Timeline of Malaysian political parties with origins from UMNO since 1946
Timeline of Malaysian political parties with origins from UMNO since 1946

This is a list of political parties in Malaysia, including existing and historical ones.

Legislation

Under the current legislation, all political parties (termed "Political Associations") must be registered under the Societies Act.

Election expenses

The Election Offences Act (1954) regulates the maximum expenses allowed for candidates vying for parliamentary seats and for state seats during the campaign period (excluding before the nomination day and after election day). The permissible campaign expenditure set by the Election Offences Act (1954) is RM100,000 per candidate for state seats and RM200,000 per candidate for federal seats. According to this guideline, with 505 state seats and 222 parliamentary seats in the 2013 general election, the maximum amount that Barisan Nasional was allowed to spend was only about RM95 million. Due to the lack of records and regulations, Malaysian politicians may not even know how much they spent on their campaigns or overspending the expenditure than permitted by law. Another related problem was the secrecy surrounding political funds and their use. Although many politicians, including members of newly appointed cabinets, voluntarily disclosed their personal finances, such disclosure is not compulsory and many sources of revenue remain obscure.

Election deposits

The deposit was RM10,000 to contest a parliamentary seat, or RM5,000 to contest a state assembly seat. The deposit is used to pay for infringements of election laws and is returned after polling day unless the candidate loses and fails to garner more than 12.5 percent or one-eighth of the votes cast. Additionally it is required that each candidate provide a RM5,000 deposit for cleaning up banners and posters after the election.

Political donations

Political donations are legal in Malaysia. There is no limit, and parties are not obliged to disclose the source of the funding, which makes political donations a vague subject but still entirely legal in the country. All political donations are allowed to be given into accounts of individuals and accounts of the political party. Anonymous donors and foreigners may request to not to reveal their identities.

Political parties are funded by contributions from:

Latest election results

Main article: 2018 Malaysian general election

The parties

Parties represented in the Parliament and/or the state legislative assemblies

This is the list of coalitions and parties that have representation in the Parliament of Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat & Dewan Negara) and/or the state legislative assemblies, sorted by seats held in the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia. Unless noted, numbers exclude independents and loose allies linked to each party

Coalition and Party Abbr Leader Ideology Position Dewan Rakyat Dewan Negara State Assemblies Vote share (2018) Federal government
Pakatan Harapan
Alliance of Hope [A]
PH Anwar Ibrahim Social liberalism Centre-left
90 / 222
4 / 70
165 / 607
41.29% Stability partner
Perikatan Nasional
National Alliance [B]
PN Muhyiddin Yassin National conservatism Right-wing
49 / 222
23 / 70
137 / 607
24.07% Government
Barisan Nasional
National Front
BN Ahmad Zahid Hamidi National conservatism Right-wing
42 / 222
24 / 70
179 / 607
25.79% Government
Gabungan Parti Sarawak
Sarawak Parties Alliance [C]
GPS Abang Johari Openg Sarawak regionalism Centre-right
18 / 222
6 / 70
76 / 607
3.82% Government
Parti Gabungan Rakyat Sabah
Sabah People's Alliance Party [22]
GRS Party Hajiji Noor Sabah regionalism Centre-right
9 / 222
2 / 70
30 / 607
2.42% Government
Parti Warisan
Heritage Party [D]
WARISAN Shafie Apdal Multiracialism Centre-left
7 / 222
0 / 70
19 / 607
2.32% Opposition
Parti Pejuang Tanah Air
Homeland Fighters' Party
PEJUANG Mahathir Mohamad Malay nationalism Centre-right
4 / 222
0 / 70
5 / 607
N/A Opposition
Parti Bangsa Malaysia
Malaysian Nation Party
PBM Larry Sng Wei Shien Multiracialism Centre
2 / 222
0 / 70
5 / 607
N/A Government
Parti Sarawak Bersatu
United Sarawak Party
PSB Wong Soon Koh Sarawak regionalism Centre-right
1 / 222
0 / 70
4 / 607
N/A Opposition
Malaysian United Democratic Alliance
Ikatan Demokratik Malaysia
MUDA Syed Saddiq Youth politics Centre
1 / 222
0 / 70
1 / 607
N/A Opposition
Parti Kesejahteraan Demokratik Masyarakat
Social Democratic Harmony Party
KDM Peter Anthony Multiracialism Centre
0 / 222
0 / 70
2 / 607
N/A Government
Parti Harapan Rakyat Sabah
Sabah People's Hope Party
PHRS Liew Yun Fah Sabah regionalism Centre
0 / 222
0 / 70
1 / 607
0.31% Government

A The coalition contested seats in West Malaysia using the symbol of the People's Justice Party while seats in East Malaysia were contested using the symbols of the individual coalition parties.
 Excludes the Malaysian United Indigenous Party, which was part of the coalition in the 2018 election but subsequently left and later joined Perikatan Nasional in 2020.

B New alliance of parties formed in 2020. Share shown are the total seats and vote share of BERSATU, PAS, GERAKAN, STAR and SAPP in the last election.
C Four parties that made up Barisan Nasional Sarawak announced their withdrawal from the coalition and formed the new coalition of 12 June 2018.[1]
D The party contested in an electoral pact with Pakatan Harapan.
E These parties contested seats in the state of Sabah only as part of the BN coalition but withdrew from the coalition after the 14th General Elections.[2]

Coalitions and electoral pacts

Pakatan Harapan

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Perikatan Nasional

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Barisan Nasional

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Gagasan Sejahtera

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Gabungan Parti Sarawak

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

United Sabah Alliance

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Gabungan Rakyat Sabah Party (GRS Party)

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Gabungan Anak Sarawak (GASAK)

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Parties without representation in the Parliament and the state legislative assemblies

This is the list of active coalitions and parties that do not have representation in the Parliament of Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara) and the state legislative assemblies, sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS). Parties that are part of a coalition that is represented are not listed here even if the party itself is not represented.

Parties registered with the ROS and EC

Political parties registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS) and with the Election Commission (EC).

Parties registered with the ROS but not with the EC

Political parties registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS) but not with the Election Commission (EC). They are therefore unable to contest in elections using their own symbols. Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah was one such party and has only contested elections using the Barisan Nasional symbol.

Historical parties

See also: Category:Defunct political parties in Malaysia and List of political parties in Singapore

These organisations have never been or are no longer registered as political bodies, and can thus no longer contest elections. Parties that were registered in British Malaya but operated solely in the territory of Singapore are also excluded from this list. Parties that have been renamed but still exist today as registered political parties are also excluded from this list. A number of these may still exist as organisations in some form, but none are recognised as political parties.

Before 1949

1950–1959

1960–1969

1970–1979

1980–1989

1990–1999

2000–2009

2010 – present

See also

References

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