (2019)0.829 (very high) (5th)
Postal code
70xxx to 73xxx
Calling code06
Vehicle registrationN
Federated into FMS1895
Japanese occupation1942
Accession into the Federation of Malaya1948
Independence as part of the Federation of Malaya31 August 1957
Websitewww.ns.gov.my

Negeri Sembilan (Malay pronunciation: [ˈnəgəri səmbiˈlan], Negeri Sembilan Malay: Nogoghi Sombilan, Nismilan) is a state in Malaysia which lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Malacca and Johor to the south.

The name is believed to derive from the nine (sembilan) villages or nagari in the Minangkabau language (now known as luak) settled by the Minangkabau, a people originally from West Sumatra (in present-day Indonesia). Minangkabau features are still visible today in traditional architecture and the dialect of Malay spoken.

Unlike the hereditary monarchs of the other royal Malay states, the ruler of Negeri Sembilan is elected and is known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar instead of Sultan. The election of the Ruler is also unique. He is elected by the council of Undangs who lead the four biggest territories of Sungai Ujong, Jelebu, Johol, and Rembau, from the legitimate male members of the Pagaruyung Dynasty, with the surviving sons of the previous Yantuam coming first in the considerations but not being obligatory to be voted on, making it one of the more democratic monarchies.

The capital of Negeri Sembilan is Seremban. The royal capital is Seri Menanti in Kuala Pilah District. Other important towns are Port Dickson, Bahau and Nilai.

The Arabic honorific title of the state is Darul Khusus ("the Special Abode").

Etymology

The name Negeri Sembilan is believed to derive from the nine (sembilan) chiefdoms or Nogoghi in the Negeri Sembilan dialect (now known as luak) settled by the Minangkabau. The size of Negeri Sembilan is now smaller than the original size of Negeri Sembilan.

The confederation of original nine chiefdoms (luak) of Negeri Sembilan, at Raja Melewar's accession in 1773.
The confederation of original nine chiefdoms (luak) of Negeri Sembilan, at Raja Melewar's accession in 1773.

History

Ancient and medieval history

The earliest inhabitants of Negeri Sembilan were the ancestors of the Semelai, Semai, Semang, and Jakun peoples, who lived either as hunter-gatherer nomads or as subsistence farmers.

Parameswara reportedly visited the settlement of Sening Ujong, which was located in what is now Seremban.

The Minangkabaus from Sumatra settled in what is today Negeri Sembilan in the 15th century under the protection of the Malacca Sultanate, and later under the protection of its successor, the Sultanate of Johor. They also brought their matrilineal custom, known as Adat Perpatih, with them and made it the local custom.[3][4]

The Linggi River along the western part of the state, and the Muar River were used as one of the main trade routes since the time of the Malacca Sultanate. With the Pahang River in just a walking distance to the east, the three rivers formed the Laluan Penarikan (Portage Route), which ensured easier access between the Strait of Malacca and the South China Sea.

As Johor weakened in the 18th century, attacks by the Bugis forced the Minangkabaus to seek protection from their homeland. The Minangkabau ruler, Sultan Abdul Jalil, obliged by sending his near relative, Raja Mahmud, also known as Raja Melewar. When he arrived, he found that another royal, Raja Khatib had already established himself as ruler. He declared war against Raja Khatib and became the ruler of Negeri Sembilan. The Sultan of Johor confirmed his position by granting the title Yamtuan Seri Menanti (He Who is Highest Lord of the Seri Menanti) in 1773.

Negeri Sembilan, at the dawn of her establishment, was originally a loose confederation consisting of nine luaks, hence the name. At the time of Raja Melewar's accession, it used to cover a larger area than its modern-day boundaries. Besides the entirety of modern day Negeri Sembilan, it also spanned parts of what is today Selangor, Malacca, Pahang and Johor. The original nine chiefdoms or domains in 1773 that made up the first incarnation of Negeri Sembilan and gave the state its name are namely Sungai Ujong, Jelebu, Rembau, Johol, Jelai, Ulu Pahang, Naning, Segamat and Klang. The latter four chiefdoms were annexed into neighbouring states in the 19th century. Naning was annexed into the Straits Settlement of Malacca in 1832 following the Naning War; Ulu Pahang became Bera region of Pahang, Segamat annexed into Johor and Klang became Kuala Langat region of Selangor.

After Raja Melewar's death, a series of disputes arose over the succession. For a considerable period, the local nobles applied to the Minangkabau ruler in Sumatra for a ruler. However, competing interests supported different candidates, often resulting in instability and civil war.

Colonial history

A 1949 5-dollar stamp of the Federation of Malaya, bearing the state's arms.
A 1949 5-dollar stamp of the Federation of Malaya, bearing the state's arms.

In 1874, the British intervened militarily in a leadership tussle in Sungai Ujong to preserve British economic interests, and placed the domain under the control of a British Resident. Jelebu followed in 1883 and Rembau in 1887. The formation of modern Negeri Sembilan began in 1889, when the Seri Menanti domain, under the rule of Tuanku Muhammad (son of Yamtuan Antah), combined with the domains of Tampin and Rembau, forming the Seri Menanti Confederation as a single political entity. The domains of Sungai Ujong and Jelebu joined this confederation in 1895, forming the state of Negeri Sembilan in its modern borders.[5] Martin Lister became the new state's first Resident, and Negeri Sembilan became part of the Federated Malay States the same year.

The number of states[clarification needed] within Negeri Sembilan has fluctuated over the years, the federation now consists of six states[clarification needed] and a number of sub-states[clarification needed] under their suzerainty.[citation needed]

Modern history

Negeri Sembilan endured Japanese occupation in World War II between 1942 and 1945, joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and became a state of Malaysia in 1963.

In the 1990s and 2000s, Seremban and Nilai attracted people who moved in from the overcrowded towns of the Klang Valley. These two cities also became the sites of new factories and industrial parks, accelerating the development of the state into modern times.

On 9 September 2009, the Ministry of Housing and Local Government approved the state capital of Seremban's application to become a city (Bandar Raya), as it had attracted enough people to become large. In order for that to happen, its city council had to be merged with the Nilai Municipal Council. After several times when it was postponed, Seremban achieved the status of a city on 20 January 2020. Later that year on 9 November, Negeri Sembilan was subjected to the Movement Control Order lockdown due to increasing COVID-19 infections.

Geography

A distant view of the Titiwangsa Mountains  from Port Dickson District.
A distant view of the Titiwangsa Mountains from Port Dickson District.
The western end of the Linggi River basin, as seen from space.
The western end of the Linggi River basin, as seen from space.

Facing the Strait of Malacca, Negeri Sembilan is one of the West Coast states of Peninsular Malaysia, and is specifically belong to the southern region, along with Malacca and Johor[6][7][8](although some sources define Negeri Sembilan as a central region state with Selangor and the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya).[9] Roughly the same size as Selangor, Negeri Sembilan wields a total land area of 6,686 km² (430 sq mi). It is the fourth smallest state in Malaysia by area as well as the second largest in the southern region behind Johor.

On the administrative level, Negeri Sembilan consists of seven districts, namely Port Dickson, Seremban, Rembau, Kuala Pilah, Jelebu, Jempol and Tampin Districts, and further sectioned into 13 respective luaks. The following luaks are Sungai Ujong, Rembau, Jelebu, Johol, Tampin, Ulu Muar, Terachi, Inas, Jempol, Gunung Pasir, Gemencheh, Air Kuning, and Linggi. Sungai Ujong, Rembau, Johol and Jelebu are governed by the Undangs, thus they are known as the Luak Berundang. Luaks that surround Seri Menanti such as Terachi, Ulu Muar, Jempol, Gunung Pasir and Inas are collectively known as the Luak Tanah Mengandung. The Luak of Tampin is autonomous and is ruled by the Tunku Besar.[10][11]

The topological profile of Negeri Sembilan is composed of two vast plains divided by a mountainous spine in the middle, well drained by various rivers. The Titiwangsa Mountains, the southernmost extension of the Tenasserim Hills and the wider Indo-Malayan Cordillera, spans for approximately 92 km through the middle of the state from the border tripoint with Pahang and Selangor near Kenaboi, Jelebu towards Tampin, close to the border with Malacca. For this reason, this results in the state being bisected into two regions, namely western Negeri Sembilan - consisting of Port Dickson, Seremban and Rembau Districts; and eastern Negeri Sembilan, which covers the districts of Jelebu, Kuala Pilah, Jempol and Tampin. The western half seems to be more developed and has an intricate and concentrated road network than the latter, which is much more rural. The Negri stretch of the Titiwangsa Mountains is also part of the Titiwangsa Forest Complex, a component of the Central Forest Spine conservation area that covers much of the heavily forested and mountainous interior of Peninsular Malaysia.

The state is mostly drained by the Linggi and Muar Rivers. The Linggi River basin constitutes much of western Negeri Sembilan, while the Muar River mostly flows through the state's eastern half. Both rivers are the major sources of water supply for much of the state's populace .

Climate

Climate data for Seremban
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.9
(87.6)
31.7
(89.1)
32.5
(90.5)
32.2
(90.0)
31.7
(89.1)
31.3
(88.3)
31.1
(88.0)
30.9
(87.6)
31.2
(88.2)
31.2
(88.2)
31.0
(87.8)
31.0
(87.8)
31.4
(88.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.6
(79.9)
27.2
(81.0)
27.7
(81.9)
27.8
(82.0)
27.5
(81.5)
27.1
(80.8)
26.9
(80.4)
26.8
(80.2)
26.9
(80.4)
27.0
(80.6)
26.9
(80.4)
26.8
(80.2)
27.1
(80.8)
Average low °C (°F) 22.3
(72.1)
22.7
(72.9)
22.9
(73.2)
23.4
(74.1)
23.4
(74.1)
23.0
(73.4)
22.7
(72.9)
22.8
(73.0)
22.7
(72.9)
22.8
(73.0)
22.9
(73.2)
22.6
(72.7)
22.9
(73.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 114
(4.5)
110
(4.3)
178
(7.0)
232
(9.1)
180
(7.1)
119
(4.7)
127
(5.0)
143
(5.6)
158
(6.2)
237
(9.3)
252
(9.9)
193
(7.6)
2,043
(80.3)
Source: Climate-Data.org[12]

Government

Constitution

The Constitution of Negeri Sembilan came into force on 26 March 1959. It is divided into two sections. The constitution establishes that the state's form of government is constitutional monarchy and the world's only elective monarchy for matrilineal society. The system was partially the basis for the federal monarchy.

The Ruler

Istana Seri Menanti
Istana Seri Menanti
Seremban, capital of Negeri Sembilan.
Seremban, capital of Negeri Sembilan.

The official constitutional title of the Ruler of the state are Duli Yang Maha Mulia Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan, (currently Duli Yang Maha Mulia Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus Tuanku Muhriz ibni Almarhum Tuanku Munawir), Yang Teramat Mulia Undang of Sungei Ujong, Yang Teramat Mulia Undang of Jelebu, Yang Teramat Mulia Undang of Johol, Yang Teramat Mulia Undang of Rembau and Yang Teramat Mulia Tengku Besar Tampin and they holds office for life.

The state's constitution proclaims the Yang di-Pertuan Besar, Undang of Sungei Ujong, Undang of Jelebu, Undang of Johol, Undang of Rembau and Tengku Besar Tampin are vested with the Executive Power of the state, are the Head of the Religion of Islam in the state and are the fountain of all honour and dignity for the state. The current Yang di-Pertuan Besar is His Royal Highness Tuanku Muhriz ibni Almarhum Tuanku Munawir. His Royal Highness succeeds Almarhum Tuanku Jaafar Ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman who died on 27 December 2008.

Unlike Malaysia's eight other Royal Malay states, the Ruler of Negeri Sembilan is elected to his office by the territorial chiefs or Ruling Chiefs of the state. These Ruling Chiefs are titled Undang. Only four of the Undangs have the right to vote in the election for the Ruler of the State. They are:

The Undang themselves cannot stand for election, and their choice of Ruler is limited to a male Muslim who is Malay and also a "lawfully begotten descendant of Raja Radin ibni Raja Lenggang".

The Assembly convenes at the Wisma Negeri in the state capital, Seremban.

Executive and Legislature

Main articles: Negeri Sembilan State Executive Council and Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly

See also: Menteri Besar of Negeri Sembilan

Wisma Negeri, Seremban

The State Executive Council consists of the Menteri Besar, who is its chairman, and ten other members. The Menteri Besar and the other members of the council are appointed by the Yang Di-Pertuan Besar from the members of the State Assembly of the governing party or coalition. The current Menteri Besar or Chief Minister of the state is Aminuddin Harun.

The unicameral Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly is the state legislature of Negeri Sembilan. It consists of 36 members who represent single-member constituencies throughout the state. Elections are held no more than five years apart, and are usually conducted simultaneously with elections to the federal parliament.

NSDUN.svg
Affiliation Coalition/Party Leader Status Seats
2018 election Current
  Pakatan Harapan Aminuddin Harun Government 20 20
  Barisan Nasional Mohamad Hasan Opposition 16 16
Total 36 36
Government majority 4 4

Departments

Statutory bodies

Administrative divisions

Main articles: List of districts in Malaysia and List of local governments in Malaysia

The state comprises 7 districts, which in turn divided into 61 mukims.

Districts in Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan districts numbered.svg
Number District Seat Area (km2) Mukim Local government level[30]
1 Seremban Seremban 935.02 Ampangan, Labu, Lenggeng, Pantai, Rasah, Rantau, Seremban City, Setul City[31]
2 Port Dickson Port Dickson 572.35 Jimah, Linggi, Pasir Panjang, Port Dickson Town, Si Rusa Municipality[32]
3 Rembau Rembau 415.12 Batu Hampar, Bongek, Chembong, Chengkau, Gadong, Kundur, Legong Hilir, Legong Hulu, Miku, Nerasau, Pedas, Pilin, Selemak, Semerbok, Sepri, Tanjung Keling, Titian Bintangor District council[33]
4 Jelebu Kuala Klawang 1,349.89 Glami Lemi, Kenaboi, Kuala Klawang, Peradong, Pertang, Triang Hilir, Ulu Klawang, Ulu Triang District council[34]
5 Kuala Pilah Kuala Pilah 1,090.40 Ampang Tinggi, Johol, Juasseh, Kepis, Langkap, Parit Tinggi, Pilah, Seri Menanti, Terachi, Ulu Jempol, Ulu Muar District council[35]
6 Jempol Bandar Seri Jempol 1,490.87 Jelai, Kuala Jempol, Rompin, Serting Ilir, Serting Ulu Municipality[36]
7 Tampin Tampin 878.69 Ayer Kuning, Gemencheh, Keru, Repah, Tampin Tengah, Tebong
Autonomous sub-district: Gemas
District council[37]

It originally consisted of 9 districts:

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1970 481,563—    
1980 551,442+14.5%
1991 692,897+25.7%
2000 829,774+19.8%
2010 986,204+18.9%
2020 1,199,974+21.7%
Source: [38]

Ethnicity

Negeri Sembilan has a collective population of 1,098,500 as of 2015;[2][39] the ethnic composition consisting of Malays 622,000 (56.6%) (mostly are Minangkabau descent), other Bumiputras 20,700 (1.9%), Chinese 234,300 (21.3%), Indian 154,000 (14%), Others 4,200 (0.4%), and Non Citizens 63,300 (5.8%).[2] The state has the highest percentage of Indians when compared to other Malaysian states. Up until today the state is known as the strongholds of Adat Perpatih in Malaysia.

Religion

Religion in Negeri Sembilan - 2010 Census[40]
religion percent
Islam
60.3%
Buddhism
21.2%
Hinduism
13.4%
Christianity
2.4%
Unknown / None
1.1%
No Religion
0.8%
Chinese Ethnic Religion
0.5%
Others
0.3%

According to the 2010 census, the population of Negeri Sembilan is 60.3% Muslim, 21.2% Buddhist, 13.4% Hindu, 2.4% Christian, 1.1% of unknown affiliation, 0.8% non-religious, 0.5% Taoist or Chinese religion follower, and 0.3% of followers of other religions.

Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 92.9% of the Chinese population in Negeri Sembilan is identified as Buddhists, with significant minority of adherents identifying as Christians (3.6%), Chinese folk religions (1.9%) and Muslims (0.8%). The majority of the Indian population are Hindus (89.0%), with a significant minorities of numbers identifying as Christians (5.0%), Muslims (3.2%) and Buddhists (1.4%). The non-Malay Bumiputera community are predominantly Atheists (39.7%), with significant minorities identifying as Christians (28.3%) and Muslims (20.2%). All Malays are Muslims.[41]

Languages

Negeri Sembilan is a multiethnic state in which every ethnic group speaks their respective languages and dialects. The Negeri Sembilanese people speak a unique variety of Malay known as Negeri Sembilan Malay or in their native language as Baso Nogoghi. It is not closely related to other varieties of Malay in Peninsular Malaysia but more closely related with Malay varieties spoken in neighbouring Sumatra especially varieties of Minangkabau. Besides Malays, the Chinese community also speak their languages and dialects. Orang Asli peoples like Temuans speak a language closely related to Malay. Standard Malay is widely used throughout the state.

Indians in Negeri Sembilan belong to various ethnicities. Tamil (Mother tongue to Indian Tamils and Ceylon Tamils) is used as a lingua franca among the other minor Indian communities. Besides, a small number of Telugu, Malayalam and Punjabi exist in the towns of Negeri Sembilan.

Economy

Sime Darby oil palm estate in Port Dickson District
Sime Darby oil palm estate in Port Dickson District

The state's manufacturing sector contributes almost half of the state's gross domestic product (GDP), followed by services and tourism (40.3%), agriculture (6%), construction (2.2%) and mining (0.3%). Manufacturing activities include electrical supplies and electronics, textiles, furniture, chemicals, machinery, metal works and rubber products. The main industrial areas in Negeri Sembilan include Senawang, Bandar Sri Sendayan, Sungai Gadut, Bandar Enstek and Nilai in Seremban, Tanah Merah in Port Dickson and Chembong in Rembau. Notable companies also set up their plants in Negeri Sembilan, such as Kellogg's, Dutch Lady, Ajinomoto and Coca-Cola in Bandar Enstek, Hino Motors in Bandar Sri Sendayan, Yakult in Seremban 2, Samsung SDI, Onsemi and NXP Semiconductors in Senawang, and Nestlé in Chembong. Nestlé's Chembong plant is also the largest Milo manufacturer in the world, as well as the company's largest global centre of excellence.

Negeri Sembilan is mainly an agricultural state. However, the establishment of several industrial estates enhanced the manufacturing sector as a significant contributor to the state economy. Two districts in the western half of the state - Seremban and Port Dickson - have been gazetted as part of the Malaysia Vision Valley (MVV, Malay: Lembah Wawasan Malaysia), a 1530 sq km new growth corridor conceived from the joint venture between Sime Darby and both the federal and state governments in 2015 as part of the National Transformation Agenda, the National Physical Plan (NPP), the Eleventh Malaysia Plan (11MP) and the 2045 Negeri Sembilan Structural Plan, in order to evenly balancing the existing development in the neighbouring Klang Valley area, providing ample space for the southern extension of the Greater Kuala Lumpur area, as well as to transform Negeri Sembilan into a developed state by 2045.[42][43][44] As of 2022, the MVV is now in its second iteration, and is still undergoing development. Meanwhile, districts east of the MVV - Rembau, Kuala Pilah, Tampin and Jempol - are yet to be developed into an agropolis, to boost foodstuff production in the state and national levels respectively.[45]

The agricultural activity includes rubber and oil palm plantations, livestock, fruit orchards and vegetable farming. About 3,099 square kilometres are used for rubber and oil palm plantations.

Culture

The Minangkabau people brought along with them a cultural heritage which is still preserved and practised today as the adat perpatih, a matrilineal system of inheritance and administration that is unique to the state, where the husband is the head of the household and inheritance passes from the mother to the daughter. The Minangkabaus in Negeri Sembilan are divided into twelve suku (clans). Each of these suku is led by a chief, known as the Lembaga. Each suku is broken down into subunits known as the Perut, where each of them are led by a chief, either known as a Buapak (male) or Ibu Soko (female). Both the Buapak and Ibu Soko play a vital role as people to refer to regarding the adat and religious matters among the subordinates of the Perut, known as Anak Buah. Marriage between members of the same clan is forbidden. The twelve suku are known as the following, of which the names of each suku indicates the area where they hailed:


One perbilangan (customary poetry) sums up the traditional administrative system of the state:

Alam beraja,
Luak berpenghulu,
Suku berlembaga,
Anak buah berbuapak.

The Minangkabau influence in the state can be found in dances and food as well.

Performing arts

Negeri Sembilan also has traditional music like the Caklempong, Dikir Rebana, Tumbuk Kalang, and Bongai.[46][47][48][49]

The musical instruments used to bear some semblance to Sumatra, the ancestral home of the Minangkabau people. Dances like the tarian lilin (candle dance) and rentak kuda (the beat of the horse) are popular in Negeri Sembilan and the coordinated movements of the dancers in their colorful costumes in the Tarian Piring and the upbeat tempo of Tarian Randai. Unlike modern dance, each beat, rhythm and movement in these dances combines to form a story, maybe of a bygone myth or simply a reflection of the lifestyles of another era.

They are usually performed at traditional festivities, cultural events and dinner-cum-cultural shows.

Transportation

Pedas-Linggi interchange, on the North-South Expressway near Rembau
Pedas-Linggi interchange, on the North-South Expressway near Rembau

See also: Klang Valley Integrated Transit System

As in most other Asian cities, driving is the main choice in the state. there are three expressways serving the state, which are PLUS Highway, LEKAS Highway and Seremban–Port Dickson Highway. Public transportation covers a variety of transport modes such as bus, rail and taxi.

Free bus in Seremban
Free bus in Seremban

For the bus services, it is operated by myBAS in the state. There are also free bus services in Seremban provided by the state government. Seremban has a main bus station which is Terminal One which connects Seremban with major places in Negeri Sembilan such as Kuala Pilah, Bahau, Rembau and Malaysia such as Alor Setar, Ipoh and Melaka. All bus companies that provide bus services are based here.

KTMB's Seremban railway station

For the rail services, Seremban Railway Station is the main station to the state capital - Seremban and part of the Klang Valley Integrated Transit System, while Gemas Railway Station in Tampin District is the interchange between West Coast and East Coast Line. The KTM Komuter, a commuter rail service, was introduced in 1995 as the first rail transit system to provide local rail services from Negeri Sembilan to Kuala Lumpur and the surrounding Klang Valley suburban areas.[50] KTM Komuter's 175 km (109 mi) network in the Central Sector has 53 stations. It consists of two cross-city routes, namely the Port Klang Line (Tanjung Malim to Port Klang) and Seremban Line (Batu Caves to Pulau Sebang/Tampin).

There are no civil airports in the state, while the nearest airport, Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) at Sepang, Selangor can be accessed via shuttle bus between Nilai Komuter station to the airport.[51]

Cuisine

Masak lemak cili api
Masak lemak cili api

Traditional Negeri Sembilan food is typically very hot and spicy, as one of the ingredients used is the cili padi, one of the hottest types of chili peppers. Masak lemak cili api, a type of gulai made with turmeric and cili padi-infused coconut milk (santan), is a trademark dish in the cuisine of the state. The Negeri Sembilanese are also known for their penchant for smoked foods (known as salai in Malay), with examples include sembilang salai (smoked catfish), ayam salai (smoked chicken), etc., and these are can also be cooked masak lemak cili api-style.

Rendang
Rendang
Apam Johol

Rendang, which is a rich dish of dry braised meat with herbs, spices and coconut milk, is also a well known fare in Negeri Sembilan, and there are variations of it according to the districts where the rendang originated, such as rendang maman from Gemencheh in Tampin District, made with maman leaves. Another Negeri Sembilan speciality is lemang, glutinous rice cooked in coconut milk in a bamboo stem over an open fire. This is normally served with rendang.[3]

Tourism

State Museum, Seremban
State Museum, Seremban
Excavation works in Gua Pelangi, Pasoh Caves Complex
Excavation works in Gua Pelangi, Pasoh Caves Complex
Teluk Kemang beach, Port Dickson
Teluk Kemang beach, Port Dickson
Lata Kijang Waterfall, Kenaboi State Park
Lata Kijang Waterfall, Kenaboi State Park
Penarikan Portage site, Bahau
Penarikan Portage site, Bahau
Mount Datuk
Mount Datuk

Attractions in Negeri Sembilan include:

Education

Negeri Sembilan has several tertiary education institutions. Most of these education institutions are concentrated in major towns in Negeri Sembilan. The list below represents public and private university based in Negeri Sembilan state:

Public universities

Name Acronym Foundation Location
Islamic Science University of Malaysia USIM 1998 Nilai
Universiti Teknologi MARA UiTM 1999 Kuala Pilah, Seremban & Rembau
Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Pendidikan Teknik IPG KPT 2013 Bandar Enstek, Nilai

Private universities and university colleges

Name Acronym Foundation Location Ref
INTI International University INTI-IU 1998 Nilai
Manipal International University MIU 2011 Nilai [55]
Nilai University NU 1997 Nilai
Linton University College UCL 1995 Mantin
Malaysia Theological Seminary STM 1979 Seremban
UCSI International School UCSI 1986 Bandar Springhill

Health care

There are public hospitals and private hospitals in Negeri Sembilan:

Public Hospitals

Private Hospitals

See also

References

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  48. ^ "JKKN Pemetaan Budaya | THE MUSIC OF TUMBUK KALANG". pemetaanbudaya.my. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  49. ^ "JKKN Pemetaan Budaya | BONGAI MUSIC". pemetaanbudaya.my. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
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  52. ^ "Port Dickson Beach". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
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  54. ^ "Army Museum". Tourism Malaysia. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  55. ^ Manipal International University
  56. ^ Nilai Medical Centre
  57. ^ Seremban Specialist Hospital
  58. ^ Columbia Asia Medical Centre, Seremban