Law enforcement in Indonesia is mainly performed by the Indonesian National Police (POLRI), together with other law enforcement agencies which are under the president, a certain ministry or State-owned company (BUMN) which perform policing duties for a certain public service, these law enforcement agencies are under supervision and are trained by the Indonesian National Police. The Indonesian National Police is basically the national civilian police force of the country responsible for enforcing law and order of the state.

Police forces

Indonesian National Police

Main article: Indonesian National Police

Policemen of the Indonesian National Police

The Indonesian National Police (POLRI) is the main agency responsible for maintaining security and public order, law enforcement, and provide protection and service to the community in Indonesia. The force is a centralised organisation with responsibilities ranging from traffic control, criminal investigation, intelligence gathering and counter-terrorism duties. The Indonesian National Police is the national policing force of Indonesia with its headquarters located in Jakarta. It is under the auspices of the President of Indonesia.[1] The highest command of the national police in Indonesia is executed in Jakarta, at the Indonesian National Police Headquarters (Mabes Polri) located at Trunojoyo Street, Kebayoran Baru, South Jakarta. The National Police HQ oversees every provincial police of the country, each Province of Indonesia has its own Police Headquarters known as "POLDA" an abbreviation of Kepolisian Daerah (Regional Police) in Indonesian, it oversees several city or regional police departments which are responsible for a city or regency (Kabupaten) in the province, it is known as "POLRES" (Kepolisian Resort), a "Polres" then oversees several police stations responsible for a sub-district (kecamatan) known as "POLSEK" (Kepolisian Sektor).

Special units of the Indonesian National Police

Main article: Detachment 88

The Detachment 88 or known locally as "Densus 88" is the special counter-terrorism unit of the Indonesian National Police.[2]

Main article: Mobile Brigade Corps

The Mobile Brigade Corps or known locally as "Brimob" is the paramilitary force of the Indonesian National Police tasked to conduct high-risk law enforcement such as counterinsurgency, riot control, and hostage rescue. It is the PTU and SWAT unit of Polri. Their uniform is the same like other police units, but wear a dark blue beret as their headgear, during urban-operational duties, they wear black uniforms and during jungle-operational duties, they wear green. Each provincial police headquarters (Polda) in Indonesia has a Brimob unit.

Municipal police

Main article: Municipal Police (Indonesia)

The Municipal Police Units (Indonesian: Satuan Polisi Pamong Praja abbreviated "Satpol PP") are municipal police units which are controlled by the local governments in the country (either province, regency, or city), it is under the supervision of the Ministry of Home Affairs. Their responsibilities are to enforce local laws, such as taking action against illegal settlements and structures in the city, bring order towards street vendors and buskers, and to ensure the safety of city property. They are also responsible to secure the office of the City Mayor and provincial Governor. Their operational uniform color is greenish-dark Khaki, in Jakarta they sometimes wear orange polo shirts with khaki cargo pants.[3]

Forestry police

The Indonesia Forest Rangers (Indonesian: Polisi Kehutanan abbreviated "Polhut") is under the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. One of their responsibilities is to take action against illegal logging and patrol national parks of the country.

Prison police

The Prison Police (Indonesian: Polisi Khusus Lembaga Pemasyarakatan abbreviated Polsuspas) are Correctional Officers under the Ministry of Law and Human Rights, they control and supervise prisons across the country. Their uniform color is blue.[4]

Railroad police

Main article: Railroad police § Indonesia

The Railroad Police (Indonesian: Polisi Khusus Kereta Api abbreviated Polsuska) is the railway police unit which is under the auspices of the Indonesian Railway Company. They are not under a certain ministry, rather they are part of the Directorate of Safety and Security of the Indonesian Railway Company, but are trained and educated by the Indonesian National Police. Their uniform is black and wear orange berets, they are usually posted in Railway stations.

Remote Islands and Coastal Development police

The Police for Management of Marine, Coastal Region and Remote Islands (Polisi Khusus Pengelolaan Wilayah Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil abbreviated Polsus PWP3K) is a newly specialized-formed policing unit under the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, their authority includes conducting patrols in coastal areas and remote islands and to take action towards complaints regarding activities that damage natural maritime resources.[5]

Agricultural quarantine police

The Agricultural and Animal Quarantine Police (Indonesian: Polisi Khusus Badan Karantina Pertanian) is a police unit under the Agency of Agricultural Quarantine which is within the Ministry of Agriculture. They perform duties for looking after Agricultural and Animal Quarantine affairs.[6]

Military Police Corps

Indonesian military policemen

Main article: Military Police Corps (Indonesia)

Further information: Military police § Indonesia

In Indonesia, the Military Police Command (Indonesian: Pusat Polisi Militer TNI abbreviated "Puspom TNI") is the only institution which has authority to conduct law enforcement towards active members of the Indonesian Military, it is an institution which is directly under the auspices of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Headquarters ("Mabes TNI") which heads the three Military Police corps which are the:

The Military Police does not have authority towards civilians as it is the realm of the Indonesian National Police (Polri), and in the other hand, the civilian Police does not have authority towards active members of the military, except accompanied by the Military police. If a military member is caught red-handed by the civilian police, then the violator will be sent to the Military Police or the Military police would be contacted.

Maritime law enforcement agencies

Patrol boats of the Maritime Security Agency (Bakamla)

Maritime Security Agency

Main article: Indonesian Maritime Security Agency

The Maritime Security Agency (Badan Keamanan Laut abbreviated Bakamla) is a maritime patrol of the Republic of Indonesia. Bakamla is a non-ministerial government institution which reports directly to the President through the Coordinating Ministry for Political, Legal, and Security Affairs. Bakamla's duty is to conduct security and safety patrols in the territorial waters of Indonesia and the jurisdiction of Indonesia.

Sea and Coast Guard

Main article: Indonesian Sea and Coast Guard

The Sea and Coast Guard (Kesatuan Penjagaan Laut dan Pantai – KPLP) is an agency of the Government of Indonesia which has the main function to ensure the safety of shipping activity inside the Indonesian Maritime Zone. The "KPLP" has the task to formulate and execute policies, standards, norms, guidelines, criteria and procedures, as well as technical guidance, evaluation and reporting concerning maritime patrol and security, which is conducted in coordination with other maritime law enforcement agencies of the country such as BAKAMLA, Indonesian National Police Water Unit, and also in certain cases with the Indonesian Navy. KPLP is under the auspices of the Directorate General of Sea Transportation of the Indonesian Ministry of Transportation.

National Police Water Unit

An Indonesian National Police patrol boat

The Indonesian National Police has a water unit (Polisi Perairan abbreviated "Polair") responsible to conduct law enforcement and enforce security and order of the coast and state waters.

Marine and Fisheries Resources Surveillance

A Marine and Fisheries Resources Surveillance patrol boat

Main article: Directorate General of Marine and Fisheries Resources Surveillance (Indonesia)

The Marine and Fisheries Resources Surveillance (Pengawasan Sumber Daya Kelautan dan Perikanan - PSDKP) is a government agency under the management of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries of Indonesia. Formally established on 23 November 2000 according to Presidential Decree No. 165/2000, the PSDKP is the agency responsible for supervising the marine and fishery resources of the Republic of Indonesia.


There has been many criticism by political observers in Indonesia concerning the presence of multiple maritime law enforcement agencies in Indonesia which tend to overlap authority between one another in the maritime zone of the country. As of 2015, maritime law enforcement in Indonesia is conducted by 12 different agencies from different ministries of the government.[7] The Navy is also authorized to conduct maritime law enforcement in certain cases as it is stated in the constitution of the country.[8] There has been plans to amalgamate these different maritime law enforcement agencies to become a singular national "Indonesian Coast Guard" such as the Coast Guard of the United States of America and Coast Guard of India since 2011.[9] In February 2020, President Joko Widodo announced that he intended to have Maritime Security Agency as Indonesian coast guard.[10] In March 2022, the government issue regulation on Governance of Maritime Security, Safety and Law Enforcement at Indonesia's Territorial Water and Jurisdiction and designate Maritime Security Agency as coordinating body for all maritime law enforcement agencies.[11]

Other law enforcement agencies

Indonesian Customs Tactical Unit (CTU) of the Directorate General of Customs and Excise

Other types of government agencies which is involved in law enforcement of the state:

  1. Public Prosecution Service
  2. Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK)
  3. National Narcotics Board (BNN), specialized agency for prevention and investigation of illicit drugs abuse.
  4. National Agency for Combating Terrorism (BNPT)
  5. Directorate General of Customs and Excise
  6. Tax Office, enforce law in taxation.
  7. Directorate General of Immigration, enforce law concerning immigration.
  8. Financial Services Authority
  9. Nuclear Regulatory Agency, enforce law in nuclear energy.
  10. National Agency of Drug and Food Control, oversee foods, drugs, and cosmetics in Indonesia.
  11. Directorate General of Post and Informatics Devices Resource of the Ministry of Communication and Informatics, enforce law in information technology and radiowaves.
  12. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources
  13. Ministry of Industry
  14. Ministry of Trade
  15. Ministry of Health
  16. Ministry of Transportation, oversee and enforce law in the realm of transportation (land, sea and air). The Traffic Wardens (Dishub) in Indonesia are under the command of the Ministry of Transportation which are responsible to conduct law enforcement towards yellow-plate vehicles (public transportation vehicles and other over-sized vehicles) and also take action towards parking violators. They also assist the Traffic police in directing traffic. They wear light-blue for their shirt and dark blue for their pants as their uniform.

See also


  1. ^ "Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 2 Tahun 2002 Tentang Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia" [Law No 2/2002 about Indonesian National Police]. 8, No. 2 of 2002 (PDF) (in Indonesian).
  2. ^ McDonald, Hamish (31 May 2008). "Fighting terror with smart weaponry". Sydney Morning Herald. p. 17.
  3. ^ "Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Republik Indonesia Nomor 19 Tahun 2013 Tentang Pedoman Pakaian Dinas, Perlengkapan dan Peralatan Operasional Satuan Polisi Pamong Praja" [Minister Home Affairs Decree No 19/2013 Regarding Uniform, Equipment and Operational Gear Municipal Police]. 4(2), No. 19 of 2013 (in Indonesian).
  4. ^ "Polsuspas Lapas Perempuan Sungguminasa: Perkasa Menjaga Bui Bollangi". Lapas Sungguminasa (in Indonesian). Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  5. ^ "KKP Bentuk Polisi Khusus PWP3K". Antara. 6 December 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  6. ^ "Keputusan Kepala Badan Karantina Pertanian No.1785/KPTS/OT.210/K/12/2016 Tentang Pedoman Kerja Kepolisian Khusus Badan Karantina Pertanian" [Head of Agricultural Quarantine Decree No.1785/KPTS/OT.210/K/12/2016 Regarding Standard Procedure of Agricultural Quarantine Special Police]. No. 1785/KPTS/OT.210/K/12 of 2016 (PDF) (in Indonesian).
  7. ^ Utama, Abraham (5 October 2015). "Tumpang-tindih Aturan Penegakan Hukum Maritim" (in Indonesian). CNN Indonesia. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  8. ^ Sapiie, Marguerite Afra (30 August 2016). "Maritime security agency, Navy should closely cooperate". Jakarta Post. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  9. ^ Rusdi, Siswanto (8 September 2019). "Indonesian Coast Guard: Will It surface or sink?". Antara. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  10. ^ Gorbiano, Marchio Irfan (12 February 2020). "Jokowi wants Bakamla upgraded to Indonesian coast guard as new chief sworn in". Jakarta Post. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  11. ^ Rusdi, Siswanto (29 March 2022). "Indonesian Coast Guard Is Dead, Says Think Tank". Maritime Fairtrade. Retrieved 19 December 2022.