Timeline of Malaysian political parties with origins from UMNO since 1946

This is a list of political parties in Malaysia, including existing and historical ones.

Legislation

Under the current legislation, all political parties (termed "Political Associations") must be registered under the Societies Act.

Anti-hopping parties law

In Malaysian politics, a frog (Malay: katak politik) (Sabahan: Buhangkut politik) refers to an act where a politician crosses the bench from one party to another (changing support).[1][2] This term was first coined in during the 1994 Sabah state elections after United Sabah Party losing its majority even the party won the state elections. Despite its usage nationwide, it is more familiar within the state of Sabah.[3] Since May 25, 2023, nine states of Malaysia has approved the "Anti-Switching Parties Law" or "Anti-Hopping Parties Law" for both states legislative assembly and parliament including Sabah and Sarawak.[4]

Election expenses

The Election Offences Act (1954) regulates the maximum expenses allowed for candidates vying for parliamentary seats and for state seats during the campaign period (excluding before the nomination day and after election day). The permissible campaign expenditure set by the Election Offences Act (1954) is RM 100,000 per candidate for state seats and RM 200,000 per candidate for federal seats. According to this guideline, with 505 state seats and 222 parliamentary seats in the 2013 general election, the maximum amount that Barisan Nasional was allowed to spend was only about RM 95 million. Due to the lack of records and regulations, Malaysian politicians may not even know how much they spent on their campaigns or overspending the expenditure than permitted by law. Another related problem was the secrecy surrounding political funds and their use. Although many politicians, including members of newly appointed cabinets, voluntarily disclosed their personal finances, such disclosure is not compulsory and many sources of revenue remain obscure.

Election deposits

The deposit was RM 10,000 to contest a parliamentary seat, or RM 5,000 to contest a state assembly seat. The deposit is used to pay for infringements of election laws and is returned after polling day unless the candidate loses and fails to garner more than 12.5 per cent or one-eighth of the votes cast. Additionally it is required that each candidate provide a RM 5,000 deposit for cleaning up banners and posters after the election.

Political donations

Political donations are legal in Malaysia. There is no limit, and parties are not obliged to disclose the source of the funding, which makes political donations a vague subject but still entirely legal in the country. All political donations are allowed to be given into accounts of individuals and accounts of the political party. Anonymous donors and foreigners may request to not to reveal their identities.

Political parties are funded by contributions from:

Latest election results

Main article: 2022 Malaysian general election

Currently Active Parties

Parties represented in the Parliament and/or the state legislative assemblies

This is the list of coalitions and parties that have representation in the Parliament of Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat & Dewan Negara) and/or the state legislative assemblies, sorted by seats held in the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia. Unless noted, numbers exclude independents and loose allies linked to each party

Coalition and Party Abbr Leader Ideology Position Dewan Rakyat Dewan Negara State Assemblies Vote share (2022) Federal government
Pakatan Harapan
Alliance of Hope[A]
PH Anwar Ibrahim Social democracy Centre-left
82 / 222
14 / 70
139 / 607
37.46% Government
Perikatan Nasional
National Alliance[B]
PN Muhyiddin Yassin National conservatism Centre-right to right-wing
74 / 222
15 / 70
210 / 607
30.35% Opposition
Barisan Nasional
National Front
BN Ahmad Zahid Hamidi Conservatism Right-wing
30 / 222
21 / 70
119 / 607
22.36% Government
Gabungan Parti Sarawak
Sarawak Parties Alliance[C]
GPS Abang Abdul Rahman Johari Abang Openg Sarawak nationalism Centre-right
23 / 222
6 / 70
76 / 607
3.94% Government
Parti Gabungan Rakyat Sabah
Sabah People's Alliance Party[D]
GRS Hajiji Noor Sabah nationalism Centre
6 / 222
2 / 70
42 / 607
2.98% Government
Parti Warisan
Heritage Party
Warisan Shafie Apdal Sabah progressivism Centre-right
3 / 222
0 / 70
14 / 607
1.82% Government
Parti Kesejahteraan Demokratik Masyarakat
Social Democratic Harmony Party
KDM Peter Anthony Sabah regionalism Centre
1 / 222
0 / 70
2 / 607
0.34% Government
Parti Bangsa Malaysia
Malaysian Nation Party
PBM Larry Sng Multiracialism Centre-left
1 / 222
0 / 70
2 / 607
0.11% Government
Malaysian United Democratic Alliance
Ikatan Demokratik Malaysia[E]
MUDA Amira Aisya Abdul Aziz (Acting) Populism Centre-left
1 / 222
0 / 70
1 / 607
0.48% Opposition
Love Sabah Party
Parti Cinta Sabah
PCS Anifah Aman Sabah regionalism Centre
0 / 222
1 / 70
0 / 607
N/A Government, no represented seats
Parti Sarawak Bersatu
United Sarawak Party
PSB Wong Soon Koh Sarawak regionalism Centre-right
0 / 222
0 / 70
3 / 607
0.41% Government, no represented seats

A The coalition contested seats in West Malaysia using the symbol of the People's Justice Party while seats in East Malaysia were contested using the symbols of the individual coalition parties.
 Excludes the Malaysian United Indigenous Party, which was part of the coalition in the 2018 election but subsequently left and later joined Perikatan Nasional in 2020.

B New alliance of parties formed in 2020. Share shown are the total seats and vote share of BERSATU, PAS and GERAKAN in the last election.
C Four parties that made up Barisan Nasional Sarawak announced their withdrawal from the coalition and formed the new coalition of 12 June 2018.[5]
D Gabungan Rakyat Sabah Party (GRS) is an official political coalition party founded in September 2020 by Datuk Sri Panglima Hajiji Noor and successfully registered, confirmed on March 11, 2022 by Registry of Societies (RoS)[6][7]
E The party contested in an electoral pact with Pakatan Harapan.

Coalitions and electoral pacts

Pakatan Harapan (PH)

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Perikatan Nasional (National Alliance)

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Barisan Nasional (National Front)

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Gerakan Tanah Air (GTA)

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Gabungan Parti Sarawak (GPS)

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (GRS)

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Perikatan Rakyat Bersatu Sarawak (Perkasa)

The list is sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS).

Parties without representation in the Parliament and the state legislative assemblies

This is the list of active coalitions and parties that do not have representation in the Parliament of Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara) and the state legislative assemblies, sorted by the year in which the respective parties were legalised and registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS). Parties that are part of a coalition that is represented are not listed here even if the party itself is not represented.

Parties registered with the ROS and EC

Political parties registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS) and with the Election Commission (EC).

Parties registered with the ROS but not with the EC

Political parties registered with the Registrar of Societies (ROS) but not with the Election Commission (EC). They are therefore unable or able to contest in elections using their own symbols.

Historical parties

See also: Category:Defunct political parties in Malaysia and List of political parties in Singapore

These organisations have never been or are no longer registered as political bodies, and can thus no longer contest elections. Parties that were registered in British Malaya but operated solely in the territory of Singapore are also excluded from this list. Parties that have been renamed but still exist today as registered political parties are also excluded from this list. A number of these may still exist as organisations in some form, but none are recognised as political parties.

Before 1949

1950–1959

1960–1969

1970–1979

1980–1989

1990–1999

2000–2009

2010 – present

See also

References

  1. ^ partyforumseasia (17 September 2020). "Malaysia's "Katak" Parliament". Political Party Forum Southeast Asia. Retrieved 3 April 2023.
  2. ^ "Party hopping in Malaysia - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 3 April 2023.
  3. ^ "Political Turmoil in Sabah: Attack of the Kataks". ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute. 5 August 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2023.
  4. ^ "Sabah's history of party hopping has ended, says Hajiji". The Star News. 25 May 2023. Retrieved 25 May 2023.
  5. ^ Tawie, Sulok (12 June 2018). "Sarawak ruling parties quit BN". Malay Mail. Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
  6. ^ Express, Daily (18 December 2022). "'GRS stronger now as a fully local party'". Daily Express. Retrieved 21 December 2022.
  7. ^ Daily, Express (19 December 2022). "GRS kini kuat sebagai parti tempatan sepenuhnya". Harian Ekspres. Retrieved 11 January 2023.
  8. ^ Muller, Dominik M. (2013). "Post-Islamism or Pop-Islamism? Ethnographic observations of Muslim youth politics in Malaysia" (PDF). Paideuma: Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde. 6 (10): 261–284.
  9. ^ Bernama (11 March 2022). "RoS approves registration of Gabungan Rakyat Sabah, says Hajiji". malaymail. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  10. ^ "Sarawak-based Parti Sedar Rakyat to go national". The Star. 13 September 2023. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  11. ^ Teh Eng Hock (27 August 2010). "Kimma becomes Umno associate member". The Star. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  12. ^ Patrick, Sennyah; Chow Kum Hor (10 November 2002). "Parti Punjabi willing to wait for admission into BN". New Straits Times. The New Straits Times Press (M) Berhad. Retrieved 24 June 2008.
  13. ^ "Parti Punjabi forced to amend constitution". New Straits Times. 3 October 2002. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2008.
  14. ^ Churchill Edward (29 October 2021). "Banyi quits PSB to helm Teras". Borneo Post. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  15. ^ Sahat, Yusri (5 November 2006). "Saberkas pelopori penubuhan UMNO Kedah" [Saberkas led towards the establishment of UMNO Kedah]. Utusan Malaysia (in Malay). Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Tan, Kim Hong (20 February 2009). "The Labour Party of Malaya, 1952–1972". Aliran Monthly. Aliran Kesedaran Rakyat. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  17. ^ "Malayan Democratic Union is formed - Singapore History".
  18. ^ "Pan-Malayan Council of Joint Action is formed - Singapore History".
  19. ^ Hashim, Wan (2011). Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia [Race Relations in Malaysia] (in Malay). Kuala Lumpur: ITBM. ISBN 9789830685793.
  20. ^ a b Mueller, Dominick M (2014). Islam, Politics and Youth in Malaysia: The Pop-Islamist Reinvention of PAS. Routledge. pp. 51–52. ISBN 9781317912989.
  21. ^ "New Youth Party Formed". The Straits Times. Singapore. 22 January 1948.
  22. ^ "Labour Party for Malacca". Morning Tribune. Singapore. 8 September 1948.
  23. ^ Ong, Anna (1 February 2017). "Tun Dato' Seri Dr Lim Chong Eu". Penang Trail Blazers. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  24. ^ "Perak Labour Party Meeting". The Straits Times. Singapore. 19 July 1952. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  25. ^ "Negri to form labour party". The Straits Times. Singapore. 11 December 1952. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  26. ^ "Son of Perak who brought pride to his state". The Star. Kuala Lumpur. 1 September 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  27. ^ "New labour party in Province". The Straits Times. Singapore. 22 September 1953. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  28. ^ Sarawak party joins Pakatan, 10 January 2010, MalaysianMirror
  29. ^ "Snap secara rasmi sertai Pakatan Rakyat". Malaysiakini. 20 April 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  30. ^ SNAP now fourth PR member, 20 April 2010, MalaysianMirror
  31. ^ "SNAP quits Pakatan". Archived from the original on 9 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  32. ^ Sandhu, KS; Mani, A (1993). Indian Communities in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 581–582. ISBN 9789812304186.
  33. ^ Kroef, Justus M. (2012). Communism in Malaysia and Singapore: A Contemporary Survey. Berlin, Germany: Springer. ISBN 9789401504997.
  34. ^ "Chinese form new political partyUMCO". The Straits Times. Singapore. 10 November 1966.
  35. ^ a b Ong, Wei Chong (23 August 2010). Securing the Population from Insurgency and Subversion in the Second Emergency (1968-1981) (PhD). University of Exeter. hdl:10036/119566. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  36. ^ Yusoff, Kamarul Zaman (24 December 2017). "Abdul Hadi semarakkan kembali obor perjuangan PAS" [Abdul Hadi reignited the struggle of PAS]. Harakah Daily (in Malay). Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 30 May 2018.