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Law enforcement in Malaysia is performed by numerous law enforcement agencies and primarily the responsibility of the Royal Malaysia Police. Like many federal nations, the nature of the Constitution of Malaysia mandates law and order as a subject of a state, which means that local government bodies also have a role to play in law enforcement, therefore the bulk of the policing lies with the respective states and territories of Malaysia. Below are some of the law enforcement bodies and agencies of Malaysia.
The Royal Malaysia Police is the main agency tasked with maintaining law and order in Malaysia. The force is a centralized organization with responsibilities ranging from traffic control to intelligence gathering. Its headquarters is located at Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur. The constitution, control, employment, recruitment, fund, discipline, duties and powers of the police force is specified and governed by the Police Act 1967. The Royal Malaysia Police Volunteer Reserve in RMP was formed in 1952, Police Volunteer Reserve. The Police Volunteer Reserve (PVR) (Malay: Sukarelawan Polis) is a special police as well as a supporting unit of the full-time RMP forces where professionals entrepreneur or private sector employees and other civil servant could join the volunteer reserve unit to help to maintain peace and security of their respective formation. RMPVR is also governed by the Police Act 1967.
An occupied by the Ministry of Home Affairs, RMP have six departments involved in crime and terrorism prevention and two departments involved in the administration. All departments are led by the directors with the rank of Commissioner of Police (Army Equivalent rank of Three Stars General or Lieutenant-General).
The Malaysian Government utilises the services of several auxiliary police, volunteer police, and police cadet forces. An auxiliary police in RMP refers to sworn security police serving in autonomous government agencies and key government-linked companies/entities, such as Malaysian Airports Holdings Berhad, Petroleum Nasional Berhad (Petronas), Pos Malaysia Berhad, and Malayan Railways.
The (Malay: Kor Sukarelawan Siswa-siswi Polis; SUKSIS) is an undergraduate police volunteer organization to undergoing periodic training times to times in three years in their respective university and will be commissioned as Inspector SUKSIS by the Inspector General of Police in the end of the three years training.
The Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency is the principal government agency tasked with maintaining law and order and co-ordinating search and rescue operations in the Malaysian Maritime Zone and on the high seas. It is in effect the coast guard of Malaysia. The agency is not part of nor are there any plans for it be integrated into the Malaysian Armed Forces. The Agency and its members are part of the Malaysian Civil Service and report directly to the Prime Minister's Department.
The Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) has three branches: the Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, and Royal Malaysian Air Force. Each branch has its own military police unit, which is responsible for maintaining law and order and providing security within its respective service. This includes Kor Polis Tentera DiRaja, RMAF Provost Unit, and RMN Provost Unit.
Main article: Ministry of Human Resources (Malaysia)
Ministry of Human Resources is responsible for enforcing various laws related to labor and employment. The ministry is tasked with ensuring that employers and employees comply with relevant laws, regulations, and policies related to employment practices, industrial relations, and social security.
Some of the laws and regulations enforced by the Ministry of Human Resources in Malaysia include the Employment Act, Industrial Relations Act, Trade Unions Act, Minimum Wages Order, and Occupational Safety and Health Act. The ministry also oversees the administration of several social security programs, such as the Employees Provident Fund (EPF) and Social Security Organization (SOCSO).
Main article: Ministry of Domestic Trade and Cost of Living (Malaysia)
Ministry of Domestic Trade and Cost of Living has the authority to enforce laws related to trade and consumer protection. It is responsible for implementing and enforcing various laws and regulations related to trade practices, including the Price Control and Anti-Profiteering Act, the Trade Descriptions Act, and the Consumer Protection Act.
The Ministry also conducts regular inspections and audits to ensure compliance with these laws, and it has the power to take legal action against businesses that violate them. In addition, the Ministry collaborates with other government agencies, such as the police and the customs department, to combat illegal trade activities such as smuggling, counterfeit goods, and other forms of illicit trade.
Main article: Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (Malaysia)
The Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MAFS) is responsible for formulating and implementing policies related to agriculture, food, and agro-based industries.
The Ministry has several departments, including the Department of Fisheries and the Department of Veterinary Services, which are responsible for enforcing laws related to their respective areas. The Department of Fisheries, for instance, is responsible for managing the country's fisheries resources and enforcing laws related to fishing activities, while the Department of Veterinary Services is responsible for ensuring that livestock are healthy and that animal products are safe for consumption.
Main article: Ministry of Home Affairs (Malaysia)
MOHA enforces a wide range of laws and regulations related to immigration, passports, printing and publication, film censorship, terrorism, human trafficking, and other matters. It also provides a number of services, such as managing the prison system, providing disaster relief, and countering drug trafficking.
Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA) enforces the Printing Presses and Publication Act 1984, which controls the printing and publication of newspapers, books, and other materials. MOHA has the power to seize and detain publications that are considered to be in violation of the Printing Presses and Publication Act.
Main article: Ministry of Health (Malaysia)
Ministry of Health is responsible for enforcing laws related to public health and safety. The ministry works to ensure that healthcare services are accessible, affordable, and of high quality, and it has the authority to enforce laws and regulations related to healthcare practices and standards.
Some of the laws enforced by the Ministry of Health in Malaysia include the Private Healthcare Facilities and Services Act, the Poisons Act, the Food Act, and the Control of Tobacco Product Regulations. The ministry also oversees the regulation of pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and other healthcare products and services.
Ministry of Natural Resources, Environment and Climate Change is responsible for enforcing laws related to the environment and water resources. The ministry works to protect the environment and ensure the sustainable use of natural resources by enforcing laws related to pollution control, conservation, and waste management.
The ministry enforces various laws and regulations related to environmental protection, such as the Environmental Quality Act, the National Forestry Act, and the Wildlife Conservation Act. It also oversees the regulation of water resources, including the management of water supply and the protection of water quality.
Besides the RMP and MMEA, other government agencies that also enforce specific laws are as follows:
Main article: Royal Malaysian Customs
The Royal Malaysian Customs Department is a government agency of the Ministry of Finance. The department is responsible for administrating the nation's indirect tax policy. The department also manage the country's customs, excise, and trade regulations. Its main role is to facilitate international trade while ensuring compliance with the country's laws and regulations.
The department is responsible for enforcing customs regulations, such as the collection of duties and taxes on imports and exports, the control of prohibited and restricted goods, and the prevention of smuggling and other illicit activities. The RMC administers seven main and thirty-nine subsidiary laws. Apart from this, the RMC implements eighteen laws for other government agencies.
The Inland Revenue Board of Malaysia, also known as Lembaga Hasil Dalam Negeri Malaysia (LHDN), is responsible for enforcing laws related to taxation in Malaysia. It is an agency under the Ministry of Finance and is responsible for collecting and administering various types of taxes, including income tax, goods and services tax (GST), and real property gains tax.
LHDN has a wide range of powers and functions related to taxation enforcement, including conducting audits and investigations to ensure compliance with tax laws, imposing penalties for non-compliance, and taking legal action against tax evaders.
Main article: Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission
See also: Corruption in Malaysia
The Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission is a government agency in Malaysia that investigates and prosecutes corruption in the public and private sectors. The MACC was modelled after top anti-corruption agencies, such as the Hong Kong's Independent Commission Against Corruption and the New South Wales Independent Commission Against Corruption, Australia.
The MACC is recognized for its active role in investigating high-profile corruption cases and has contributed to enhancing Malaysia's standing in global corruption perception rankings. However, the agency has been criticized for its perceived lack of autonomy and potential political influence. Currently, the MACC operates under the Prime Minister's Department.
Main article: Malaysian Prison Department
The Malaysian Prison Department is a government agency responsible for the management and rehabilitation of prisoners in Malaysia. The department operates under the purview of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
The main goal of the Malaysian Prison Department is to ensure the safe and secure custody of prisoners while also providing them with opportunities for rehabilitation and reintegration into society. The department manages various types of correctional institutions throughout the country, including prisons, rehabilitation centers, and detention centers.
Main article: Malaysia Volunteers Corps Department
The People's Volunteer Corps (Malay: Jabatan Sukarelawan Malaysia), abbreviated RELA, officially the Malaysia Volunteers Corps Department, is a paramilitary civil volunteer corps formed by the Malaysian government. Their main duty is to check the travelling documents and immigration permits of foreigners in Malaysian cities, including tourists, visitors and migrants to reduce the increasing rate of illegal immigrants in Malaysia. RELA has the authority to deal with situations like policemen, such as raiding suspected streets or places such as factories, restaurants and even hotels.
They are also fully authorised to conduct the interrogation and even detaining people who forget to bring their travelling documents, like passports and/or working permits. Besides that they are also tasked with security works at times. During times of war, they are absorbed into the Malaysian Army as support groups despite their law enforcing duties. They are also tasked to do SAR works if needed.
Main article: Department of Immigration (Malaysia)
The Immigration Department of Malaysia is a government agency responsible for enforcing immigration laws and regulations, as well as managing the movement of people in and out of Malaysia, including issuing visas, work permits, and other travel documents. The department is also responsible for conducting passport checks, preventing illegal immigration, and carrying out enforcement operations against undocumented immigrants. The agency plays a critical role in ensuring national security and maintaining the integrity of the country's borders.
Main article: Road Transport Department Malaysia
The Malaysian Road Transport Department is a government department under the Malaysian Ministry of Transport. This department is responsible for issuing Malaysian number plates. According to the Road Transport Act, the enforcement is charged with the responsibility of undertaking registration and licensing of drivers and all motor vehicles and trailers in Malaysia.
Main article: Civil Aviation Authority Malaysia
The Civil Aviation Authority of Malaysia (CAAM) is a regulatory body responsible for the safety and security of civil aviation in Malaysia. CAAM's primary function is to ensure that all civil aviation activities in Malaysia comply with international and national aviation safety standards.
Malaysia Marine Department is a regulatory body responsible for the safety and security of shipping in Malaysia. JLM conducts safety audits of ships and ports, issues licenses and permits to shipping personnel and organizations, investigates accidents and incidents involving ships, develops and enforces maritime safety regulations, and promotes maritime safety awareness among the public.
Main article: Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission
Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) is an agency under the purview of the Ministry of Communications and Digital that is responsible for regulating the country's communications and multimedia industry and enforcing laws related to it. The MCMC has the authority to enforce laws related to content regulation, cybersecurity, and other areas under its purview. This includes the power to issue fines, notices, and summonses to individuals or companies that violate the laws and regulations related to the communications and multimedia industry.
The National Anti-Drug Agency (NADA) of Malaysia is a government agency under the purview of the Ministry of Home Affairs. Its primary objective is to combat drug abuse and drug trafficking in Malaysia.
NADA is responsible for implementing and coordinating drug prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation programs throughout the country. It also carries out enforcement activities to suppress drug trafficking and abuse, including conducting investigations, seizures, and arrests.
Main article: Securities Commission Malaysia
Securities Commission Malaysia is a statutory body that regulates and develops the Malaysian capital market. The SC has the power to investigate and take action against market participants who violate securities laws. The SC's role is to ensure that the Malaysian capital market is fair, orderly, and transparent. It does this by setting and enforcing rules and regulations, and by monitoring market activity.