Map of countries with diplomatic missions of Malaysia shown in blue.

Malaysia is an active member of various international organisations, including the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the Non-Aligned Movement. It has also in recent times been an active proponent of regional co-operation.

Foreign Policy 1957–1969

Malaysia has been a member of the Commonwealth since independence in 1957, when it entered into the Anglo-Malayan Defence Agreement (AMDA) with the United Kingdom whereby Britain guaranteed the defence of Malaya (and later Malaysia). The presence of British and other Commonwealth troops were crucial to Malaysia's security during the Malayan Emergency (1948–1960) and the Indonesian Confrontation (1962–1966), which was sparked by Malaya's merger with the British colonies of Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo to form Malaysia in 1963.

The British defence guarantee ended following Britain's decision in 1967 to withdraw its forces east of Suez, and was replaced in 1971 with the Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) by which Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore agreed to co-operate in the area of defence, and to "consult" in the event of external aggression or the threat of attack on Malaysia or Singapore. The FPDA continues to operate, and the Five Powers have a permanent Integrated Area Defence System based at RMAF Butterworth, and organise annual naval and air exercises.

Under the leadership of Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman (up to 1970), Malaysia pursued a strongly pro-Commonwealth anti-communist foreign policy. Nonetheless, Malaysia was active in the opposition to apartheid that saw South Africa quit the Commonwealth in 1961, and was a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967 and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in 1969, with the Tunku as its first Secretary-General in 1971.

Foreign policy since 1969

Under Prime Ministers Tun Abdul Razak and Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia shifted its policy towards non-alignment and neutrality. Malaysia's foreign policy is officially based on the principle of neutrality and maintaining peaceful relations with all countries, regardless of their ideology or political system, and to further develop relations with other countries in the region.[1] In 1971, ASEAN issued its neutralist and anti-nuclear Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ZOPFAN) Declaration. In the same year, Malaysia joined the Non-Aligned Movement. Consistent with this policy Malaysia established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1974.

This policy shift was continued and strengthened by Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad, who pursued a regionalist and pro-South policy with at times strident anti-Western rhetoric. He long sought to establish an East Asian Economic Group as an alternative to APEC, excluding Australia, New Zealand and the Americas, and during his premiership Malaysia signed up to an ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) and ASEAN+3, a regional forum with China, Japan and South Korea

A strong tenet of Malaysia's policy is national sovereignty and the right of a country to control its domestic affairs.[2] Malaysia views regional co-operation as the cornerstone of its foreign policy. It attaches a high priority to the security and stability of Southeast Asia, and has tried to strengthen relations with other Islamic states.[3] Malaysia was a leading advocate of expanding ASEAN's membership to include Laos, Vietnam, and Burma, arguing that "constructive engagement" with these countries, especially Burma, will help bring political and economic changes. Malaysia is also a member of G-15 and G-77 economic groupings.

Despite Mahathir's frequently anti-Western rhetoric he worked closely with Western countries, and led a crackdown against Islamic fundamentalists after the 11 September attacks. The current Minister of Foreign Affairs is Dato' Seri Hishamuddin Hussein, who assumed office on 10 March 2020.[4] with Kamaruddin Jaafar was deputy minister.

Malaysia has never recognised Israel and has no diplomatic ties with it,[5] with the country ever condemning the Israelis action during their raid over a Gaza humanitarian mission and request the International Criminal Court to take any action against them.[6] Malaysia has stated it will only establish an official relations with Israel once a peace agreement with the State of Palestine been reached and called for both parties to find a quick resolution.[5][7][8] Malaysian peacekeeping forces have contributed to many UN peacekeeping missions, such as in Namibia, Cambodia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia, East Timor and Lebanon.[9][10]

International affiliations

Malaysia is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation).[11][12] It is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement.[13] Kuala Lumpur was the site of the first East Asia Summit in 2005,[3] and Malaysia has chaired ASEAN, the OIC, and the NAM in the past. A former British colony, it is also a member of the Commonwealth.[14]

Malaysia is affiliated with the United Nations and many of its specialised agencies, including UNESCO, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, International Atomic Energy Agency; General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. It is also a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Developing 8 Countries.[15][16][17] Asian Development Bank, Five-Power Defense Arrangement, G-77, and South Centre.[18] On 31 October 2011 Malaysia became a party to the Antarctic Treaty.[19]

International disputes

The policy towards territorial disputes by the Malaysian government is one of pragmatism, solving disputes in a number of ways, including some resolved in the International Court of Justice.

Spratly and other islands in the South China Sea

Main articles: Spratly Islands dispute and Territorial disputes in the South China Sea

Malaysia has asserted sovereignty over the Spratly Islands together with China, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei. Tensions have eased since 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea". However, it is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties.[20] Malaysia was not party to a March 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of China, the Philippines and Vietnam on conducting marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands.[21] Malaysia long maintained a low-key approach to the dispute, maintaining positive relations with China due to strong economic ties, a large ethnic Chinese population, and a desire for a balance of power in the region.[22][23] However, as Chinese fishing vessels and coast guard ships have become increasingly assertive,[24] Malaysia has increased its diplomatic and military responses.[22][25][26]

Ligitan, Sipadan and Ambalat

Main article: Ligitan and Sipadan dispute

The ICJ awarded Ligitan and Sipadan islands to Malaysia over Indonesia but left the maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Celebes Sea in dispute,[20][27] culminating in hostile confrontations in March 2005 over concessions to the Ambalat oil block.

Singapore

Singapore was a part of Malaysia for two years (1963–65), but it ultimately was asked by Tunku to secede after increased racial tensions due to the election campaigns in 1964. Today, disputes continue among other things, over the pricing of deliveries of raw untreated water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation causing a negative environmental impact in Malaysian waters, a new bridge to replace the Johor-Singapore Causeway which Singapore does not want to pay for, maritime boundaries,[20] the redevelopment of Malayan Railway lands in Singapore and Pedra Branca. Both parties however, agreed to ICJ arbitration on the island dispute. On 24 May 2008, the International Court of Justice ruled that Pedra Branca belonged to Singapore with the nearby Middle Rocks going to Malaysia.[20][27] Regarding railway land in Singapore, see also Malaysia-Singapore Points of Agreement of 1990. On introducing budget flights between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, the stumbling block appears to be Malaysia's sympathy towards flag carrier Malaysia Airlines, and preference for the existing near duopoly with Singapore Airlines.

The Philippines

Main article: North Borneo dispute

The Philippines has a dormant claim to eastern Sabah.[20][27]

Brunei

Malaysia's land boundary with Brunei around Limbang is no longer in dispute. On 16 March 2009, Brunei announced its decision to drop a long-standing claim to Sarawak's Limbang district.[28] This was the result of the two countries resolving their various land and sea territorial disputes.[29] This issue was resolved along with several other disputes with the sealing and signing of letters of exchange by Abdullah and the Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah of Brunei at Istana Nurul Iman. As of 2010, the two countries are working towards resolving disputes over their maritime boundaries.[20]

Thailand

According to a source, the areas around Ko Kra and Ko Losin in present-day Thailand are once disputed with Malaysia.[30]

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Malaysia maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date[31]
1  Australia 31 August 1957
2  Cambodia 31 August 1957
3  Denmark 31 August 1957
4  France 31 August 1957[32]
5  Germany 31 August 1957
6  Indonesia 31 August 1957[33]
7  Italy 31 August 1957[34]
8  Japan 31 August 1957
9  Netherlands 31 August 1957[35]
10  Thailand 31 August 1957
11  United Kingdom 31 August 1957
12  United States 31 August 1957[36]
13  New Zealand 25 September 1957
14  India 8 October 1957[37]
15  Sri Lanka October 1957[38]
16  Canada 31 December 1957[39]
17  Belgium 1957
18  Egypt 1957
19  Luxembourg 1957
20  Pakistan 1957
21  Saudi Arabia 1957
22  Myanmar 1 March 1958
23  Sweden 1958
24  Syria 1958
25  Brazil 11 August 1959[40]
26  Greece 16 November 1959
27    Nepal 1 January 1960[41]
28  South Korea 23 February 1960
29  Somalia 17 December 1960[42]
30  Cyprus 1961
31  Tunisia 1962[43]
32   Switzerland 3 January 1963[44]
33  Austria 6 August 1963
34  Libya 1963
35  Morocco 1963[45]
36  Philippines 18 May 1964
37  Turkey 17 June 1964[46]
38  Algeria 26 November 1964
39  Sudan 26 March 1965[47]
40  Kuwait 28 March 1965[48]
41  Lebanon 16 July 1965[49]
42  Singapore 1 September 1965
43  Ethiopia 1965
44  Jordan 1965
45  Kenya 1965
46  Nigeria 1965[50]
47  Laos 1 July 1966
48  Russia 3 April 1967
49  Spain 12 May 1967
50  Argentina 7 June 1967[51]
51  Ghana 1967
52  Maldives 1967
53  Norway 8 March 1968[52]
54  Bulgaria 4 January 1969[53]
55  Romania 22 March 1969[54]
56  Hungary 29 December 1969[55]
 State of Palestine 1969
57  Afghanistan 24 January 1970[56]
58  Iran 1970
59  Poland 21 June 1971[57]
60  Mongolia 8 September 1971
61  Czech Republic 16 September 1971
62  Bangladesh 11 September 1972[58]
63  Finland 17 November 1972
64  Vietnam 30 March 1973
65  Iraq 6 April 1973[59]
 North Korea (suspended) 30 June 1973
66  Mexico 27 March 1974
67  China 31 May 1974
68  Qatar 26 June 1974[60]
69  Ireland 12 September 1974[61]
70  Bahrain 25 November 1974[62]
71  Fiji 1974
72  Cuba 6 February 1975
73  Malta 8 October 1975[63]
74  Jamaica 28 November 1975[64]
75  Portugal December 1975[65]
76  Guyana 26 April 1976
77  Papua New Guinea 12 July 1976[66]
78  Trinidad and Tobago 1976[67]
79  Senegal 1 April 1977[42]
80  Costa Rica April 1977
81  Bolivia 1977[68]
82  Chile 26 February 1979[69]
83  Albania 24 June 1981
84  Antigua and Barbuda 1981[70]
85  Gambia 1981[71]
86  Mali 21 August 1982[72]
87  Samoa August 1982
88  Kiribati 1982
89  Tonga 1982
90  Tuvalu 1982
91  Oman 4 January 1983[73]
92  Solomon Islands 10 January 1983[74]
93  Vanuatu 5 April 1983
94  United Arab Emirates 1983
95  Brunei 1 January 1984
96  Yemen 7 April 1986[75]
97  Peru 24 April 1986
98  Venezuela 18 December 1986
99  Seychelles 1 May 1987[42]
100  Colombia 19 August 1987[42]
101  Zimbabwe 25 September 1987[76]
102  Eswatini 1987
103  Mauritius 1987
104  Uruguay 5 January 1988
105  Lesotho 31 March 1988[77]
106  Paraguay 17 November 1989
107  Ecuador 1989
108  Mozambique 1989
109  Zambia 26 February 1990[78]
110  Namibia 21 March 1990[79]
111  Botswana 26 November 1990[80]
112  Sierra Leone 26 January 1991[81]
113  Ivory Coast 7 March 1991[82]
114  Cameroon 8 March 1991[83]
115  Malawi 6 November 1991[84]
116  Cape Verde 19 January 1992[85]
117  Estonia 11 February 1992[86]
118  Uzbekistan 21 February 1992
119  Ukraine 3 March 1992[87]
120  Belarus 5 March 1992[88]
121  Tajikistan 11 March 1992
122  Kazakhstan 26 March 1992
123  Kyrgyzstan 2 April 1992
124  Barbados 10 April 1992[89]
 Cook Islands 2 May 1992
125  Croatia 4 May 1992[90]
126  Slovenia 4 May 1992[91]
127  Turkmenistan 17 May 1992
128  Federated States of Micronesia 6 July 1992[92]
129  Saint Lucia 9 October 1992[93]
130  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5 December 1992[94]
131  Benin 1992
132  Slovakia 1 January 1993[95]
133  Guatemala 27 January 1993[96]
134  Nicaragua 17 February 1993[42]
135  Moldova 10 March 1993[97]
136  Armenia 11 March 1993[98]
137  Azerbaijan 5 April 1993[99]
138  Georgia 7 May 1993[100]
139  Marshall Islands 4 June 1993[101]
140  Latvia 12 June 1993[102]
141  Suriname 2 July 1993[103]
142  North Macedonia 22 July 1993[104]
143  Panama 24 July 1993[105]
144  South Africa 8 November 1993[106]
145  Guinea 1993
146  Lithuania 9 March 1994[107]
147  Madagascar 6 April 1995[42]
148  Angola 1995
149  Burkina Faso 1995
 Niue 30 January 1996
150  Burundi 1996
151  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1997
152  Liberia 1997
153  El Salvador June 1998[108]
154  Djibouti 3 August 1998[109]
155  Eritrea 1999
156  Iceland 1999[110]
157  Belize 11 February 2000[111]
158  Central African Republic 2000
159  Comoros 2000
160  Guinea-Bissau 2000
161  Equatorial Guinea November 2001[112]
162  Dominican Republic 2001
163  Bahamas 2001
164  Gabon 2001
165  Haiti 2001
166  Republic of the Congo 2001
167  East Timor 20 May 2002
168  Mauritania 2003
169  San Marino 29 January 2004[113]
170  Serbia 13 February 2004
171  Liechtenstein July 2004
172  Rwanda 1 August 2005[114][115]
173  Palau 5 October 2005
174  Montenegro 17 August 2006[116]
175  Monaco 22 May 2007[117]
176  Grenada 3 February 2009[118]
177  Nauru 5 October 2009
 Kosovo 18 March 2011
 Holy See 27 July 2011
178  Niger 24 August 2012[115]
179  Saint Kitts and Nevis 30 July 2013[119]
180  Honduras 7 August 2013[120]
181  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 14 November 2013[121]
182  Tanzania 31 March 2014[122]
183  Dominica 19 January 2015
184  Uganda 6 November 2017[123]
185  Chad Unknown
186  São Tomé and Príncipe Unknown
187  South Sudan Unknown
188  Togo Unknown

Bilateral relations

ASEAN

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Brunei 1 January 1984

Brunei has a High Commission in Kuala Lumpur, and consulates in Kota Kinabalu and Kuching. Malaysia maintains a high commission in Bandar Seri Begawan. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations. The states of Sarawak and Sabah in East Malaysia are connected to Brunei via the Pan Borneo Highway. Brunei has denounced its claims on Limbang and recognises Malaysia's full sovereignty. In 2003, Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their disputed offshore and deep water seabeds and negotiations have stalemated prompting consideration of international adjudication.

 Cambodia 31 August 1957[124]

More than 24,000 Cambodians visited Malaysia since the first half of 2012, while Malaysian visited to Cambodia numbered 54,000.[125] In 2011, bilateral trade between the two countries worth over US$319.5 million and in 2010 Malaysia were consider as one of the biggest investors in the country with the total investments were U$2.19 billion while Malaysian investments in Cambodia during the past two years totalling U$118 million.[125][126]

 Indonesia 31 August 1957,[127] severed diplomatic relations 15 September 1963, restored 31 August 1967
 Laos 1 July 1966

During the collapse of the Communist bloc, the Soviet Union could no longer afford aid for the development of Laos.[128] This made Laos seek aid from other countries to help develop their country and has led the country to adopt a neutral foreign policy.[128] When this policy of neutrality was adopted, relations with Malaysia were established.[128]

 Myanmar 1 March 1958

Myanmar has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[129]

Relations between the two countries were established on 1 March 1957 and the first Burmese mission at the legation level was set up in Kuala Lumpur in June 1959 and later raised to the embassy level.[129]

 Philippines October 1959, severed 16 September 1963, restored 18 May 1964, severed 29 November 1968, restored 16 December 1969
  • The Philippines has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Manila.
  • Despite religious differences (the former is mostly Muslim, while the latter is predominantly Roman Catholic). Malaysia and the Philippines share a one-of-a-kind relationship rooted on the basis of geography, ethnicity, and political aspirations.
  • Both countries are members of the Asian Union.
  • The countries are both involved in ongoing disputes over ownership of the Spratly Islands and the Philippines has a claim on the eastern Sabah in northern Borneo though this is currently not being actively pursued.
 Singapore 1 September 1965

Singapore has a High Commission in Kuala Lumpur and a Consulate in Johor Bahru, Malaysia and Malaysia has a High Commission in Singapore. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations. See also Malaysia-Singapore border, Pedra Branca dispute

 Thailand 31 August 1957

Thailand has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and consulates in George Town and Kota Bharu. Malaysia maintains an embassy in Bangkok. Recently, Thai-Malay relations have soured considerably due to the ethnically-Malay Pattani separatists in three southern provinces of Thailand.

 Vietnam 30 March 1973
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Hanoi.
  • Malaysia forged diplomatic ties with the modern-day Vietnamese state in March 1973 which have lasted until today. Relations between two countries were frosty in the late 1970s and 1980s as a result of the Cambodian–Vietnamese War and the influx of Vietnamese boat people into Malaysia. The subsequent resolution of these issues in the late 1980s saw the cultivation of strong trade and economic ties, and bilateral trade between both countries grew exponentially in the 1990s. and later expanded to other areas of major co-operation including information technology, education and defence in the 2000s.

East Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 China 31 May 1974

China has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and consulates in George Town, Kota Kinabalu and Kuching. Malaysia maintains an embassy in Beijing, and consulates in Shanghai, Guangzhou, Xi'an, Nanning, Guilin and Hong Kong. Diplomatic relations were established in 1974.

Following the end of the Cold War, diplomatic foreign relations between China and Malaysia immediately turned positive. Although issues arose from China's activities in the South China Sea, the political and cultural connections between the two nations strengthened. Both countries are full members of APEC, and there is a sizeable population of Chinese in Malaysia.

 Republic of China (Taiwan) 1960 (ceased on 1974)

The relations are conducted on an unofficial level as Kuala Lumpur has changed to a one-China policy in 1974 and only recognised the People's Republic of China. However, the economic and the cultural relations are still maintained with Malaysia has a trade centre office in Taipei,[130] and Taiwan has an economic and cultural centre in Kuala Lumpur.[131]

 Hong Kong, China 2 July 1971

Under the "One Country, Two Systems" law, the People's Republic of China is responsible for diplomatic and defence affair of Hong Kong. However, Hong Kong enjoys significant autonomy in economic, trade, financial and monetary matters.[132] Currently, Malaysia has a consulate general office in Wan Chai and the relations are mostly based on economic co-operation.[133]

 Japan 31 August 1957[134]

Japan has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and consulates in George Town and Kota Kinabalu. Malaysia maintains an embassy in Tokyo.

Bilateral economic trades between Malaysia and Japan have increased. In 2011, total trade between both countries was at MYR145.3 billion. Japan has increased its import of liquefied natural gas to about 34%. Before 2007, the bilateral rate between both countries were at a deficit. About 1,400 Japanese companies are operating in Malaysia creating more than 11,000 job opportunities. Halal certification endorsement by the Malaysian government has allowed Malaysian companies in the halal food industry to compete well in the Japanese market. The building of a halal park in Japan is also considered.[135]

 Mongolia 8 September 1971

Malaysia has an honorary consulate in Ulaanbaatar,[136] and Mongolia honorary consulate in Bangkok was accredited to Malaysia.[137] However, since 2006, Mongolia has not presented any ambassador to Malaysia for seven years due to the murder of a Mongolian citizen on the country, but later decided to appointing an ambassador in 2014.[138]

 North Korea 30 June 1973,[139] diplomatic relations was severed 19 March 2021

North Korea maintained friendly diplomatic ties with Malaysia. In an effort to boost tourism between the two countries, North Korea announced that Malaysians will not require a visa to visit North Korea.[140] North Korea's flag carrier, Air Koryo has regular flights to Kuala Lumpur. Recently, Malaysia's Bernama News Agency reported that the two countries will enhance co-operation in information-related areas.[141] North Korea maintains an embassy in Kuala Lumpur while Malaysia has an embassy in Pyongyang.[142][143] After the assassination of Kim Jong-nam due to poisoning at Kuala Lumpur International Airport in February 2017 allegedly under the orders of the North Korean leader and his half-brother Kim Jong-un, relations between both countries steadily worsened, and as a response Malaysia gradually withdrew its ambassador from North Korea,[144] cancelled the visa-free entry for North Koreans for security reasons,[145] and decided to expel the North Korean ambassador.[146]

On 19 March 2021, North Korea severed diplomatic relations with Malaysia after the Kuala Lumpur High Court rejected North Korean businessman Mun Chol Myong's appeal against extradition to the United States on money laundering charges.[147][148] In response, the Malaysian Government defended the Malaysian judicial process and ordered the closure of the North Korean Embassy and expulsion of North Korean diplomats and their dependents.[149][150]

 South Korea 23 February 1960

The two countries established relations in 1960. South Korean president Lee Myung-bak was in Kuala Lumpur from 9–10 December 2010 for a two-day visit to commemorate the 50th anniversary of diplomatic ties between Malaysia and South Korea.[151]

Middle East

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Bahrain 25 November 1974 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 November 1974[152]

Bahrain has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[153] and Malaysia has an embassy in Manama.[154]

 Egypt 10 September 1957
  • Egypt has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Cairo.
 Iran 7 October 1966

Diplomatic relations between Iran and Malaysia are brotherly and cooperative, with Iran having its embassy in Kuala Lumpur and Malaysia having its embassy in Tehran. The two countries are members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the D8.

The Economic trade between Iran and Malaysia is quite sturdy as well, amounting to US$1.43 billion as of 2008.[155] In 2010, ASEAN jointly with Iran opened a trade centre in Malaysia to promote trade ties between Iran and the regional countries.[156]

 Israel
None

Despite initial contact after the independence of Malaysia, no diplomatic relations were made. Malaysia consistently rejected relations with Israel as it tried to increase its relations with Arab states and shore up support for its conflict with Indonesia. Malaysia officially declared it did not recognise Israel in 1966. Relations ceased to exist until the 1990s, when limited economic ties were made, although diplomatic ties were explicitly rejected. Malaysia has stated it will open ties with Israel once a final solution been reach with the State of Palestine.[157]

 Jordan January 1966

Jordan has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[158] and Malaysia has an embassy in Amman.[159] Relations between the two countries are mainly in economic and Islamic affairs.

 Kuwait 28 March 1965 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 March 1965[48]

Kuwait has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Kuwait City.[160] Relations are mainly in economic co-operation.

 Lebanon 1965

Lebanon has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[161] and Malaysia has an embassy in Beirut.[162]

 Oman 15 January 1982[163]

Oman and Malaysia signed an agreement for Oman to import frozen chicken from Malaysia, costing 120 million Malaysian ringgit. Oman imports most of its food, up to 80%.[164]

 Palestine

Palestine has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[165] Malaysia is a supporter of the Palestinian bid for UN membership.[166]

 Qatar 1974

Malaysia has an embassy in Doha,[167] and Qatar has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[168]

 Saudi Arabia 1957

Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Riyadh. Relations, both diplomatic and economic, are quite close between the two Muslim-majority OIC members. Additionally, there is a sizeable population of Malaysian migrant workers in Saudi Arabia.

 Syria 1958

Syria has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Damascus. Syria and Malaysia negotiated over a $30 billion worth of contracts over Malaysian companies building infrastructure in Syria.[169]

 Turkey 17 June 1964[170] See Malaysia–Turkey relations
 United Arab Emirates 1974

United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.

 Yemen

Malaysia has an embassy in Sana'a,[172] and Yemen has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[173]

South Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Bangladesh 11 September 1972
 India 31 August 1957[176]
  • India has a high commission in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has a high commission in New Delhi.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations, and the Asian Union.
  • India and Malaysia are also connected by various cultural and historical ties that date back to antiquity.
  • The two countries are on excellently friendly terms with each other seeing as Malaysia is home to great number of Indians who have become naturalised.
  • Prime Minister Najib Razak made his official trip to India in January 2010.
  • Indian Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh made a three-day official visit in November 2010.
 Maldives 1968

Malaysia's High Commission in Colombo is also accredited to the Maldives,[177] and Maldives has a High Commission in Kuala Lumpur.[178]

   Nepal 1 January 1960

Malaysia has an embassy in Kathmandu,[179] and Nepal has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[180] Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 January 1960,[181] with bilateral relations between Malaysia and Nepal have developed from historic grounds.[182]

 Pakistan 1957

Pakistan has its High Commission in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has its High Commission in Islamabad. Pakistan has strong brotherly relations with Malaysia. Both are members of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and the Commonwealth of Nations.

There is a trade and cultural pact between the two countries, under which the import and export of various goods is done on fairly large scale. The President and the Prime Minister of Pakistan along with other high officials visited Malaysia many times and Malaysian officials also paid a good will visit to Pakistan. Both countries enjoy close relations and military links of mutual friendship and the co-operation has further strengthened.

Since the independence of Malaysia, Pakistan has supported the re-unification of Singapore, Pattani and Brunei as integral part of Kuala Lumpur's administration; it also considers the Riau Islands as part of the Malayan Federation since its independence in 1957.

Pakistan and Malaysia are linked by air transport. Pakistan International Airlines and Malaysia Airlines operate many weekly flights between Karachi and Kuala Lumpur. Both Malaysia and Pakistan were a part of the South east Asian version of NATO called SEATO also known as a 'mutual defence pact'.[citation needed]

 Sri Lanka October 1957

Malaysia has a High Commission in Colombo,[183] and Sri Lanka has a High Commission in Kuala Lumpur.[184]

Diplomatic relations have been established since 1957. President Chandrika Kumaratunga made a state visit in 1997 and several memorandum of understanding (MoU) were signed during the meeting.[185]

Other parts of Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Azerbaijan 5 April 1993
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[186] and Malaysia has an embassy in Baku.[187]
  • Malaysia recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan on 31 December 1991 and on 5 April 1993 diplomatic relations were established.[188]
 East Timor 20 May 2002

East Timor has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[189] and Malaysia has an embassy in Dili.[190]

Since 1999, Malaysia has contributed to many UN peacekeeping missions on the country, such as one are the Operation Astute during the 2006 East Timorese crisis.[191] Malaysia also has provided assistance to East Timor in the area of human resources development through various training programmes and providing assistance to East Timor in its nation building efforts.[191]

 Kazakhstan 16 March 1992

Kazakhstan has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur while Malaysia has an embassy in Nur-Sultan. Both are members of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

 Kyrgyzstan 26 March 1992
  • Kyrgyzstan has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[192]
  • Malaysia embassy in Tashkent is also accredited to Kyrgyzstan.[193]
 Tajikistan 11 March 1992
  • Tajikistan embassy in Putrajaya is currently under construction.[194][195]
  • Both countries have been enjoying warm diplomatic relations since relations were established on 11 March 1992, and are willing to make constructive efforts towards progress.[196]
 Turkmenistan 17 May 1992
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Ashgabat.[197]
  • Turkmenistan has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[198]
 Uzbekistan 21 February 1992[199]

Europe

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 23 June 1981
  • Albania had an embassy in Kuala Lumpur but already closed.
 Armenia 11 March 1993 See Foreign relations of Armenia
  • Armenia is represented in Malaysia through its embassy in New Delhi (India).
  • Malaysia is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
 Austria 6 August 1962

Austria has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[200] and Malaysia has an embassy in Vienna.[201]

Malaysia is one of Austria's most important trading partners in Southeast Asia.[202] In 2003, Austrian exports to Malaysia, covering a wide range of products such as machinery and components, especially electrical machinery and parts thereof, paper, paperboard, telecommunication equipment and medical and pharmaceutical products, declined by 10.8% to 82.6 million. Malaysian imports to Austria, consisting mainly of one product group, namely electronic and electrical goods, especially semiconductors, reduced by half to 236.4 million. In Kuala Lumpur, the Austrian Trade office offers support to Austrian and Malaysian companies to assist them in forging new partnerships.

Austrian President Heinz Fischer made a state visit to Malaysia on 7–9 November 2010, visiting Kuala Lumpur and Malacca Town.

 Belarus 5 March 1992
 Belgium 1957

Belgium has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Brussels.

 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5 December 1992
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[204]
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Sarajevo.[204]
 Croatia 4 May 1992

Croatia has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[205] and Malaysia has an embassy in Zagreb.[206]

 Czech Republic 16 September 1971 and 1 January 1993
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[207]
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Prague.[208]
  • Following the establishment of relations with the Soviet Union on 3 April 1967, Malaysia also expanded its relations with then Czechoslovakia (1971) and other Eastern European countries.[209]
 Denmark 7 September 1958

Denmark has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia is represented in Denmark, through its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.[210][211]

 Estonia 11 February 1992 and 4 November 1993 See Foreign relations of Estonia
  • Estonia has an honorary consul in Kuala Lumpur.[212][213][214]
  • Malaysia embassy in Helsinki is accredited to Estonia.[215]
  • Malaysia has recognised the independence of Estonia on 11 September 1991 shortly after the dissolution of Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic on 20 August 1991.[215] While the relations between the two countries has been established since 4 November 1993.[215]
 European Union

The relations started with the 1980 European Commission–ASEAN Agreement and were developed since the formation of European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957.[216][217]

In 2011, Malaysia is the European Union second largest trading partner in Southeast Asia after Singapore and the 23rd largest trading partner for the European Union in the world,[217][218] while the European Union is Malaysia's 4th largest trading partner.[219]

 Finland 17 November 1972
 France 31 August 1957
  • France has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Paris.
 Georgia 7 May 1993 See Foreign relations of Georgia
  • Georgia is represented in Malaysia through its embassy in Beijing (China).
  • Malaysia is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Kyiv (Ukraine).
 Germany 23 September 1957

Germany has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Berlin.

 Greece 16 November 1959
  • The Greek embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia, is also accredited to Malaysia. In the opposite way, the Malaysian embassy in Berlin is at the same time accredited to Greece. There is an Honorary Greek Consulate in Kuala Lumpur and there is a Malaysian honorary consulate in Athens.
  • Greece exports specialised machinery, non-ferrous metals, tobacco, metal goods, medical products, minerals and fruit, and imports industrial equipment, oil, footwear, paper, rubber, vehicles and telecommunications equipment from Malaysia.
 Holy See 27 July 2011
 Hungary 29 December 1969 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 December 1969[223]
 Italy 1957
  • Italy has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[224]
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Rome.[225]
 Kosovo 23 March 2011

Formal relations between the two countries first began in 2000, when Malaysia became the first Asian country to establish a liaison office in Kosovo.[226] Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008 and Malaysia recognised it on 30 October 2008.[227] Since that time, Malaysia has pledged assistance to Kosovo in several areas.

 Latvia 12 June 1993

Latvia doesn't have any embassy in Malaysia.[228] while Malaysian embassy in Helsinki is accredited to Latvia.[229][230]

 Lithuania 9 March 1994

Lithuania has an honorary consulate in Kuala Lumpur,[231] while Malaysia embassy in Stockholm were also accredited to Lithuania.

 Netherlands 31 August 1957

Netherlands has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in The Hague. The Dutch established relations with the Sultanate of Johor in the early 17th century, and in 1641 they captured the Portuguese colony of Malacca (on the south-western coast of today's Peninsular Malaysia). With a long interruption during the Napoleonic Wars, the Dutch Malacca era lasted until 1824.

In the 20th century, the Netherlands established diplomatic relations with Malaysia soon after the Asian state became independent. The erudite Dutch Sinologist and author Robert van Gulik (who was raised in the former Dutch East Indies himself) served as the ambassador of the Netherlands in Kuala Lumpur in the early 1960s. During his diplomatic service there he became closely acquainted with Malaysia's gibbons (he kept a few in his ambassadorial residence) and became sufficiently interested in this ape species to start the study of its role in ancient Chinese culture, the results of which he later published in his last book (Gibbon in China).[232]

 Norway 8 March 1968
  • Malaysia has a consulate in Oslo, while Norway has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[233]
 Poland 21 June 1971

Malaysia has an embassy in Warsaw,[234] and Poland has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur and a consulate in Kuching.[235][236]

 Romania 22 March 1969

Malaysia has an embassy in Bucharest.[237] Romania has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[238]

 Russia 3 April 1967[239] (as Soviet Union)

Russia has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[240] and Malaysia has an embassy in Moscow.[241]

 Serbia 7 May 1967, severed diplomatic relations 12 August 1992, restored 23 January 2003 See Foreign relations of Serbia

Entry to Malaysia was refused to all Serbian passport holders until 2007, unless they were in possession of a letter of approval from Malaysian Ministry of Home Affairs.[242] During the time, citizens of Serbia and Montenegro were banned from participating in Malaysia My Second Home program.[243] However, in August 2008, senior officials of Serbia and Malaysia held their first diplomatic meeting since 1991. Afterwards, Foreign Minister Vuk Jeremić said that establishing an embassy in Malaysia was a possibility, bilateral agreements between the two nations would be signed, and Malaysia has removed all visa restrictions for Serbian citizens. This meant that now only the citizens of Israel were banned from participating in Malaysia My Second Home program.[244] Currently, Malaysia has an embassy in Belgrade while Serbian embassy in Jakarta was also accredited to Malaysia.[245][246]

 Spain 12 May 1967

Malaysia has an embassy in Madrid,[247] and Spain has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[248] Spain established a diplomatic relations with Malaysia on 12 May 1967 with both the Malaysian and Spanish embassy were opened in 1985.[249]

 Sweden 1958

Diplomatic relations were established in 1958.[250] Sweden has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Stockholm. As of 2009, 90 Swedish companies are present in Malaysia and about 450 Swedish citizens live in Malaysia.[251]

  Switzerland 10 September 1963

Switzerland has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[252] and Malaysia has an embassy in Bern.[253] The diplomatic relations has been established since 1963.[254]

 Ukraine 3 March 1992
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
 United Kingdom 31 August 1957

The United Kingdom has a High Commission in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has a High Commission in London. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 7 June 1967[255]

Argentina has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[256] and Malaysia has an embassy in Buenos Aires.[257] Argentina established diplomatic relations with Malaysia on 7 June 1967.[255]

 Belize 11 February 2000
 Brazil 1959

Brazil has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[259] and Malaysia has an embassy in Brasilia.[260]

 Canada 1957[261]

Canada has a High Commission in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has a High Commission in Ottawa. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Canada's trade relationship with Malaysia includes commerce across several sectors.[262]

 Chile 22 May 1979[263][264]

The Chile–Malaysia relations is mainly based on trade. In 2009, the total trade between Chile and Malaysia is $336 million with the total Malaysian export to Chile were $16.8 million while the import with $148.7 million.[265]

 Colombia 19 August 1987 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 August 1987[266]

Both are the members of United Nations, Movement of Non-Aligned Cooperation Forum Asia-Latin America (FEALAC) and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC).

  • Colombia has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia is accredited to Colombia from its embassy in Lima, Peru.
 Cuba 6 February 1975[267][268]

Malaysia has an embassy in Havana, while Cuba has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.

 Dominica 19 January 2015
 Ecuador 1989

Their relations covers on political, commercial, cultural and social activities.

 Grenada
 Guyana 26 April 1976
 Jamaica 28 November 1975

In 2006, Prime Minister, Portia Simpson Miller and Prime Minister of Malaysia, Dato Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, have expressed satisfaction with the progress of bilateral relations between the two countries and have reaffirmed their commitment to strengthening these relations through the exchange of visits and co-operation in the economic, technological, shipping, health and educational sectors, among other areas.[272][273]

 Mexico 27 March 1974[274]

Malaysia has an embassy in Mexico City,[275] and Mexico has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[276] Relations between the two countries was established on 27 March 1974.[274]

 Peru 24 April 1986[277]

Malaysia is one of the main destination for Peruvian exports with the total trade in 2012 records $235 million.[278] Peruvian exports to Malaysia total around $28 million while Malaysian exports with $207 million.[278] In 1995, an agreement on mutual promotion and protection of investments has been signed between the two countries.[279]

 United States 31 August 1957 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 31 August 1957[280]

Economic ties are robust. The United States is Malaysia's largest trading partner and Malaysia is the tenth-largest trading partner of the US Annual two-way trade amounts to $49 billion. The United States and Malaysia launched negotiations for a bilateral free trade agreement (FTA) in June 2006. President Barack Obama visited Malaysia between 26 and 28 April 2014, as part of his four-nation Asia tour. This visit was the first visit by a sitting US president in almost 50 years since President Lyndon Johnson in 1966. Other top US government officials have made visits to Malaysia in the past, such as then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in November 2010, Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel in August 2013, and Secretary of State John Kerry in October 2013.

Malaysia has its embassy in Washington, DC with consulates in New York City, NY and Los Angeles, CA and a permanent mission to the United Nations in New York. The United States has its embassy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

 Venezuela 18 December 1986 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 December 1986[281]

Malaysia has an embassy in Caracas while Venezuela has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur. Both countries are full members of the Group of 77.

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia 31 August 1957
 Fiji 22 May 1972
 New Zealand 25 September 1957 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 September 1957[283]

New Zealand has a High Commission in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has a High Commission in Wellington. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

 Solomon Islands 10 May 1983

Malaysia has an honorary consul in Solomon Islands while Malaysia's High Commission in Port Moresby also accredited to the country,[284] and Solomon Islands has a high commission in Kuala Lumpur.[285][286][287]

Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria 26 November 1964

Algeria has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[288] and Malaysia has an embassy in Algiers.[289]

 Ethiopia 1965

Ethiopia has a consulate-general in Kuala Lumpur,[290] while Malaysia has no embassy in Ethiopia.

Malaysia is one of the major trade partner and also one of the largest investors in Ethiopia.[291][292][293]

 Ghana 5 December 1966

Ghana has a High Commission in Kuala Lumpur,[294] and Malaysia has a High Commission in Accra.[295]

 Kenya 1965

Kenya has maintained a High Commission in Kuala Lumpur since in 1996. Malaysia opened a High Commission in Nairobi in 2005.[296]

 Libya 9 November 1973

Libya has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[297] and Malaysia has an embassy in Tripoli.[298] Relations are mainly in economic co-operation.

 Madagascar 6 April 1995 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 April 1995[299]
 Malawi 4 November 1991

Malaysia together with Malawi are both significant tea producers, and co-operate in tri-national (with India) discussions of market conditions and promotion of the product globally.[300]

 Mauritius 13 August 1986[301]

Mauritius has a High Commission in Kuala Lumpur, while Malaysia embassy in Harare, Zimbabwe also accredited to Mauritius. Both are members of Commonwealth of Nations. Cooperation between the two countries include cultural exchanges, trade in goods, financial assistance and capacity building in various sectors.

 Morocco 1963

Malaysia has an embassy in Rabat,[302] and Morocco has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[303]

 Namibia 1990

Malaysia has a High Commission in Windhoek,[304] and Namibia has a high commission in Kuala Lumpur.[305] Both countries were once part of the British Empire and before Namibia achieved its independence, Malaysia has contributed to some operations in Namibia by sending a group of soldiers to help monitor the Namibia elections and peace process.[306] Today, the relations are much more focused in economic co-operation.

 Nigeria 5 March 1965

The High Commissioner of Nigeria, Bello Shehu Ringim, speaking with the Yang Dipertua Dewan Negara, Abu Zahar Ujang, expresses the concern of Nigerian students being fooled by Malaysian private-owned universities and social problems. The Nigerian government are serious about the problems by its citizens and the negative perception of its students. Malaysia is committed to Nigeria's concern and will give solutions to the problem.[307]

 Senegal 1 April 1977 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 April 1977[308]

Malaysia has an embassy in Dakar,[309] and Senegal has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[310]

 Seychelles 1 May 1987 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 1 May 1987[311]

Seychelles has a High Commission in Subang Jaya.[312]

 Sierra Leone 28 January 1991 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 January 1991[81]
 South Africa 8 November 1993

Relations are good between Malaysia and South Africa, who view each other as close partners. Malaysia is the fourth largest new investor in South Africa, and the countries have exchanged High Commissioners.[313]

 Sudan 1973[314]

The stability of Sudan has enabled the country to take experiences from Malaysia in law legislation and investor-friendly policies, as claimed by Mahathir Mohammad, former prime minister of Malaysia who visits Khartoum in November 2012. At least seven Memorandum of Understandings have been made, related to Malaysian companies. The expected growth of bilateral trade between Malaysia and Sudan will have a big impact on the import of Sudanese beef.[315]

In October 2021, Sudanese–Malaysia relations were adversely affected by the Sudanese transitional government's seizure of Malaysian state owned enterprise Petronas' assets and arrest of the company's country manager. In response, the Malaysian Government urged Sudan to honour the Bilateral Investment and Protection Treaty while Petronas submitted an arbitration request at the World Bank's International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).[316][317][318][319]

 Tanzania

Malaysia has a High Commission in Dar es Salaam, and Tanzania has a High Commission in Kuala Lumpur.[320]

 The Gambia

Malaysian embassy in Dakar is accredited to The Gambia, while the Gambian embassy in Abu Dhabi is accredited to Malaysia. The relations are friendly warm.[321]

 Tunisia 29 November 1964

Several agreements were signed since 1969 covering a lot of sectors, including the agreement on suppression of visa and the agreement on economic and technical co-operation which signed in 1994. Several other drafts also are currently under negotiations.[322]

 Uganda 1962

Malaysia does not yet have a High Commission in Kampala,[323] while Uganda has a consulate in Kuala Lumpur and Uganda's High Commission in India were also accredited to Malaysia.[324][325]

Malaysia and the Commonwealth of Nations

The Federation of Malaya became an independent native elective monarchy within the Commonwealth on 31 August 1957 with the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as head of state.

Malaya united with North Borneo (now Sabah), Sarawak, and Singapore to form Malaysia on 16 September 1963.

Singapore was expelled from Malaysia on 9 August 1965, and became an independent republic in the Commonwealth of Nations.

See also

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