Alliance of Hope
Malay namePakatan Harapan
ڤاكتن هارڤن
Chinese name希望联盟
Tamil nameநம்பிக்கை கூட்டணி
PresidentWan Azizah Wan Ismail
ChairmanAnwar Ibrahim
Deputy President
Founded22 September 2015 (2015-09-22)
Legalised16 May 2018 (2018-05-16)[1]
Preceded byPakatan Rakyat
  • Newspapers:
  • The Rocket
  • RoketKini
  • Suara Keadilan
  • Media Harapan
  • Harapan Daily
  • Kenyalang Tribune
  • Borneo Update
Student wingPakatan Harapan Student Movement
Youth wingPakatan Harapan Youth Movement[2][3]
Women's wingPakatan Harapan Youth Movement[2][3]
Political positionCentre-left
Colours  Red and   white
Dewan Negara
15 / 70
Dewan Rakyat
81 / 222
State Legislative Assemblies
162 / 607
Chief minister of states
3 / 13
Party flag
2022 campaign website
Alliance of Hope
Traditional Chinese希望聯盟
Simplified Chinese希望联盟

The Alliance of Hope (Malay: Pakatan Harapan; abbrev: PH; stylized as HARAPAN) is a Malaysian political coalition consisting of centre-left political parties which was formed in 2015 to succeed the Pakatan Rakyat coalition. It has been the ruling coalition since November 2022 after it formed the coalition government with other political coalitions and parties as a result of the 2022 Malaysian general election, and after it won the 2018 Malaysian general election to February 2020 when it lost power as a result of the 2020 Malaysian political crisis at the federal level for 22 months. The coalition deposed the Barisan Nasional coalition government during the 2018 election, ending its 60-year-long reign (together with its predecessor, Alliance) since independence.

It is currently the largest coalition in the Dewan Rakyat with 81 seats. At the state level, it is the ruling coalition in 7 of the 13 states in the country, Penang, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Pahang, Melaka and Sabah. It also holds two-thirds majorities in the state legislative assemblies of Penang and Selangor, while it rules Perak, Pahang and Melaka in coalition governments with Barisan Nasional (BN) and Sabah with Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (GRS).

The coalition consists of the Democratic Action Party, People's Justice Party, National Trust Party, and United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation.

The coalition lost its majority in parliament and fell from power in February 2020 when its chairman and then-Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad resigned after 22 months in office (compared to his 22 years as Prime Minister while with UMNO), and the Malaysian United Indigenous Party together with 11 members of parliament from the People's Justice Party left the coalition.[4][5][6]

After the 2022 general election that resulted in a hung parliament, the Alliance of Hope returned to power with a two-thirds majority, led by Prime Minister and PH Chairman Anwar Ibrahim, by forming a coalition government with National Front (BN), Sarawak Parties' Alliance (GPS), Sabah People's Alliance (GRS), Heritage Party (WARISAN), Malaysian People's Party (PBM), Social Democratic Harmony Party (KDM), and independents. Meanwhile Muhyiddin Yassin's Perikatan Nasional takes the role as the opposition, with 74 seats.



Pakatan Harapan is a direct successor to the three-party Pakatan Rakyat coalition that consisted of the People's Justice Party, the Democratic Action Party and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party. Pakatan Harapan was founded on 22 September 2015, two years after the 2013 general election, due to disagreements and conflicts between PAS and DAP mainly regarding the issue of the implementation of the sharia law, resulting in PAS splitting off from Pakatan Rakyat and the break-up of the coalition on 16 June 2015.[7][8] The dissolution resulted in the formation of a new coalition named Pakatan Harapan, consisting the former Pakatan Rakyat parties, PKR and DAP, and a PAS split-off party, the National Trust Party.[9][10]

On 12 November 2016, a United Malays National Organisation split-off party, the Malaysian United Indigenous Party, founded and led by former Malaysian Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad, confirmed that the party was committed to joining the opposition bloc Pakatan Harapan.[11][12] Later, on 13 December, the party formed an electoral pact with Pakatan Harapan,[13] and finally on 14 March 2017, BERSATU officially joined Pakatan Harapan as a member party.[14]

2018 general election

On 14 July 2017, the Presidential council line-up was confirmed. A common logo was also introduced with the word "Harapan" with the "A" shaped as a chevron in white on a red background. The logo was initially planned to be used by all participating candidates for the 2018 general election, but the use of the logo and registration of the coalition was denied by the Election Commission.[15] To pursue the coalition's plan to contest under a common logo, Pakatan announced that the PKR logo will be used by all component parties of the coalition as its election symbol in the elections,[16] excluding for DAP who chose to contest under their own party flag in Sabah and Sarawak.[17][18][19]

The coalition secured an electoral pact with the Sabah-based Sabah Heritage Party for the 2018 general election. WARISAN's president, Shafie Apdal, promised that the party would be represented on the federal cabinet if the coalition came to power,[20] adding that through the electoral pact they will only co-operate with Pakatan as an ally, and not joining the pact as a component party since they will only contest in Sabah, not in Peninsular Malaysia.[21] In that election, Pakatan Harapan swept the election and formed the government in a surprise upset overturning the former ruling party UMNO's decades of uninterrupted rule, as the Malay vote was dissatisfied and mainly went to Amanah and popular former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's party Bersatu, while the Chinese vote was solidly behind parties like DAP and PKR. Following the surprise victory of Pakatan Harapan and WARISAN in the general election, the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation announced that they have left Barisan Nasional and will form a new Sabah state government with WARISAN and Pakatan Harapan.[22] UPKO and WARISAN are currently both the allies for Pakatan Harapan since both parties are also allied towards each other's in Sabah.[23]

At the state level, due to 2018 general election results the coalition formed the government in the states of Kedah, Penang, Perak, Selangor, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Johor and Sabah.[note 1] Pakatan Harapan also forms a government with a two-thirds majority in the states of Penang, Selangor and Johor.


Main article: 2020–2022 Malaysian political crisis

On 16 May 2018, the coalition was officially registered.[24] After winning the power in 2018, the coalition made some efforts in ensuring an independent trial for Najib's corruption charges, an independent anti-corruption commission, and repealing anti-fake news law. On the other hand, other issues such as decentralisation of powers to Sabah and Sarawak, educational reform, issues relating to indigenous people (orang asli), racial equality, and political patronage remained unchanged. Meanwhile, the Pakatan Harapan government was distracted by factional infighting.[25]

On 24 February 2020, Mahathir resigned as the Prime Minister. BERSATU which had 26 MPs, withdrew from the ruling Pakatan Harapan coalition. In addition, 11 MPs from PKR resigned from the party to form an independent bloc. This leaves Pakatan Harapan 37 seats short of the 112 seats needed to form a government. The surprise announcement came amid speculation that Mahathir was attempting to form a new ruling coalition that would exclude his designated successor Anwar Ibrahim.[4][5][6] However, Anwar later clarified to reporters that Mahathir did not orchestrate the act. These events also resulted in the number of Pakatan Harapan coalition member parties returned to the original three.[26]

At the state level, Pakatan Harapan lost control of Johor, Malacca, Perak and Kedah. A few PKR, DAP and AMANAH representatives in the state legislative assemblies quit their party and expressed support for the new government Perikatan Nasional in those four states.[27][28][29][30]

Party-to-party relations

Pakatan Harapan at coalition level doesn't have any allegiance with political internationals. Some of its component parties does, as PKR was recognized as observer party of Liberal International while DAP co-founded the Progressive Alliance. On the aftermath of 15th general election, Anwar Ibrahim received congratulatory message from Ennahda Party of Tunisia.[31] The party previously was present at an event organised by AMANAH in 2015.

Member parties

Flag Name Ideology Position Leader(s) Seats
2022 result Current
Votes (%) Seats Composition
Member parties
PKR People's Justice Party
Parti Keadilan Rakyat
Liberal democracy
Social liberalism
Centre-left Anwar Ibrahim 102 15.74%
31 / 222
31 / 81
DAP Democratic Action Party
Parti Tindakan Demokratik
Social democracy
Social liberalism
Centre-left Anthony Loke 55 15.61%
40 / 222
40 / 81
AMANAH National Trust Party
Parti Amanah Negara
Islamic modernism
Centre-left Mohamad Sabu 54 5.70%
8 / 222
8 / 81
UPKO United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation
Pertubuhan Kinabalu Progresif Bersatu
Sabah regionalism N/A Ewon Benedick 5 0.47%
2 / 222
2 / 81

Former member party

List of leaders


No. Name
Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Mahathir Mohamad
(b. 1925)
14 July 2017 24 February 2020 2 years, 225 days BERSATU
2 Anwar Ibrahim
(b. 1947)
14 May 2020 Incumbent 3 years, 90 days PKR


No. Name
Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
(b. 1952)
14 July 2017 Incumbent 6 years, 29 days PKR

Women Chiefs

No. Name


Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Zuraida Kamaruddin
(b. 1958)
14 August 2017 24 February 2020 2 years, 194 days PKR
2 Chong Eng
(b. 1957)
18 March 2021 12 September 2021 178 days DAP
3 Aiman Athirah Sabu
(b. 1972)
12 September 2021 Incumbent 1 year, 334 days AMANAH

Youth Chiefs

No. Name


Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad
(b. 1982)
31 October 2017 13 December 2018 1 year, 43 days PKR
2 Syed Saddiq Syed Abdul Rahman
(b. 1992)
13 December 2018 24 February 2020 1 year, 73 days BERSATU
3 Shazni Munir Mohd Ithnin [ms]
4 March 2021 6 August 2021 155 days AMANAH
4 Howard Lee Chuan How
(b. 1983)
12 September 2021 29 July 2022 320 days DAP
5 Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen
(b. 1986)
29 July 2022 Incumbent 1 year, 14 days DAP

Leadership structure

Central Leadership Council

Youth Wing (Angkatan Muda Harapan)


Women's Wing (Wanita Pakatan Harapan)

Elected representatives

Dewan Negara (Senate)


Main article: Members of the Dewan Negara, 15th Malaysian Parliament

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)

Members of Parliament of the 15th Malaysian Parliament

Main article: Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 15th Malaysian Parliament

Pakatan Harapan has 81 members in the House of Representatives .

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
 Kedah P015 Sungai Petani Mohammed Taufiq Johari PKR
 Penang P043 Bagan Lim Guan Eng DAP
P045 Bukit Mertajam Steven Sim Chee Keong DAP
P046 Batu Kawan Chow Kon Yeow DAP
P047 Nibong Tebal Fadhlina Sidek PKR
P048 Bukit Bendera Syerleena Abdul Rashid DAP
P049 Tanjong Lim Hui Ying DAP
P050 Jelutong Sanisvara Nethaji Rayer Rajaji Rayer DAP
P051 Bukit Gelugor Ramkarpal Singh DAP
P052 Bayan Baru Sim Tze Tzin PKR
P053 Balik Pulau Muhammad Bakhtiar Wan Chik PKR
 Perak P060 Taiping Wong Kah Woh DAP
P062 Sungai Siput Kesavan Subramaniam PKR
P063 Tambun Anwar Ibrahim PKR
P064 Ipoh Timor Howard Lee Chuan How DAP
P065 Ipoh Barat Kulasegaran Murugeson DAP
P066 Batu Gajah Sivakumar Varatharaju Naidu DAP
P068 Beruas Ngeh Koo Ham DAP
P070 Kampar Chong Zhemin DAP
P071 Gopeng Tan Kar Hing PKR
P076 Teluk Intan Nga Kor Ming DAP
P077 Tanjong Malim Chang Lih Kang PKR
 Pahang P080 Raub Chow Yu Hui DAP
P089 Bentong Young Syefura Othman DAP
 Selangor P096 Kuala Selangor Dzulkefly Ahmad AMANAH
P097 Selayang William Leong Jee Keen PKR
P098 Gombak Amirudin Shari PKR
P099 Ampang Rodziah Ismail PKR
P100 Pandan Mohd Rafizi Ramli PKR
P101 Hulu Langat Mohd Sany Hamzan AMANAH
P102 Bangi Syahredzan Johan DAP
P103 Puchong Yeo Bee Yin DAP
P104 Subang Wong Chen PKR
P105 Petaling Jaya Lee Chean Chung PKR
P106 Damansara Gobind Singh Deo DAP
P107 Sungai Buloh Ramanan Ramakrishnan PKR
P108 Shah Alam Azli Yusof AMANAH
P110 Klang Ganabatirau Veraman DAP
P111 Kota Raja Mohamad Sabu AMANAH
P113 Sepang Raj Munni Sabu AMANAH
 Kuala Lumpur P114 Kepong Lim Lip Eng DAP
P115 Batu Prabakaran Parameswaran PKR
P116 Wangsa Maju Zahir Hassan PKR
P117 Segambut Hannah Yeoh Tseow Suan DAP
P118 Setiawangsa Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad PKR
P120 Bukit Bintang Fong Kui Lun DAP
P121 Lembah Pantai Fahmi Fadzil PKR
P122 Seputeh Teresa Kok Suh Sim DAP
P123 Cheras Tan Kok Wai DAP
P124 Bandar Tun Razak Wan Azizah Wan Ismail PKR
 Negeri Sembilan P128 Seremban Anthony Loke Siew Fook DAP
P130 Rasah Cha Kee Chin DAP
P132 Port Dickson Aminuddin Harun PKR
 Malacca P135 Alor Gajah Adly Zahari AMANAH
P137 Hang Tuah Jaya Adam Adli Abdul Halim PKR
P138 Kota Melaka Khoo Poay Tiong DAP
 Johor P140 Segamat Yuneswaran Ramaraj PKR
P141 Sekijang Zaliha Mustafa PKR
P142 Labis Pang Hok Liong DAP
P144 Ledang Syed Ibrahim Syed Noh PKR
P145 Bakri Tan Hong Pin DAP
P149 Sri Gading Aminolhuda Hassan AMANAH
P150 Batu Pahat Onn Abu Bakar PKR
P152 Kluang Wong Shu Qi DAP
P158 Tebrau Jimmy Puah Wee Tse PKR
P159 Pasir Gudang Hassan Abdul Karim PKR
P160 Johor Bahru Akmal Nasrullah Mohd Nasir PKR
P161 Pulai Salahuddin Ayub AMANAH
P162 Iskandar Puteri Liew Chin Tong DAP
P163 Kulai Teo Nie Ching DAP
 Sabah P170 Tuaran Wilfred Madius Tangau UPKO
P171 Sepanggar Mustapha Sakmud PKR
P172 Kota Kinabalu Chan Foong Hin DAP
P174 Penampang Ewon Benedick UPKO
P186 Sandakan Vivian Wong Shir Yee DAP
 Sarawak P192 Mas Gading Mordi Bimol DAP
P195 Bandar Kuching Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen DAP
P196 Stampin Chong Chieng Jen DAP
P211 Lanang Alice Lau Kiong Yieng DAP
P212 Sibu Oscar Ling Chai Yew DAP
P219 Miri Chiew Choon Man PKR
Total Kedah (1), Penang (10), Perak (11), Pahang (2), Selangor (16), F.T. Kuala Lumpur (10), Negeri Sembilan (3), Malacca (3), Johor (15), Sabah (5), Sarawak (6)

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)

Main article: Malaysian State Assembly Representatives (2018-)

State No. Parliamentary


No. State Constituency Member Party
 Perlis P02 Kangar N8 Indera Kayangan Gan Ay Ling PKR
 Kedah P05 Jerlun N3 Kota Siputeh Salmee Said AMANAH
P08 Pokok Sena N11 Derga Tan Kok Yew DAP
P09 Alor Setar N12 Suka Menanti Zamri Yusuf PKR
N13 Kota Darul Aman Teh Swee Leong DAP
P10 Kuala Kedah N16 Kubang Rotan Mohd Asmirul Anuar Aris AMANAH
N17 Pengkalan Kundor Ismail Salleh AMANAH
P12 Jerai N22 Gurun Vacant VAC
P14 Merbok N25 Bukit Selambau Summugam Rengasamy PKR
P15 Sungai Petani N28 Bakar Arang Ooi Tze Min PKR
P18 Kulim-Bandar Baharu N35 Kulim Yeo Keng Chuan PKR
 Penang P41 Kepala Batas N3 Pinang Tunggal Ahmad Zakiyuddin Abdul Rahman PKR
P42 Tasek Gelugor N6 Telok Ayer Tawar Mustapha Kamal Ahmad [ms] PKR
P43 Bagan N7 Sungai Puyu Phee Boon Poh DAP
N8 Bagan Jermal Soon Lip Chee DAP
N9 Bagan Dalam Satees Muniandy DAP
P44 Permatang Pauh N11 Permatang Pasir Muhammad Faiz Mohamed Fadzil AMANAH
N12 Penanti Norlela Ariffin PKR
P45 Bukit Mertajam N13 Berapit Heng Lee Lee DAP
N14 Machang Bubok Lee Khai Loon [ms; zh] PKR
N15 Padang Lalang Chong Eng DAP
P46 Batu Kawan N16 Perai Ramasamy Palanisamy DAP
N17 Bukit Tengah Gooi Hsiao Leung PKR
N18 Bukit Tambun Goh Choon Aik PKR
P47 Nibong Tebal N19 Jawi H'ng Mooi Lye DAP
N20 Sungai Bakap Amar Pritpal Abdullah PKR
P48 Bukit Bendera N22 Tanjong Bunga Zairil Khir Johari DAP
N23 Air Putih Lim Guan Eng DAP
N24 Kebun Bunga Jason Ong Khan Lee PKR
N25 Pulau Tikus Chris Lee Chun Kit DAP
P49 Tanjong N26 Padang Kota Chow Kon Yeow DAP
N27 Pengkalan Kota Gooi Zi Sen DAP
N28 Komtar Teh Lai Heng DAP
P50 Jelutong N29 Datok Keramat Jagdeep Singh Deo DAP
N30 Sungai Pinang Lim Siew Khim DAP
N31 Batu Lancang Ong Ah Teong DAP
P51 Bukit Gelugor N32 Seri Delima Syerleena Abdul Rashid DAP
N33 Air Itam Joseph Ng Soon Seong DAP
N34 Paya Terubong Yeoh Soon Hin DAP
P52 Bayan Baru N35 Batu Uban Kumaresan Aramugam PKR
N36 Pantai Jerejak Saifuddin Nasution Ismail PKR
N37 Batu Maung Abdul Halim Hussain PKR
P53 Balik Pulau N38 Bayan Lepas Azrul Mahathir Aziz AMANAH
N39 Pulau Betong Mohd.Tuah Ismail [ms] PKR
 Perak P60 Taiping N17 Pokok Assam Ong Seng Guan DAP
N18 Aulong Teh Kok Lim DAP
P62 Sungai Siput N22 Jalong Loh Sze Yee DAP
P63 Tambun N24 Hulu Kinta Muhamad Arafat Varisai Mahamad PKR
P64 Ipoh Timur N25 Canning Jenny Choy Tsi Jen DAP
N26 Tebing Tinggi Abdul Aziz Bari DAP
N27 Pasir Pinji Goh See Hua DAP
P65 Ipoh Barat N28 Bercham Ong Boon Piow DAP
N29 Kepayang Nga Kor Ming DAP
N30 Buntong Thulsi Thivani Manogaran DAP
P66 Batu Gajah N31 Jelapang Cheah Pou Hian DAP
N32 Menglembu Chaw Kam Foon DAP
N33 Tronoh Steven Tiw Tee Siang DAP
P68 Bruas N37 Pantai Remis Wong May Ing DAP
N38 Astaka Jason Ng Thien Yeong DAP
P70 Kampar N41 Malim Nawar Bavani Veraiah DAP
N42 Keranji Angeline Koo Haai Yen DAP
N43 Tualang Sekah Mohd Azlan Helmi PKR
P71 Gopeng N44 Sungai Rapat Mohammad Nizar Jamaluddin AMANAH
N45 Simpang Pulai Wong Chai Yi PKR
N46 Teja Sandrea Ng Shy Ching PKR
P75 Bagan Datuk N54 Hutan Melintang Wasanthee Sinnasamy PKR
P76 Teluk Intan N55 Pasir Bedamar Woo Kah Leong DAP
P77 Tanjong Malim N57 Sungkai Sivanesan Achalingam DAP
 Pahang P78 Cameron Highlands N1 Tanah Rata Ho Chi Yang DAP
P80 Raub N7 Tras Tengku Zulpuri Shah Raja Puji DAP
P82 Indera Mahkota N13 Semambu Chan Chun Kuang PKR
P83 Kuantan N14 Teruntum Sim Chon Siang [ms] PKR
P88 Temerloh N30 Mentakab Woo Chee Wan DAP
P89 Bentong N33 Bilut Lee Chin Chen DAP
N34 Ketari Thomas Su Keong Siong DAP
P90 Bera N38 Triang Leong Yu Man DAP
 Selangor P92 Sabak Bernam N2 Sabak Ahmad Mustain Othman PKR
P93 Sungai Besar N4 Sekinchan Ng Suee Lim DAP
P94 Ulu Selangor N6 Kuala Kubu Baharu Lee Kee Hiong DAP
P95 Tanjong Karang N9 Permatang Rozana Zainal Abidin PKR
P96 Kuala Selangor N10 Bukit Melawati Juwairiya Zulkifli PKR
N11 Ijok Idris Ahmad PKR
P97 Selayang N14 Rawang Chua Wei Kiat PKR
N15 Taman Templer Mohd Sany Hamzan AMANAH
P98 Gombak N16 Sungai Tua Amirudin Shari PKR
N18 Hulu Kelang Saari Sungib AMANAH
P100 Pandan N21 Pandan Indah Izham Hashim AMANAH
P101 Ulu Langat N23 Dusun Tua Edry Faizal Eddy Yusof DAP
P102 Bangi N25 Kajang Hee Loy Sian PKR
N26 Sungai Ramal Mazwan Johar AMANAH
N27 Balakong Wong Siew Ki DAP
P103 Puchong N28 Seri Kembangan Ean Yong Hian Wah DAP
N29 Seri Serdang Siti Mariah Mahmud AMANAH
P104 Subang N30 Kinrara Ng Sze Han DAP
N31 Subang Jaya Michelle Ng Mei Sze DAP
P105 Petaling Jaya N32 Seri Setia Halimey Abu Bakar PKR
N33 Taman Medan Syamsul Firdaus Mohamed Supri PKR
N34 Bukit Gasing Rajiv Rishyakaran DAP
P106 Damansara N35 Kampung Tunku Lim Yi Wei DAP
N36 Bandar Utama Jamaliah Jamaluddin DAP
N37 Bukit Lanjan Elizabeth Wong PKR
P107 Sungai Buloh N38 Paya Jaras Mohd.Khairuddin Othman PKR
N39 Kota Damansara Shatiri Mansor [ms] PKR
P108 Shah Alam N40 Kota Anggerik Najwan Halimi PKR
N41 Batu Tiga Rodziah Ismail PKR
P109 Kapar N42 Meru Mohd. Fakhrulrazi Mohd. Mokhtar PKR
P110 Klang N45 Bandar Baru Klang Teng Chang Khim DAP
N46 Pelabuhan Klang Azmizam Zaman Huri PKR
N47 Pandamaran Leong Tuck Chee DAP
P111 Kota Raja N48 Sentosa Gunaraj George [ms] PKR
N49 Sungai Kandis Mohd.Zawawi Ahmad Mughni PKR
N50 Kota Kemuning Ganabatirau Veraman DAP
P112 Kuala Langat N52 Banting Lau Weng San [ms; zh] DAP
N53 Morib Hasnul Baharuddin AMANAH
P113 Sepang N54 Tanjong Sepat Borhan Aman Shah PKR
N56 Sungai Pelek Ronnie Liu Tian Khiew DAP
 Negeri Sembilan P126 Jelebu N1 Chennah Anthony Loke Siew Fook DAP
N4 Kelawang Bakri Sawir AMANAH
P127 Jempol N8 Bahau Teo Kok Seong DAP
P128 Seremban N9 Lenggeng Suhaimi Kassim [ms] AMANAH
N10 Nilai Arul Kumar Jambunathan DAP
N11 Lobak Chew Seh Yong DAP
N12 Temiang Ng Chin Tsai [ms] DAP
N13 Sikamat Aminuddin Harun PKR
N14 Ampangan Mohamad Rafie Ab. Malek PKR
P129 Kuala Pilah N18 Pilah Mohamad Nazaruddin Sabtu PKR
P130 Rasah N20 Labu Ismail Ahmad PKR
N21 Bukit Kepayang Nicole Tan Lee Koon DAP
N22 Rahang Mary Josephine Pritam Singh DAP
N23 Mambau Yap Yew Weng [ms] DAP
N24 Seremban Jaya Gunasekaren Palasamy DAP
P131 Rembau N25 Paroi Mohd Taufek Abd Ghani AMANAH
P132 Port Dickson N29 Chuah Yek Diew Ching PKR
N30 Lukut Choo Ken Hwa DAP
N33 Sri Tanjung Ravi Munusamy PKR
P133 Tampin N36 Repah Veerapan Superamaniam DAP
 Malacca P137 Hang Tuah Jaya N16 Ayer Keroh Kerk Chee Yee DAP
N17 Bukit Katil Adly Zahari AMANAH
P138 Kota Melaka N19 Kesidang Allex Seah Shoo Chin DAP
N20 Kota Laksamana Low Chee Leong DAP
N22 Bandar Hilir Leng Chau Yen DAP
 Johor P140 Segamat N2 Jementah Ng Kor Sim DAP
P144 Ledang N10 Tangkak Ee Chin Li DAP
P145 Bakri N12 Bentayan Ng Yak Howe DAP
N13 Simpang Jeram Salahuddin Ayub AMANAH
P150 Batu Pahat N23 Penggaram Gan Peck Cheng DAP
P152 Kluang N28 Mengkibol Chew Chong Sin DAP
P159 Pasir Gudang N42 Johor Jaya Liow Cai Tung DAP
P160 Johor Bahru N45 Stulang Chen Kah Eng DAP
P161 Pulai N46 Perling Liew Chin Tong DAP
P162 Iskandar Puteri N48 Skudai Marina Ibrahim DAP
P163 Kulai N51 Bukit Batu Arthur Chiong Sen Sern [ms] PKR
N52 Senai Wong Bor Yang DAP
 Sabah P169 Kota Belud N11 Kadamaian Ewon Benedick UPKO
P171 Sepanggar N18 Inanam Peto Galim PKR
P172 Kota Kinabalu (Jesselton) N19 Likas Tan Lee Fatt DAP
N20 Api-Api Christina Liew PKR
N21 Luyang Phoong Jin Zhe DAP
P174 Penampang N25 Kapayan Jannie Lasimbang DAP
P186 Sandakan N56 Tanjong Papat Frankie Poon DAP
 Sarawak P195 Bandar Kuching N09 Padungan Chong Chieng Jen DAP
N10 Pending Violet Yong Wui Wui DAP
Total Perlis (1), Kedah (10), Penang (33), Perak (24), Pahang (8), Selangor (40), Negeri Sembilan (20), Malacca (5), Johor (13), Sabah (7), Sarawak (2)

Pakatan Harapan state governments

Main article: State legislative assemblies of Malaysia

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Negeri Sembilan Menteri Besar Aminuddin Harun PKR Sikamat
 Penang Chief Minister Chow Kon Yeow DAP Padang Kota
 Selangor Menteri Besar Amirudin Shari PKR Sungai Tua

Pakatan Harapan also forms the state governments of Pahang, Perak, Melaka and Johor in coalition with Barisan Nasional, and the state government of Sabah in coalition with Gabungan Rakyat Sabah, following the formation of the federal unity government (Kerajaan Perpaduan) in the aftermath of the 15th general election of November 2022.

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Penang Deputy Chief Minister I Ahmad Zakiyuddin Abdul Rahman PKR Pinang Tunggal
 Penang Deputy Chief Minister II Ramasamy Palanisamy DAP Perai
State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Melaka Deputy Speaker Kerk Chee Yee DAP Ayer Keroh
 Negeri Sembilan Speaker Zulkefly Mohamad Omar AMANAH Non-MLA
 Negeri Sembilan Deputy Speaker Ravi Munusamy PKR Sri Tanjung
 Pahang Deputy Speaker Lee Chin Chen DAP Bilut
 Penang Speaker Law Choo Kiang PKR Non-MLA
 Penang Deputy Speaker Amar Pritpal Abdullah PKR Sungai Bakap
 Perak Deputy Speaker Jenny Choy Tsi Jen DAP Canning
 Selangor Speaker Ng Suee Lim DAP Sekinchan
 Selangor Deputy Speaker Hasnul Baharuddin AMANAH Morib

Ministerial posts

Portfolio Office bearer Party Constituency
Prime Minister and

Minister of Finance

Dato' Seri Anwar Ibrahim MP PH (PKR) Tambun
Minister of Economy Mohd. Rafizi Ramli MP PH (PKR) Pandan
Minister of Home Affairs Dato' Seri Saifuddin Nasution Ismail PH (PKR) Senator
Minister of Education Fadhlina Sidek MP PH (PKR) Nibong Tebal
Minister of Transport Anthony Loke Siew Fook MP PH (DAP) Seremban
Minister of Agriculture and Food Security Datuk Seri Haji Mohamad Sabu MP PH (AMANAH) Kota Raja
Minister of Health Dr. Zaliha Mustafa MP PH (PKR) Sekijang
Minister of Local Government Development Nga Kor Ming MP PH (DAP) Teluk Intan
Minister of Youth and Sports Hannah Yeoh Tseow Tsuan MP PH (DAP) Segambut
Minister of Human Resources Sivakumar Varatharaju Naidu MP PH (DAP) Batu Gajah
Minister of Domestic Trade and Living Costs Dato' Seri Salahuddin Ayub MP PH (AMANAH) Pulai
Minister of Entrepreneurship Development and Cooperative Datuk Ewon Benedick MP MLA PH (UPKO) Penampang
Minister of Science and Technology Chang Lih Kang MP PH (PKR) Tanjong Malim
Minister of Natural Resources, Environment and Climate Change Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad MP PH (PKR) Setiawangsa
Minister of Digital Communication Ahmad Fahmi Mohamed Fadzil MP PH (PKR) Lembah Pantai

General election results

Election Total seats won Seats contested Total votes Voting Percentage Outcome of election Election leader
122 / 222
222 5,615,822 45.56% Increase53 seats; Governing coalition (2018–2020)
later Opposition coalition (2020–2022)
Mahathir Mohamad
82 / 222
220 5,801,327 37.46% Decrease40 seats; Governing coalition with Barisan Nasional, Gabungan Parti Sarawak and Gabungan Rakyat Sabah Anwar Ibrahim

State election results

State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis Kedah Kelantan Terengganu Penang Perak Pahang Selangor Negeri Sembilan Malacca Johor Sabah Sarawak Total won / Total contested
2/3 majority
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
10 / 82
3 / 15
18 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
37 / 40
29 / 59
9 / 42
51 / 56
20 / 36
15 / 28
36 / 56
29 / 60
241 / 587
32 / 73
5 / 28
5 / 28
2 / 82
2 / 62
12 / 56
12 / 50
1 / 15
24 / 59
8 / 42
33 / 115
0 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
0 / 40
0 / 56
0 / 36

See also


  1. ^ The state government of Sabah was formed with a confidence and supply agreement with WARISAN and UPKO.


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