Since 1999, Indonesia has had a multi-party system. In the four legislative elections since the fall of the New Order regime, no political party has won an overall majority of seats, resulting in coalition governments.

Pursuant to the Indonesian political parties act,[1] political parties' ideologies "must not be against Pancasila" and "is an explanation of Pancasila".

Overview

An election rally for the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle, 1999

The Indonesian political party system is regulated by Act No. 2 of 2008 on Political Parties.[2] The law defines political party as "a national organisation founded by like-minded Indonesian citizens with common goals to fulfill common interests and to defend the unity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia as based on Pancasila and the 1945 State Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia".

Political parties must register themselves with the Ministry of Law and Human Rights to be recognised by the authority. The law dictates that political parties' registration criteria shall include a notarial act recognising the party establishment and party constitution; a document describing party symbols; address of party headquarters and prove of distribution of party local offices in provinces, and cities and regencies; and a prove of party bank account.[3][2] The law also dictates minimum membership of new political parties on 50 persons, with the percentage of woman members and allocation of woman members to party offices are set on a minimum of 30%.

The party must undergo another registration process in order to participate in national elections; the registration shall be submitted to the General Elections Commission (KPU).[4] Political parties whose had their registration declined by the electoral commission due to failure to satisfy administrative criteria or other reasons, are able to appeal their rejection to the General Election Supervisory Agency (BAWASLU).[5]

Party principles

Indonesian political party should recognise the superiority of Pancasila, the national philosophy

Indonesian political parties should recognise the superiority of Pancasila and the national constitution, but Indonesian law tolerates the practice of other ideologies not in violation of the Pancasila and the constitution. A 1966 Provisional People's Consultative Assembly resolution still in force today, however, explicitly prohibits establishment of a communist party, and political parties are banned from adopting "Communism/Marxism-Leninism" (sic; explicitly defined in the resolution's corresponding explanatory memorandum to include "the struggle fundaments and tactics taught by ... Stalin, Mao Tse Tung et cetera") as the party ideology.[2]

In essence, Indonesian political parties differs little on party policy and ideology. The only major difference between Indonesian parties is their position as to how major a role Islam, by far the nation's majority religion, should play in public affairs.[6] This tendency resulting in several Indonesian political parties to brand itself as the part of nationalist-religious broad coalition in order to attract potential voters from both Muslim and secular nationalist groups.

The language of the left–right political spectrum is seldom used in Indonesia, in contrast with other countries. This tendency arose as the result of the New Order regime under Suharto which was anathema to left-wing policies after the 1965–66 Indonesian mass killings of members and supporters of the Communist Party of Indonesia.[6] The New Order regime further stigmatised left-wing ideals as those espoused only by communists, discouraging Indonesian political parties from identifying themselves as left-wing movements lest they lose potential voters and be accused as communist. This tendency has survived even after the 1998 Reforms, partly due to the new regime's insistence on keeping anti-communist legislation in force. In addition, due to widely presidents shared power, Indonesian party cartelization differs significantly from canonical electoral alliances in Europe.[7]

Parties represented in legislatures

Parties represented in national and regional legislatures

Logo Name Leader Year Status in the DPR Provincial
DPRD seats
City/regency
DPRD seats
Est. First
election
Seats Status
PDI-P Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle
Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan
Megawati Sukarnoputri 1999[a][8] 1999
128 / 575
Government
418 / 2,232
2,803 / 17,340
Golkar Party of Functional Groups
Partai Golongan Karya
Airlangga Hartarto 1964 1971
85 / 575
Government
309 / 2,232
2,412 / 17,340
Gerindra Great Indonesia Movement Party
Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya
Prabowo Subianto 2008 2009
78 / 575
Government
288 / 2,232
1,970 / 17,340
NasDem National Democratic Party
Partai Nasional Demokrat
Surya Paloh 2011 2014
59 / 575
Government
186 / 2,232
1,628 / 17,340
PKB National Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa
Muhaimin Iskandar 1998 1999
58 / 575
Government
180 / 2,232
1,553 / 17,340
Demokrat Democratic Party
Partai Demokrat
Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono 2001[9] 2004
54 / 575
Opposition
219 / 2,232
1,584 / 17,340
PKS Prosperous Justice Party
Partai Keadilan Sejahtera
Ahmad Syaikhu 1999[b][10][11][12] 1999
50 / 575
Opposition
191 / 2,232
1,229 / 17,340
PAN National Mandate Party
Partai Amanat Nasional
Zulkifli Hasan 1998 1999
44 / 575
Government
165 / 2,232
1,302 / 17,340
PPP United Development Party
Partai Persatuan Pembangunan
Muhamad Mardiono 1973 1977
19 / 575
Government
92 / 2,232
954 / 17,340
  1. ^ Split from the Indonesian Democratic Party, de facto, its transformation.
  2. ^ as Partai Keadilan

Parties represented only in regional legislatures

These parties participates on national elections - the last was in 2019 - yet failed to attain a single seat in the House of Representatives due to failing to pass 4% parliamentary threshold.[13] Notable failure was of Hanura, that failed to return to the DPR despite winning seats in 2014 election. Despite electoral failure in the DPR, these parties successfully gained seat in regional parliaments (DPRD). Although, these political parties, along with other extra-parliamentary parties, are sometimes referred as partai gurem.

Aceh's special autonomy statutes allowed formation of local political parties to compete only in the Aceh House of Representatives. Although the party number is serialised from the national list, Aceh local parties only appeared in ballot paper circulating in Aceh province.[14]

Logo Name Leader Year Provincial
DPRD seats
City/regency
DPRD seats
Est. First
election
Hanura People's Conscience Party
Partai Hati Nurani Rakyat
Oesman Sapta Odang 2006 2009
66 / 2,232
746 / 17,340
Perindo Indonesian Unity Party
Partai Persatuan Indonesia
Hary Tanoesoedibjo 2015 2019
29 / 2,232
379 / 17,340
PSI Indonesian Solidarity Party
Partai Solidaritas Indonesia
Kaesang Pangarep 2014 2019
13 / 2,232
60 / 17,340
Berkarya Party of Functional Banyan
Partai Beringin Karya
Muchdi Purwopranjono 2016 2019
10 / 2,232
131 / 17,340
PBB Crescent Star Party
Partai Bulan Bintang
Yusril Ihza Mahendra 1998 1999
7 / 2,232
214 / 17,340
PKP Justice and Unity Party
Partai Keadilan dan Persatuan
Yussuf Solichien 1999[15] 1999
4 / 2,232
155 / 17,340
Garuda Change Indonesia Guardian Party
Partai Garda Perubahan Indonesia
Ahmad Ridha Sabana 2015 2019
2 / 2,232
33 / 17,340
Parties represented only in Aceh DPRD
PA Aceh Party
Partai Aceh
Muzakir Manaf 2007 2009
18 / 81
120 / 620
PNA Nanggroe Aceh Party
Partai Nanggroe Aceh
Irwandi Yusuf 2011 2014
6 / 81
46 / 620
PDA Aceh Abode Party
Partai Darul Aceh
Muhibbussabri A. Wahab 2011 2014
3 / 81
17 / 620
SIRA Acehnese People's Independent Solidarity Party
Partai Soliditas Independen Rakyat Aceh
Muslim Syamsuddin 2007 2009
1 / 81
4 / 620

Extra-parliamentary parties

These political parties have no representation in either national or regional parliaments.

The term "partai gurem" (minor party, literally "tropical fowl mite party" referring to the small size) is commonly used by Indonesian media to refer to these political parties. The term initially referred to political parties that won a very small number of parliamentary seat, but after the 2004 election, to political parties that have no chance of surpassing the parliamentary threshold (currently 4%) necessary to gain representation on the House of Representatives.[16] These political parties are often perceived to be lacking in organisational structure, their leaders seemingly interested solely in attracting media attention.[16]

These parties often have their attempts at registering for elections turned down by the KPU due to the parties' failure to satisfy registration criteria set by the commission, which includes completeness of party documents, a permanent physical party headquarters, minimum membership and minimum percentage of woman members.[17][18] Parties that had their registration rejected often resort to appealing their rejection to the Bawaslu, with varied success.[19]

Logo Name[nb 1] Leader Year
Est. Contested
elections
Gelora Indonesian People's Wave Party
Partai Gelombang Rakyat Indonesia
Anis Matta 2019 2024
PKN Nusantara Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Nusantara
Anas Urbaningrum 2021[20] 2024
PB Labour Party
Partai Buruh
Said Iqbal 2021 2024
Ummat Ummah Party
Partai Ummat
Ridho Rahmadi 2021 2024
Republik Republican Party
Partai Republik
Suharno Prawiro 1998[21] 1999
PBI Indonesian Bhinneka Party
Partai Bhinneka Indonesia
Nurdin Purnomo 1998[nb 2][22] 1999
Reformasi Reform Party
Partai Reformasi
Syamsahril Kamal 2000
PPB National Unity Party
Partai Pemersatu Bangsa
Eggi Sudjana 2001
Pakar Republican Functional Party
Partai Karya Republik
Ari Sigit 2012
Parsindo Indonesian People's Voice Party
Partai Swara Rakyat Indonesia
M Jusuf Rizal 2013
Rakyat People's Party
Partai Rakyat
Arvindo Noviar 2014
PDRI Indonesian People's Democracy Party
Partai Demokrasi Rakyat Indonesia
Ambarwati Santoso 2015[nb 3][23]
Pandai Indonesian Sovereign Nation Party
Partai Negeri Daulat Indonesia
Farhat Abbas 2020
Masyumi Masyumi Party
Partai Masyumi
Ahmad Yani 2020
PRIMA Just and Prosperous People's Party
Partai Rakyat Adil Makmur
Agus Jabo Priyono 2021
PPB National Scout Party
Partai Pandu Bangsa
Widyanto Kurniawan 2021
Perkasa Village Awakening Movement Party
Partai Pergerakan Kebangkitan Desa
Eko Santjojo 2021[nb 4]
PKR People's Sovereignty Party
Partai Kedaulatan Rakyat
Tuntas Subagyo 2021
PMI Indonesian Students Party
Partai Mahasiswa Indonesia
Eko Pratama 2021
IBU Awaken and United Indonesia Party
Partai Indonesia Bangkit Bersatu
Zulki Zulkifli Noor 2021
PDSP Prosperous Peace Party of Renewal
Partai Damai Sejahtera Pembaharuan
Hendrik RE Assa 2021[nb 5]
Pelita Pelita Party
Partai Pelita
Beni Pramula 2022
PDKB National Peace and Love Party
Partai Damai Kasih Bangsa
Apri Hananto Sukandar 2021
Republiku Indonesian Republiku Party
Partai Republiku Indonesia
Ramses David Simandjuntak
PRS One Republic Party
Partai Republik Satu
D Yusad Siregar
Kongres Congress Party
Partai Kongres
Zakariani Santoso
Parties that are not registered in the KPU RI Political Party Registration System
SRI Union of Independent People
Serikat Rakyat Independen
Damianus Taufan 2011
PHI Green Party of Indonesia
Partai Hijau Indonesia
Collective leadership 2012 [nb 6]
PDRI Indonesian People's Da'wah Party
Partai Dakwah Rakyat Indonesia
Farid Okbah 2021

Political party coalitions

Logo Name Active period Status Presidential candidate Election DPR seats
Formed Disbanded
KIH Great Indonesia Coalition [id]
Koalisi Indonesia Hebat[7]
2014–2019 Disbanded Joko Widodo 2014
207 / 560
19 May 2014 20 October 2019
KMP Red-White Coalition [id]
Koalisi Merah Putih[7]
2014–2018 Disbanded Prabowo Subianto 2014
292 / 560
14 July 2014 18 September 2018
KIM Onward Indonesia Coalition
Koalisi Indonesia Maju
since 2018 Active Joko Widodo 2019
349 / 575
10 August 2018
KIAM Just and Prosperous Indonesia Coalition [id]
Koalisi Indonesia Adil Makmur
2018–2019 Disbanded Prabowo Subianto 2019
226 / 575
18 September 2018 28 June 2019
KIM Advanced Indonesia Coalition
Koalisi Indonesia Maju
since 2022 Active Prabowo Subianto 2024 13 August 2022
KPP Coalition of Change
Koalisi Perubahan
since 2023 Active Anies Baswedan 2024 24 March 2023
KSPP Alliance of Political Parties Supporting Ganjar Pranowo
Kerja Sama Partai Politik Pengusung Ganjar Pranowo
since 2023 Active Ganjar Pranowo 2024 30 April 2023

Historical political parties

Pre-independence parties

In the first decade of the 20th century as a natural outcome of the Dutch Ethical Policy, which emphasised the importance of looking after the welfare of the people of the Dutch East Indies, the Dutch were tolerant of the rise and development of Indonesian society.[24] Through this, the Dutch allowed the creation of education societies and funded its creation. Dutch educated Intelligentsias' would establish schools and education across the Dutch East Indies. Whilst the policy attempted to raise awareness among the natives of the need to break free from the shackles of the feudal system and develop along Western lines and were concerned about the native population's social and cultural conditions, it spearheaded the spread of Indonesian National Revivalism, allowing people to silently organize and articulate their objections to colonial rule.[25] The Budi Utomo was considered the first nationalist society (not party yet) in the Dutch East Indies, initiated the Indonesian National Awakening.[26] Among other political organizations were the Indo Europeesch Verbond (Indo-European Alliance) and Indonesia Arab Association.[27] Over time organizations turned into political parties, such how Budi Utomo turned into Parindra[28][29] and Sarekat Islam into Indonesian Islamic Union Party. The Indische Partij is considered the first Indonesian political party.[30]

The Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies began when the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies through Tarakan, Kalimantan, on 8 March 1942. By the Japanese Government, parties that were based on Indonesian nationalism and wanted to fight for Indonesian Independence were dissolved and banned from political activities on 20 March 1942.[31]

Name Established Dissolved Notes Independence Method
Indies Party
Indische Partij
IP 1912 1913 Advocated Indonesian independence.[30] Non-Cooperative
Insulinde, or Nationaal Indische Partij NIP 1913 1919 Direct successor to the Indies Party, advocated in establishing an independent dominion for Indo people in the Dutch East Indies.[30][32] Non-Cooperative
Communist Party of Indonesia
Partai Komunis Indonesia
PKI 1914 1966 Before 1920 as the Indies Social Democratic Association (Indische Sociaal-Democratische Vereeniging). Non-Cooperative
Indonesian Islamic Union Party
Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia
PSII 1923 1973 Advocated Islamic socialism. Non-Cooperative
Catholic Party
Partai Katolik
PK 1923 1973 Advocated Christian democracy Cooperative
Indonesian National Party
Partai Nasional Indonesia
PNI 1927 1931 The first incarnation (second in 1945) of the significant party, which advocated Indonesian independence. Non-Cooperative
Chinese Association
Chung Hwa Hui
CHH 1928 1942 Advocated Chinese rights in the Dutch East Indies. Cooperative
Indonesian Party
Partai Indonesia
Partindo 1931 1936 Advocated Indonesian independence. Non-Cooperative
Indonesian Chinese Party
Partai Tionghoa Indonesia
PTI 1932 1942 Advocated closer ties between Chinese and native Indonesians. Cooperative
Indonesian Fascist Party
Partai Fasis Indonesia
PFI 1933 1933 Advocated an independent Java, led by an ethnic Javanese descendant of Sutawijaya as its constitutional monarch,[33] ruling over a federation of kingdoms across Nusantara.[34] Non-Cooperative
Great Indonesian Party
Partai Indonesia Raya
Parindra 1935 1939 National conservative party, that advocated for full political rights for Indonesians in a system of government in the Dutch East Indies.[29] Cooperative
Indonesian People's Movement
Gerakan Rakyat Indonesia
Gerindo 1937 1942 Successor to Partindo, left-wing nationalist party.[35] Cooperative[36][37]
Indonesian Islamic Party
Partai Islam Indonesia
PII 1938[38] 1942 Cooperative split from PSII. Cooperative

Political parties participating in 1955 and 1971 elections

Parties that had been officially registered in Indonesia in 1954.

The election in 1955 was the first national election held since the end of the Indonesian National Revolution, and saw over 37 million valid votes cast in over 93 thousand polling locations, with more than 30 parties participating. Due to the numerous political parties participating in the election, the result was inconclusive, with no party receiving a clear mandate.[39][40] The legislature which was elected through the election would eventually be dissolved by President Sukarno in 1959, through Presidential Decree number 150. Later on, after the take over by the New Order regime, only 10 parties was allowed to participate in the 1971 legislative election.[41]

Logo Name[42][43] Established Dissolved Contested elections
1955 1971
DPR Constituency[44]
Indonesian Islamic Union Party
Partai Serikat Islam Indonesia
PSII 1923
1947[45]
1973
Indonesian National Party
Partai Nasional Indonesia
PNI 1946[46] 1973
Communist Party of Indonesia
Partai Komunis Indonesia
PKI 1914 1966[47]
Banned
Masyumi Party
Majelis Syuro Muslimin Indonesia
Masyumi 1943[nb 7]
1945[nb 8][45][48][49][50]
1960[51][52]
Banned
Revived in 2020[53]
Islamic Education Movement
Pergerakan Tarbijah Islamijah
Perti 1928[nb 9]
1945[nb 10][45][54]
1973
Nahdhatul Ulama NU 1952[45][55] 1973
Still active as religious organisation
Indonesian Christian Party
Partai Kristen Indonesia
Parkindo 1945[56] 1973
Catholic Party
Partai Katolik
1923 1973
Socialist Party of Indonesia
Partai Sosialis Indonesia
PSI 1945[56] 1960
Banned
Indonesian Marhaen People's Union
Persatuan Rakyat Marhaen Indonesia
Permai 1945[56]
Popular Consultative Party
Partai Musyawarah Rakyat Banyak
Murba 1948 1973
Revived in 1998[57]
Labour Party
Partai Buruh
1949
National People's Party
Partai Rakyat Nasional
PRN 1950
Indonesian People's Party
Partai Rakyat Indonesia
PRI 1950[58]
League of Supporters of Indonesian Independence
Ikatan Pendukung Kemerdekaan Indonesia
IPKI 1954[59] 1973
Revived in 1998[60]
Pancasila Defender Movement
Gerakan Pembela Pantja Sila
GPPS 1955
Police Employee Association of the Republic of Indonesia
Persatuan Pegawai Polisi Republik Indonesia
P3RI 1955
Indonesian Citizenship Consultative Assembly
Badan Permusjawaratan Kewarganegaraan Indonesia
Baperki 1954
Great Indonesia Unity Party Wongsonegoro
Partai Indonesia Raya Wongsonegoro
PIR/W 1948

Split in 1954[61]

Great Indonesia Unity Party Hazairin
Partai Indonesia Raya Hazairin
PIR/RIN
Great Indonesia Unity Party West Nusa Tenggara
Partai Indonesia Raya Nusa Tenggara Barat
PIR/NTB
Indonesian Movement
Gerakan Indonesia
Grinda 1955
Dayak Unity Party
Partai Persatuan Dayak
PPD 1946 1959
Banned
Islamic Tharikah Unity Party
Partai Persatuan Tharikah Islam
PPTI
Islamic Victory Force
Angkatan Kemenangan Umat Islam
AKUI
Village People's Union
Persatuan Rakjat Desa
PRD
Party of the People of Free Indonesia
Partai Rakjat Indonesia Merdeka
PRIM
Young Communist Force
Angkatan Communis Muda
Acoma 1952 1965
Banned
Muslim Party of Indonesia
Partai Muslimin Indonesia
Parmusi 1967[62] 1973
R. Soedjono Prawirosoedarso
R. Soedjono Prawirosoedarso
1955[63] 1957[64]
Sundanese Choice Movement
Gerakan Pilihan Sunda
Gerpis
Indonesian Peasants Party
Partai Tani Indonesia
PTI 1945[65]
King of Keprabohan
Radja Keprabonan
1955[66]
Indonesian Republican Bull Movement
Gerakan Banteng Republik Indonesia
GBRI
Centre for the Candidacy Movement of La Ode M. Effendi
Pusat Penggerak Pentjalonan La Ode M. Effendi
L.M. Idrus Effendi 1955[3]

Political parties of the New Order

Government parties

A poster encouraging citizens to support the 1997 Indonesian legislative election.

After his rise into power, President Suharto expressed his discontent regarding multiple political parties, arguing that the failure of Konstituante in 1955-1959 was caused by party deadlock - unacceptable his regime.[67] He proposed that existing political parties unite based on their ideological essence – either spiritual (religious) or materialist (secular nationalist) - in order to cripple the resulting umbrella parties with infighting. Political parties' reaction to Suharto's propositions was generally positive, with Islamic parties claiming that party fusion was in line with their last National Islamic Congress resolution agreed in 1969. A political alliance dubbed the "Democratic Development Group" was formed by the PNI, the IPKI, Parkindo, the Murba Party, and the Catholic Party to compete in 1971 election.[68]

After 1971 election, New Order regime reiterated its call for political parties to fuse, and a MPR ordinance regulating political parties grouping issued in 1973 further pressured political parties to merge.[69] All Islamic political parties merged to form the United Development Party (PPP) on 5 January 1973, and the remaining nationalist and non-Islamic political parties united to form the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) on 10 January 1973.[69] Golkar, officially a "federation of public organisations" but effectively a political party, remained dominant for the entirety of the New Order. From 1985, all political parties were required to declare national ideology Pancasila as their "one and only ideological basis".

The parties participated for the last time in the 1997 election, and the three-party system survived until the collapse of the New Order in 1998 Reformasi. Ensuing political liberalisation allowed establishment of multitudes of new political parties, with the number of political parties participating in 1999 election jumping substantially to 48 parties.

After the Reform, the PPP survived and continues to participate in all following elections after 1999, albeit with much of its membership having broken off from it and founded their own parties. Golkar too was made a proper party and exists to this day. The PDI failed to imitate the post-Suharto successes of the PPP and Golkar after the government intervened and unseated Chairman Megawati Soekarnoputri, causing PDI support to collapse in the 1997 election. PDI votes further eroded as support instead went to its breakaway Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), led by Megawati in the post-Suharto 1999 election, resulting in the party winning only two seats in contrast to the PDI-P's 153 seats.[15] After poor electoral performance and failure to register for the 2004 election, PDI rebranded itself as the Indonesian Democratic Vanguard Party (PPDI) in 2003.[15][70]

Logo Name Established Fate
Party of Functional Groups
Partai Golongan Karya
Golkar 1964 Active
Indonesian Democratic Party
Partai Demokrasi Indonesia
PDI 1973[71] Disbanded in 2003
succeeded by PPDI[70]
United Development Party
Partai Persatuan Pembangunan
PPP 1973[72] Active

Activist parties

Prior to the end of the New Order era, there was a time where several political activists and student movements established small political parties in the early 1990s. Sensing the near fall of the New Order, the formation of these newly unregistered and unrecognized political parties was based on opposition to the New Order government and positioned themselves as the opposition and played a crucial part in the fall of the new order. The new parties then and only participated in the 1999 elections.

Whilst the New Masyumi Party predates the wave of the new opposition parties, the Indonesian Democratic Union Party (PUDI) was considered as the first genuine opposition party. As PUDI was upfront and outspoken in their political opposition as a party against the New Order regime, the first out of many.[73] At one point, fielding both presidential and vice-presidential candidates, PUDI was considered a challenger to Suharto's rule.[74][75] Emboldened by the success of PUDI, the Democratic People's Association (PRD) organisation declared itself the People's Democratic Party (also abbreviated as PRD). On 22 July 1996, the PRD was officially declared to the public and announced its political manifesto.[76]

Logo Name Established Fate
New Masyumi Party
Partai Masyumi Baru
1995[77] Non-active
Indonesian Democratic Union Party
Partai Uni Demokrasi Indonesia
PUDI 1996[78] Non-active
People's Democratic Party
Partai Rakyat Demokratik
PRD 1996[79] Disbanded in 2021
Merged with Just and Prosperous People's Party
Indonesian National Christian Party
Partai Kristen Nasional Indonesia
Krisna 1998[80] Non-active
Indonesian Workers' Party
Partai Pekerja Indonesia
PPI 1998[81] Non-active

Political parties in post-reform era

Parties participating only in 1999 elections

Following political liberalisation after the collapse of the New Order regime in 1998 Reformasi, registration for new political parties jumped significantly. As the result, the following 1999 election had 48 political parties competing for DPR seats, compared to the previous 1997 election that saw only 2 political parties plus Golkar.

Several parties claimed inheritance from former political parties existing prior to the New Order era, resulting in parties sharing similar political party names, with faction names as the only characteristics that made those parties distinct from each other. Example on this case was on claimants to the heritage of the former Indonesian National Party (PNI) and Masyumi Party.[82]

Most of the parties failed to gain even a single seat due to lack of votes. After the new electoral law authorised the use of a parliamentary threshold to determine the division of DPR seats, those parties were forced to reorganise themselves in order to be able to register for the next 2004 election.[83]

Below is the list of political parties participating only in the 1999 election which failed to participate in the next 2004 election.

Logo Name Established
Aceh Orphans' Foundation Party
Partai Abul Yatama
PAY 1999[84]
All-Indonesia Workers' Solidarity Party
Partai Solidaritas Pekerja Seluruh Indonesia
PSPSI 1998[85]
Democratic Catholic Party
Partai Katolik Demokrat
PKD 1998[86]
Democratic Islamic Party
Partai Islam Demokrat
PID 1998[87]
Democratic National Party
Partai Nasional Demokrat
PND 1998[88]
Familial Consultative Party of Mutual Assistance
Partai Musyawarah Kekeluargaan Gotong Royong
MKGR 1998[89]
Indonesian Democratic Alliance Party
Partai Aliansi Demokrat Indonesia
PADI 1998[90]
Indonesian Democratic Union Party
Partai Uni Demokrasi Indonesia
PUDI 1996[78]
Indonesian Islamic Political Party "Masyumi"
Partai Politik Islam Indonesia "Masyumi"
1998[82][nb 11]
Indonesian Islamic Ummah Party
Partai Umat Muslimin Indonesia
PUMI 1998[91]
Indonesian Islamic Union Party
Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia
PSII 1998[92][nb 12]
Indonesian Islamic Union Party - 1905
Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia - 1905
PSII 1905 1998[93][nb 12]
Indonesian Muslim Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Muslim Indonesia
KAMI 1998[94]
Indonesian National Christian Party
Partai Kristen Nasional Indonesia
Krisna 1998[80]
Indonesian National Party – Marhaenist Front
Partai Nasional Indonesia – Front Marhaenis
PNI-FM 1999[95][nb 13]
Indonesian National Party – Marhaen Masses
Partai Nasional Indonesia – Massa Marhaen
PNI–MM 1998[96][nb 13]
Indonesian National Party – Supeni
Partai Nasional Indonesia – Supeni
PNI-Supeni 1995[97][nb 13]
Indonesian National Union Solidarity Party
Partai Solidaritas Uni Nasional Indonesia
SUNI 1998[98]
Indonesian People's Party
Partai Rakyat Indonesia
Pari 1998[99]
Indonesian Workers' Party
Partai Pekerja Indonesia
PPI 1998[81]
Islamic Ummah Party
Partai Ummat Islam
PUI 1998[100]
Love and Peace Party
Partai Cinta Damai
PCD 1998[101]
National Freedom Party
Partai Kebangsaan Merdeka
PKM 1998[102]
National Love Democratic Party
Partai Demokrasi Kasih Bangsa
PDKB 1998[103]
National Party of the Indonesian Nation
Partai Nasional Bangsa Indonesia
PNBI 1998[104]
New Indonesia Party
Partai Indonesia Baru
PIB 1999[105]
New Masyumi Party
Partai Masyumi Baru
1995[77]
People's Choice Party
Partai Pilihan Rakyat
Pilar 1998[106]
People's Sovereignty Party
Partai Daulat Rakyat
PDR 1999[107]
Justice Party
Partai Keadilan
PK 1999[10][11][12]
United Party
Partai Persatuan
PP 1999[108]
Ummah Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Umat
PKU 1998[109]
Workers' Solidarity Party
Partai Solidaritas Pekerja
PSP 1999[110]
People's Democratic Party
Partai Rakyat Demokratik
PRD 1996[79]

Parties participating in 2004 and 2009 elections

After the 1999 legislative election, 150 parties were registered with the Ministry of Law and Human Rights. However, after a review by the newly formed General Election Commission, this number was reduced to 50, and then to 24.[111] This decrease from the 48 parties that ran in the 1999 legislative election was primarily due to a new election law that allowed only parties that had won 2% of DPR seats or 3% of seats in provincial and regental legislatures in half of the provinces to run in the 2004 election. Only six parties met this criterion, and the others were forced to merge or reorganize into a new party.[112]

In 2009, introduction of a parliamentary threshold also meant that only parties receiving more than 2.5% of the popular vote would be seated in the DPR.[113] This threshold was raised to 3.5% in 2014,[114] then finally to 4% in 2017 as a way to cut election costs and ensure stability.[115] As a result small parties have no chance of surpassing the parliamentary threshold.

Below is the list of political parties participating in the 2004 and 2009 elections which failed to participate in the next 2014 election.

Name[116][117][118][119] Established Dissolved Contested elections
2004 2009
Labour Party
Partai Buruh
PB 1998
As "National Labour Party"[120]
2021
Reformed into Labour Party
Indonesian Democratic Party of Devotion
Partai Kasih Demokrasi Indonesia
PKDI 1998 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[121]
Patriot Party
Partai Patriot
1998 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[121]
Ulema National Awakening Party
Partai Kebangkitan Nasional Ulama
PKNU 2000s 2022
Merged into People's Sovereignty Party (PKR)[122]
Archipelago Republic Party
Partai Republika Nusantara
RepublikaN 2001 2013
Merged into Hanura[123]
Prosperous Peace Party
Partai Damai Sejahtera
PDS 2001 2013
Merged into Hanura[123]
Indonesian National Party Marhaenism
Partai Nasional Indonesia Marhaenisme
PNIM 2002[10]
Merger of PNI–Supeni and PNI–MM
Pioneers' Party
Partai Pelopor
PP 2002[124] 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[121]
Reform Star Party
Partai Bintang Reformasi
PBR 2002 2011
Merged into Gerindra[125]
Regional Unity Party
Partai Persatuan Daerah
PPD 2002 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[121]
New Indonesia Association Party
Partai Perhimpunan Indonesia Baru
PPIB 2002 2012
Merged to form Concern for the Nation Functional Party[126]
Nusantara Prosperous Party
Partai Kemakmuran Bangsa Nusantara
PKBN 2011 2012
Merged to form Concern for the Nation Functional Party[126]
New Indonesia National Sovereignty Party
Partai Kedaulatan Bangsa Indonesia Baru
PKBIB 2012 Not yet established
Concern for the Nation Functional Party
Partai Karya Peduli Bangsa
PKPB 2002
Democratic Nationhood Party
Partai Demokrasi Kebangsaan
PDK 2002 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[121]
Freedom Party
Partai Merdeka
PM 2002 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[121]
Indonesian Unity Party
Partai Sarikat Indonesia
PSI 2002 2005
Merged into PAN[127]
Indonesian Nahdlatul Community Party
Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia
PPNUI 2003
Indonesian Democratic Vanguard Party
Partai Penegak Demokrasi Indonesia
PPDI 2003[15] 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[121]
Democratic Renewal Party
Partai Demokrasi Pembaruan
PDP 2005 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[121]
Sovereignty Party
Partai Kedaulatan
PK 2006 2013
Merged into Hanura[123]
National People's Concern Party
Partai Rakyat Peduli Nasional
PPRN 2006 2013
Merged into Hanura[123]
National Sun Party
Partai Matahari Bangsa
PMB 2006 2014[128]
Functional Party of Struggle
Partai Karya Perjuangan
Pakar Pangan 2007 2012
Merged into Democratic Party[129]
Indonesian Youth Party
Partai Pemuda Indonesia
PPI 2007 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[121]
National Front Party
Partai Barisan Nasional
PBN 2007
Prosperous Indonesia Party
Partai Indonesia Sejahtera
PIS 2007[130] 2011
Merged to form National Unity Party[121]
Peace and Safe Islamic Party
Partai Islam Damai Aman
Idaman 2015 2018
Merged into PAN[131]
Not yet established

Others

Indonesian integrationist parties

Logo Name Established Dissolved Notes
Partai Kemerdekaan Indonesia Irian
Indonesian Irian Independence Party
PKII 1946 1962 Founded in Netherlands New Guinea, advocated integration of Western New Guinea into Indonesia.
Associação Popular Democrática Timorense
Timorese Popular Democratic Association
APODETI 1974 2007 Founded in Portuguese Timor, advocated integration of East Timor into Indonesia.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Political parties registered at the KPU RI Political Party Registration System (SIPOL) for the 2024 general elections and other notable parties.
  2. ^ As "Indonesian Bhinneka Tunggal Ika Party"
  3. ^ Reformed from Indonesian Democratic Vanguard Party (PPDI)
  4. ^ Reformed from Pioneers' Party
  5. ^ Reformed from Prosperous Peace Party
  6. ^ Not seeking registration for 2024 general elections
  7. ^ as religious administrative board
  8. ^ as political party
  9. ^ as religious organization
  10. ^ as political party
  11. ^ Claimed inheritance from the original Masyumi
  12. ^ a b Claimed inheritance from the original PSII
  13. ^ a b c Claimed inheritance from the original PNI

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Selected bibliography