Alliance of Hope
Malay namePakatan Harapan
ڤاكتن هارڤن
Chinese name希望联盟
Tamil nameநம்பிக்கை கூட்டணி
PresidentWan Azizah Wan Ismail
ChairmanAnwar Ibrahim
Deputy President
Founded22 September 2015 (2015-09-22)
Legalised16 May 2018 (2018-05-16)[1]
Preceded byPakatan Rakyat
  • The Rocket
  • RoketKini
  • Suara Keadilan
  • Media Harapan
  • Harapan Daily
  • Kenyalang Tribune
  • Borneo Update
Student wingPakatan Harapan Student Movement
Youth wingPakatan Harapan Youth Movement[2][3]
Women's wingPakatan Harapan Youth Movement[2][3]
Political positionCentre-left
  •   Red
  •   White
Dewan Negara
15 / 70
Dewan Rakyat
81 / 222
State Legislative Assemblies
139 / 606
Chief minister of states
3 / 13
Party flag
2022 campaign website
Alliance of Hope
Traditional Chinese希望聯盟
Simplified Chinese希望联盟

The Alliance of Hope (Malay: Pakatan Harapan; abbrev: PH; stylized as HARAPAN) is a Malaysian political coalition consisting of centre-left political parties which was formed in 2015 to succeed the Pakatan Rakyat coalition. It has been part of a "Unity Government" since November 2022 together with other political coalitions and parties as a result of the 2022 Malaysian general election, and previously for 22 months after it had won the 2018 Malaysian general election until February 2020 when it lost power as a result of the 2020 Malaysian political crisis at the federal level. The coalition deposed the Barisan Nasional coalition government during the 2018 election, ending its 60-year-long reign (together with its predecessor, Alliance) since independence.

It is currently the largest coalition in the Dewan Rakyat with 81 seats. At the state level, it is the ruling coalition in 7 of the 13 states in the nation, Penang, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Pahang, Melaka and Sabah. It rules Penang, Perak, Pahang, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in coalition governments with Barisan Nasional (BN) and Sabah with Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (GRS) and BN. It is also a confidence and supply in the Johor state government led by BN. PH alone holds two-thirds majority in the state legislative assembly of Penang while PH and BN together hold two-thirds majorities in the state legislative assemblies of Negeri Sembilan and Melaka while PH, GRS and BN together hold two-thirds majority in the state legislative assembly of Sabah.[4]

The coalition consists of the Democratic Action Party, People's Justice Party, National Trust Party, and United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation.

The coalition lost its majority in parliament and fell from power in February 2020 when its chairman and then-Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad resigned after 22 months in office (compared to his 22 years as Prime Minister while with UMNO), and the Malaysian United Indigenous Party together with 11 members of parliament from the People's Justice Party left the coalition.[5][6][7]

After the 2022 general election that resulted in a hung parliament, the Alliance of Hope returned to power with a two-thirds majority, led by Prime Minister and PH Chairman Anwar Ibrahim, by forming a coalition government with National Front (BN), Sarawak Parties' Alliance (GPS), Sabah People's Alliance (GRS), Heritage Party (WARISAN), Malaysian People's Party (PBM), Social Democratic Harmony Party (KDM), and independents. Meanwhile Muhyiddin Yassin's Perikatan Nasional declined to join the coalition, and took the role of the opposition, with 74 seats.



Pakatan Harapan is a direct successor to the three-party Pakatan Rakyat coalition that consisted of the People's Justice Party, the Democratic Action Party and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party. Pakatan Harapan was founded on 22 September 2015, two years after the 2013 general election, due to disagreements and conflicts between PAS and DAP mainly regarding the issue of the implementation of the sharia law, resulting in PAS splitting off from Pakatan Rakyat and the break-up of the coalition on 16 June 2015.[8][9] The dissolution resulted in the formation of a new coalition named Pakatan Harapan, consisting the former Pakatan Rakyat parties, PKR and DAP, and a PAS split-off party, the National Trust Party.[10][11]

On 12 November 2016, a United Malays National Organisation split-off party, the Malaysian United Indigenous Party, founded and led by former Malaysian Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad, confirmed that the party was committed to joining the opposition bloc Pakatan Harapan.[12][13] Later, on 13 December, the party formed an electoral pact with Pakatan Harapan,[14] and finally on 14 March 2017, BERSATU officially joined Pakatan Harapan as a member party.[15]

2018 general election

On 14 July 2017, the Presidential council line-up was confirmed. A common logo was also introduced with the word "Harapan" with the "A" shaped as a chevron in white on a red background. The logo was initially planned to be used by all participating candidates for the 2018 general election, but the use of the logo and registration of the coalition was denied by the Election Commission.[16] To pursue the coalition's plan to contest under a common logo, Pakatan announced that the PKR logo will be used by all component parties of the coalition as its election symbol in the elections,[17] excluding for DAP who chose to contest under their own party flag in Sabah and Sarawak.[18][19][20]

The coalition secured an electoral pact with the Sabah-based Sabah Heritage Party for the 2018 general election. WARISAN's president, Shafie Apdal, promised that the party would be represented on the federal cabinet if the coalition came to power,[21] adding that through the electoral pact they will only co-operate with Pakatan as an ally, and not joining the pact as a component party since they will only contest in Sabah, not in Peninsular Malaysia.[22] In that election, Pakatan Harapan swept the election and formed the government in a surprise upset overturning the former ruling party UMNO's decades of uninterrupted rule, as the Malay vote was dissatisfied and mainly went to Amanah and popular former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's party Bersatu, while the Chinese vote was solidly behind parties like DAP and PKR. Following the surprise victory of Pakatan Harapan and WARISAN in the general election, the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation announced that they have left Barisan Nasional and will form a new Sabah state government with WARISAN and Pakatan Harapan.[23] UPKO and WARISAN are currently both the allies for Pakatan Harapan since both parties are also allied towards each other's in Sabah.[24]

At the state level, due to 2018 general election results the coalition formed the government in the states of Kedah, Penang, Perak, Selangor, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Johor and Sabah.[note 1] Pakatan Harapan also forms a government with a two-thirds majority in the states of Penang, Selangor and Johor.


Main article: 2020–2022 Malaysian political crisis

On 16 May 2018, the coalition was officially registered.[25] After winning the power in 2018, the coalition made some efforts in ensuring an independent trial for Najib's corruption charges, an independent anti-corruption commission, and repealing anti-fake news law. On the other hand, other issues such as decentralisation of powers to Sabah and Sarawak, educational reform, issues relating to indigenous people (orang asli), racial equality, and political patronage remained unchanged. Meanwhile, the Pakatan Harapan government was distracted by factional infighting.[26]

On 24 February 2020, Mahathir resigned as the Prime Minister. BERSATU which had 26 MPs, withdrew from the ruling Pakatan Harapan coalition. In addition, 11 MPs from PKR resigned from the party to form an independent bloc. This left Pakatan Harapan with 37 seats short of the 112 seats needed to form a government. The surprise announcement came amid speculation that Mahathir was attempting to form a new ruling coalition that would exclude his designated successor Anwar Ibrahim.[5][6][7] However, Anwar later clarified to reporters that Mahathir did not orchestrate the act. These events also resulted in the number of Pakatan Harapan coalition member parties returning to the original three.[27]

At the state level, Pakatan Harapan lost control of Johor, Malacca, Perak and Kedah. A few PKR, DAP and AMANAH representatives in the state legislative assemblies quit their party and expressed support for the new Perikatan Nasional government in those four states.[28][29][30][31] In the 2022 Malaysian general election,Pakatan Harapan won most Dewan Rakyat seats in Selangor,Johor,Penang,Perak,Melaka and Negeri Sembilan.In the states of Kelantan,Terengganu,Kedah and Perlis,most of the candidates are losing their 12.5% deposit and lose to Perikatan Nasional candidates with large margin. In the states legislative assemblies,Pakatan Harapan won 24 in Perak State Legislative Assembly,1 in Perlis State Legislative Assembly,and 8 in Pahang State Legislative Assembly.

Party-to-party relations

Pakatan Harapan at the coalition level doesn't have any allegiance with political internationals. However, some of its component parties do, as PKR was recognized as an observer party of Liberal International while DAP co-founded the Progressive Alliance. In the aftermath of 15th general election, Anwar Ibrahim received congratulatory messages from the Ennahda Party of Tunisia.[32] The party previously was present at an event organised by AMANAH in 2015.

Member parties

Flag Name Ideology Position Leader(s) Seats
2022 result Current
Votes (%) Seats Composition
Member parties
PKR People's Justice Party
Parti Keadilan Rakyat
Liberal democracy
Social liberalism
Centre-left Anwar Ibrahim 102 15.74%
31 / 222
31 / 81
DAP Democratic Action Party
Parti Tindakan Demokratik
Social democracy
Social liberalism
Centre-left Anthony Loke Siew Fook 55 15.61%
40 / 222
40 / 81
AMANAH National Trust Party
Parti Amanah Negara
Islamic modernism
Centre-left Mohamad Sabu 54 5.70%
8 / 222
8 / 81
UPKO United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation
Pertubuhan Kinabalu Progresif Bersatu
Sabah regionalism N/A Ewon Benedick 5 0.47%
2 / 222
2 / 81

Former member party

List of leaders


No. Name
Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Mahathir Mohamad
(b. 1925)
14 July 2017 24 February 2020 2 years, 225 days BERSATU
2 Anwar Ibrahim
(b. 1947)
14 May 2020 Incumbent 3 years, 346 days PKR


No. Name
Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
(b. 1952)
14 July 2017 Incumbent 6 years, 285 days PKR

Women Chiefs

No. Name


Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Zuraida Kamaruddin
(b. 1958)
14 August 2017 24 February 2020 2 years, 194 days PKR
2 Chong Eng
(b. 1957)
18 March 2021 12 September 2021 178 days DAP
3 Aiman Athirah Sabu
(b. 1972)
12 September 2021 Incumbent 2 years, 225 days AMANAH

Youth Chiefs

No. Name


Portrait Term of office Time in office Political party
1 Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad
(b. 1982)
31 October 2017 13 December 2018 1 year, 43 days PKR
2 Syed Saddiq Syed Abdul Rahman
(b. 1992)
13 December 2018 24 February 2020 1 year, 73 days BERSATU
3 Shazni Munir Mohd Ithnin
4 March 2021 6 August 2021 155 days AMANAH
4 Howard Lee Chuan How
(b. 1983)
12 September 2021 29 July 2022 320 days DAP
5 Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen
(b. 1986)
29 July 2022 Incumbent 1 year, 270 days DAP

Leadership structure

Central Leadership Council

Youth Wing (Angkatan Muda Harapan)


Women's Wing (Wanita Pakatan Harapan)

Elected representatives

Dewan Negara (Senate)


Main article: Members of the Dewan Negara, 15th Malaysian Parliament

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)

Members of Parliament of the 15th Malaysian Parliament

Main article: Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 15th Malaysian Parliament

Pakatan Harapan has 81 members in the House of Representatives .

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
 Kedah P015 Sungai Petani Mohammed Taufiq Johari PKR
 Penang P043 Bagan Lim Guan Eng DAP
P045 Bukit Mertajam Steven Sim Chee Keong DAP
P046 Batu Kawan Chow Kon Yeow DAP
P047 Nibong Tebal Fadhlina Sidek PKR
P048 Bukit Bendera Syerleena Abdul Rashid DAP
P049 Tanjong Lim Hui Ying DAP
P050 Jelutong Sanisvara Nethaji Rayer Rajaji Rayer DAP
P051 Bukit Gelugor Ramkarpal Singh DAP
P052 Bayan Baru Sim Tze Tzin PKR
P053 Balik Pulau Muhammad Bakhtiar Wan Chik PKR
 Perak P060 Taiping Wong Kah Woh DAP
P062 Sungai Siput Kesavan Subramaniam PKR
P063 Tambun Anwar Ibrahim PKR
P064 Ipoh Timor Howard Lee Chuan How DAP
P065 Ipoh Barat Kulasegaran Murugeson DAP
P066 Batu Gajah Sivakumar Varatharaju Naidu DAP
P068 Beruas Ngeh Koo Ham DAP
P070 Kampar Chong Zhemin DAP
P071 Gopeng Tan Kar Hing PKR
P076 Teluk Intan Nga Kor Ming DAP
P077 Tanjong Malim Chang Lih Kang PKR
 Pahang P080 Raub Chow Yu Hui DAP
P089 Bentong Young Syefura Othman DAP
 Selangor P096 Kuala Selangor Dzulkefly Ahmad AMANAH
P097 Selayang William Leong Jee Keen PKR
P098 Gombak Amirudin Shari PKR
P099 Ampang Rodziah Ismail PKR
P100 Pandan Mohd Rafizi Ramli PKR
P101 Hulu Langat Mohd Sany Hamzan AMANAH
P102 Bangi Syahredzan Johan DAP
P103 Puchong Yeo Bee Yin DAP
P104 Subang Wong Chen PKR
P105 Petaling Jaya Lee Chean Chung PKR
P106 Damansara Gobind Singh Deo DAP
P107 Sungai Buloh Ramanan Ramakrishnan PKR
P108 Shah Alam Azli Yusof AMANAH
P110 Klang Ganabatirau Veraman DAP
P111 Kota Raja Mohamad Sabu AMANAH
P113 Sepang Raj Munni Sabu AMANAH
 Kuala Lumpur P114 Kepong Lim Lip Eng DAP
P115 Batu Prabakaran Parameswaran PKR
P116 Wangsa Maju Zahir Hassan PKR
P117 Segambut Hannah Yeoh Tseow Suan DAP
P118 Setiawangsa Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad PKR
P120 Bukit Bintang Fong Kui Lun DAP
P121 Lembah Pantai Fahmi Fadzil PKR
P122 Seputeh Teresa Kok Suh Sim DAP
P123 Cheras Tan Kok Wai DAP
P124 Bandar Tun Razak Wan Azizah Wan Ismail PKR
 Negeri Sembilan P128 Seremban Anthony Loke Siew Fook DAP
P130 Rasah Cha Kee Chin DAP
P132 Port Dickson Aminuddin Harun PKR
 Malacca P135 Alor Gajah Adly Zahari AMANAH
P137 Hang Tuah Jaya Adam Adli Abdul Halim PKR
P138 Kota Melaka Khoo Poay Tiong DAP
 Johor P140 Segamat Yuneswaran Ramaraj PKR
P141 Sekijang Zaliha Mustafa PKR
P142 Labis Pang Hok Liong DAP
P144 Ledang Syed Ibrahim Syed Noh PKR
P145 Bakri Tan Hong Pin DAP
P149 Sri Gading Aminolhuda Hassan AMANAH
P150 Batu Pahat Onn Abu Bakar PKR
P152 Kluang Wong Shu Qi DAP
P158 Tebrau Jimmy Puah Wee Tse PKR
P159 Pasir Gudang Hassan Abdul Karim PKR
P160 Johor Bahru Akmal Nasrullah Mohd Nasir PKR
P161 Pulai Suhaizan Kayat AMANAH
P162 Iskandar Puteri Liew Chin Tong DAP
P163 Kulai Teo Nie Ching DAP
 Sabah P170 Tuaran Wilfred Madius Tangau UPKO
P171 Sepanggar Mustapha Sakmud PKR
P172 Kota Kinabalu Chan Foong Hin DAP
P174 Penampang Ewon Benedick UPKO
P186 Sandakan Vivian Wong Shir Yee DAP
 Sarawak P192 Mas Gading Mordi Bimol DAP
P195 Bandar Kuching Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen DAP
P196 Stampin Chong Chieng Jen DAP
P211 Lanang Alice Lau Kiong Yieng DAP
P212 Sibu Oscar Ling Chai Yew DAP
P219 Miri Chiew Choon Man PKR
Total Kedah (1), Penang (10), Perak (11), Pahang (2), Selangor (16), F.T. Kuala Lumpur (10), Negeri Sembilan (3), Malacca (3), Johor (14), Sabah (5), Sarawak (6)

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)

Main article: List of Malaysian State Assembly Representatives (2023–present)

State No. Parliamentary


No. State Constituency Member Party
 Perlis P002 Kangar N8 Indera Kayangan Gan Ay Ling PKR
 Kedah P009 Alor Setar N13 Kota Darul Aman Teh Swee Leong DAP
P015 Sungai Petani N28 Bakar Arang Adam Loh Wei Chai PKR
N29 Sidam Bau Wong Bau Ek PKR
 Kelantan P021 Kota Bharu N9 Kota Lama Hafidzah Mustakim AMANAH
 Penang P043 Bagan N07 Sungai Puyu Phee Syn Tze DAP
N08 Bagan Jermal Chee Yeeh Keen DAP
N09 Bagan Dalam Kumaran Krishnan DAP
P045 Bukit Mertajam N13 Berapit Heng Lee Lee DAP
N14 Machang Bubok Lee Khai Loon PKR
N15 Padang Lalang Daniel Gooi Zi Sen DAP
P046 Batu Kawan N16 Perai Sundarajoo Somu DAP
N17 Bukit Tengah Gooi Hsiao Leung PKR
N18 Bukit Tambun Goh Choon Aik PKR
P047 Nibong Tebal N19 Jawi Jason H'ng Mooi Lye DAP
P048 Bukit Bendera N22 Tanjong Bunga Zairil Khir Johari DAP
N23 Air Putih Lim Guan Eng DAP
N24 Kebun Bunga Lee Boon Heng PKR
N25 Pulau Tikus Joshua Woo Sze Zeng DAP
P049 Tanjong N26 Padang Kota Chow Kon Yeow DAP
N27 Pengkalan Kota Wong Yuee Harng DAP
N28 Komtar Teh Lai Heng DAP
P050 Jelutong N29 Datok Keramat Jagdeep Singh Deo DAP
N30 Sungai Pinang Lim Siew Khim DAP
N31 Batu Lancang Ong Ah Teong DAP
P051 Bukit Gelugor N32 Seri Delima Connie Tan Hooi Peng DAP
N33 Air Itam Joseph Ng Soon Seong DAP
N34 Paya Terubong Wong Hon Wai DAP
P052 Bayan Baru N35 Batu Uban Kumaresan Aramugam PKR
N36 Pantai Jerejak Fahmi Zainol PKR
N37 Batu Maung Mohamad Abdul Hamid PKR
P053 Balik Pulau N38 Bayan Lepas Azrul Mahathir Aziz AMANAH
 Perak P60 Taiping N17 Pokok Assam Ong Seng Guan DAP
N18 Aulong Teh Kok Lim DAP
P062 Sungai Siput N22 Jalong Loh Sze Yee DAP
P063 Tambun N24 Hulu Kinta Muhamad Arafat Varisai Mahamad PKR
P064 Ipoh Timur N25 Canning Jenny Choy Tsi Jen DAP
N26 Tebing Tinggi Abdul Aziz Bari DAP
N27 Pasir Pinji Goh See Hua DAP
P065 Ipoh Barat N28 Bercham Ong Boon Piow DAP
N29 Kepayang Nga Kor Ming DAP
N30 Buntong Thulsi Thivani Manogaran DAP
P066 Batu Gajah N31 Jelapang Cheah Pou Hian DAP
N32 Menglembu Chaw Kam Foon DAP
N33 Tronoh Steven Tiw Tee Siang DAP
P068 Bruas N37 Pantai Remis Wong May Ing DAP
N38 Astaka Jason Ng Thien Yeong DAP
P070 Kampar N41 Malim Nawar Bavani Veraiah DAP
N42 Keranji Angeline Koo Haai Yen DAP
N43 Tualang Sekah Mohd Azlan Helmi PKR
P071 Gopeng N44 Sungai Rapat Mohammad Nizar Jamaluddin AMANAH
N45 Simpang Pulai Wong Chai Yi PKR
N46 Teja Sandrea Ng Shy Ching PKR
P075 Bagan Datuk N54 Hutan Melintang Wasanthee Sinnasamy PKR
P076 Teluk Intan N55 Pasir Bedamar Woo Kah Leong DAP
P077 Tanjong Malim N57 Sungkai Sivanesan Achalingam DAP
 Pahang P078 Cameron Highlands N1 Tanah Rata Ho Chi Yang DAP
P080 Raub N07 Tras Tengku Zulpuri Shah Raja Puji DAP
P082 Indera Mahkota N13 Semambu Chan Chun Kuang PKR
P083 Kuantan N14 Teruntum Sim Chon Siang PKR
P088 Temerloh N30 Mentakab Woo Chee Wan DAP
P089 Bentong N33 Bilut Lee Chin Chen DAP
N34 Ketari Thomas Su Keong Siong DAP
P090 Bera N38 Triang Leong Yu Man DAP
 Selangor P093 Sungai Besar N04 Sekinchan Ng Suee Lim DAP
P094 Hulu Selangor N06 Kuala Kubu Baharu Lee Kee Hiong DAP
P097 Selayang N14 Rawang Chua Wei Kiat PKR
N15 Taman Templer Anfaal Saari AMANAH
P098 Gombak N16 Sungai Tua Amirudin Shari PKR
P099 Ampang N19 Bukit Antarabangsa Mohd Kamri Kamaruddin PKR
N20 Lembah Jaya Syed Ahmad Syed Abdul Rahman Alhadad PKR
P100 Pandan N21 Pandan Indah Izham Hashim AMANAH
N22 Teratai Yew Jia Haur DAP
P102 Bangi N25 Kajang David Cheong Kian Young PKR
N27 Balakong Wayne Ong Chun Wei DAP
P103 Puchong N28 Seri Kembangan Wong Siew Ki DAP
N29 Seri Serdang Abbas Salimi Azmi AMANAH
P104 Subang N30 Kinrara Ng Sze Han DAP
N31 Subang Jaya Michelle Ng Mei Sze DAP
P105 Petaling Jaya N32 Seri Setia Mohammad Fahmi Ngah PKR
N34 Bukit Gasing Rajiv Rishyakaran DAP
P106 Damansara N35 Kampung Tunku Lim Yi Wei DAP
N36 Bandar Utama Jamaliah Jamaluddin DAP
N37 Bukit Lanjan Pua Pei Ling PKR
P107 Sungai Buloh N39 Kota Damansara Muhammad Izuan Ahmad Kasim PKR
P108 Shah Alam N40 Kota Anggerik Najwan Halimi PKR
N41 Batu Tiga Danial Al Rashid Haron Aminar Rashid AMANAH
P109 Kapar N42 Meru Mariam Abdul Rashid AMANAH
P110 Klang N45 Bandar Baru Klang Quah Perng Fei DAP
N46 Pelabuhan Klang Azmizam Zaman Huri PKR
N47 Pandamaran Leong Tuck Chee DAP
P111 Kota Raja N48 Sentosa Gunarajah George PKR
N50 Kota Kemuning Preakas Sampunathan DAP
P112 Kuala Langat N52 Banting Papparaidu Veraman DAP
P113 Sepang N54 Tanjong Sepat Borhan Aman Shah PKR
N56 Sungai Pelek Lwi Kian Keong DAP
 Negeri Sembilan P126 Jelebu N01 Chennah Anthony Loke Siew Fook DAP
N04 Kelawang Bakri Sawir AMANAH
P127 Jempol N08 Bahau Teo Kok Seong DAP
P128 Seremban N10 Nilai Arul Kumar Jambunathan DAP
N11 Lobak Chew Seh Yong DAP
N12 Temiang Ng Chin Tsai DAP
N13 Sikamat Aminuddin Harun PKR
N14 Ampangan Tengku Zamrah Tengku Sulaiman PKR
P129 Kuala Pilah N18 Pilah Noorzunita Begum Abdullah PKR
P130 Rasah N21 Bukit Kepayang Nicole Tan Lee Koon DAP
N22 Rahang Desmond Siau Meow Kong DAP
N23 Mambau Yap Yew Weng DAP
N24 Seremban Jaya Gunasekaren Palasamy DAP
P132 Port Dickson N29 Chuah Yew Boon Lye PKR
N30 Lukut Choo Ken Hwa DAP
N33 Sri Tanjung Rajasekaran Gunasekaran PKR
P133 Tampin N36 Repah Veerapan Superamaniam DAP
 Malacca P137 Hang Tuah Jaya N16 Ayer Keroh Kerk Chee Yee DAP
N17 Bukit Katil Adly Zahari AMANAH
P138 Kota Melaka N19 Kesidang Allex Seah Shoo Chin DAP
N20 Kota Laksamana Low Chee Leong DAP
N22 Bandar Hilir Leng Chau Yen DAP
 Johor P140 Segamat N2 Jementah Ng Kor Sim DAP
P144 Ledang N10 Tangkak Ee Chin Li DAP
P145 Bakri N12 Bentayan Ng Yak Howe DAP
N13 Simpang Jeram Nazri Abdul Rahman AMANAH
P150 Batu Pahat N23 Penggaram Gan Peck Cheng DAP
P152 Kluang N28 Mengkibol Chew Chong Sin DAP
P159 Pasir Gudang N42 Johor Jaya Liow Cai Tung DAP
P160 Johor Bahru N45 Stulang Andrew Chen Kah Eng DAP
P161 Pulai N46 Perling Liew Chin Tong DAP
P162 Iskandar Puteri N48 Skudai Marina Ibrahim DAP
P163 Kulai N51 Bukit Batu Arthur Chiong Sen Sern PKR
N52 Senai Wong Bor Yang DAP
 Sabah P169 Kota Belud N11 Kadamaian Ewon Benedick UPKO
P171 Sepanggar N18 Inanam Peto Galim PKR
P172 Kota Kinabalu (Jesselton) N19 Likas Tan Lee Fatt DAP
N20 Api-Api Christina Liew Chin Jin PKR
N21 Luyang Phoong Jin Zhe DAP
P174 Penampang N25 Kapayan Jannie Lasimbang DAP
P186 Sandakan N56 Tanjong Papat Frankie Poon DAP
 Sarawak P195 Bandar Kuching N09 Padungan Chong Chieng Jen DAP
N10 Pending Violet Yong Wui Wui DAP
Total Perlis (1), Kedah (3), Kelantan (1), Penang (27), Perak (24), Pahang (8), Selangor (32), Negeri Sembilan (17), Malacca (5), Johor (13), Sabah (7), Sarawak (2)

Pakatan Harapan state governments

Main article: State legislative assemblies of Malaysia

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Negeri Sembilan Menteri Besar Aminuddin Harun PKR Sikamat
 Penang Chief Minister Chow Kon Yeow DAP Padang Kota
 Selangor Menteri Besar Amirudin Shari PKR Sungai Tua

Pakatan Harapan also forms the state governments of Pahang, Perak, Melaka and Johor in coalition with Barisan Nasional, and the state government of Sabah in coalition with Gabungan Rakyat Sabah, following the formation of the federal unity government (Kerajaan Perpaduan) in the aftermath of the 15th general election of November 2022.

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Penang Deputy Chief Minister I Mohamad Abdul Hamid PKR Batu Maung
 Penang Deputy Chief Minister II Jagdeep Singh Deo DAP Datok Keramat
State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Melaka Deputy Speaker Kerk Chee Yee DAP Ayer Keroh
 Negeri Sembilan Speaker Mk Ibrahim Abdul Rahman AMANAH Non-MLA
 Pahang Deputy Speaker Lee Chin Chen DAP Bilut
 Penang Speaker Law Choo Kiang PKR Non-MLA
 Penang Deputy Speaker Azrul Mahathir Aziz AMANAH Bayan Lepas
 Perak Deputy Speaker Jenny Choy Tsi Jen DAP Canning
 Selangor Speaker Lau Weng San DAP Non-MLA
 Selangor Deputy Speaker Mohd Kamri Kamaruddin PKR Bukit Antarabangsa

Ministerial posts

Portfolio Office Bearer Party Constituency
Prime Minister
Minister of Finance
Dato' Seri Anwar Ibrahim MP PKR Tambun
Minister of Transport Anthony Loke Siew Fook MP MLA DAP Seremban
Minister of Agriculture and Food Security Datuk Seri Mohamad Sabu MP AMANAH Kota Raja
Minister of Economy Mohd. Rafizi Ramli MP PKR Pandan
Minister of Local Government Development Nga Kor Ming MP MLA DAP Teluk Intan
Minister of Home Affairs Senator Datuk Seri Saifuddin Nasution Ismail PKR Senator
Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation Chang Lih Kang MP PKR Tanjong Malim
Minister of Natural Resources and Environmental Sustainability Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad MP PKR Setiawangsa
Minister of Entrepreneur Development and Cooperatives Datuk Ewon Benedick MP MLA UPKO Penampang
Minister of Communications Ahmad Fahmi Mohamed Fadzil MP PKR Lembah Pantai
Minister of Education Fadhlina Sidek MP PKR Nibong Tebal
Minister of Youth and Sports Hannah Yeoh Tseow Suan MP DAP Segambut
Minister in the Prime Minister's Department
(Federal Territories)
Dr. Zaliha Mustafa MP PKR Sekijang
Minister of Health Datuk Seri Dr. Dzulkefly Ahmad MP AMANAH Kuala Selangor
Minister of Digital Gobind Singh Deo MP DAP Damansara
Minister of Human Resources Steven Sim Chee Keong MP DAP Bukit Mertajam
Portfolio Office Bearer Party Constituency
Deputy Minister of Finance Lim Hui Ying MP DAP Tanjong
Deputy Minister of Energy Transition and Water Transformation Akmal Nasrullah Mohd. Nasir MP PKR Johor Bahru
Deputy Minister of Local Government Development Datuk Aiman Athirah Sabu MP AMANAH Sepang
Deputy Minister of Investment, Trade and Industry Liew Chin Tong MP MLA DAP Iskandar Puteri
Deputy Minister of Defence Adly Zahari MP MLA AMANAH Alor Gajah
Deputy Minister in the Prime Minister's Department
(Law and Institutional Reform)
Kulasegaran Murugeson MP DAP Ipoh Barat
Deputy Minister of Entrepreneur Development and Cooperatives Dato' Ramanan Ramakrishnan MP PKR Sungai Buloh
Deputy Minister of Higher Education Datuk Mustapha Sakmud MP PKR Sepanggar
Deputy Minister of Communications Teo Nie Ching MP DAP Kulai
Deputy Minister of Education Wong Kah Woh MP DAP Taiping
Deputy Minister of National Unity Senator Saraswathy Kandasami PKR Senator
Deputy Minister of Youth and Sports Adam Adli Abdul Halim MP PKR Hang Tuah Jaya
Deputy Minister of Domestic Trade and Costs of Living Senator Fuziah Salleh PKR Senator
Deputy Minister of Plantation and Commodities Datuk Chan Foong Hin MP DAP Kota Kinabalu

General election results

Election Total seats won Seats contested Total votes Voting Percentage Outcome of election Election leader
122 / 222
222 5,615,822 45.56% Increase53 seats; Governing coalition (2018–2020)
later Opposition coalition (2020–2022)
Mahathir Mohamad
82 / 222
220 5,801,327 37.46% Decrease40 seats; Governing coalition with Barisan Nasional, Gabungan Parti Sarawak, Gabungan Rakyat Sabah and Parti Warisan Anwar Ibrahim

State election results

State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis Kedah Kelantan Terengganu Penang Perak Pahang Selangor Negeri Sembilan Malacca Johor Sabah Sarawak Total won / Total contested
2/3 majority
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
10 / 82
3 / 15
18 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
37 / 40
29 / 59
9 / 42
51 / 56
20 / 36
15 / 28
36 / 56
29 / 60
241 / 587
32 / 73
5 / 28
5 / 28
2 / 82
2 / 62
12 / 56
12 / 50
1 / 15
24 / 59
8 / 42
33 / 115
3 / 36
1 / 45
0 / 32
27 / 40
32 / 56
17 / 36
80 / 137

See also


  1. ^ The state government of Sabah was formed with a confidence and supply agreement with WARISAN and UPKO.


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