The People's Republic of China is a one-party state ruled by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Despite this, eight subservient political parties officially exist.

Under the one country, two systems principle, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, which were previously colonies of European powers, operate under a different political system to the rest of China. Currently, both Hong Kong and Macau possess multi-party systems that were introduced just before the handover of the territories to China.[1]

Legal parties

Ruling party

Party Date founded Ideology Members Leader NPC seats NPCSC seats CPPCC seats[a]
Danghui.svg
Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
中国共产党 (中共)
1921
Chinese socialism 96,710,000 (2022) Xi Jinping
2,091 / 2,980
118 / 175
99 / 544

Minor parties

While only the CCP holds effective power at the national level, there are officially eight minor parties that exist alongside the CCP[2] under what is officially called the "multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China" (中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度). These minor parties are officially termed the "Democratic Parties" (民主党派). Founded prior to the proclamation of the People's Republic of China, these parties must accept the "leading role" of the CCP as a condition of their continued existence.[3] The relationship between these parties and the CCP has officially been described as "long-term coexistence and mutual supervision, treating each other with full sincerity and sharing weal or woe".[4] According to Human Rights Watch, these parties "play an advisory rather than an oppositional role".[5] The eight minor parties are take part in "united front work" and also take part in the political system, but they have no power at a national level.[6][2] The Chinese political system allows for the participation of some members of the eight minor parties and other non-CCP members in the National People's Congress (NPC), but they are vetted by the CCP.[5] According to Aaron Friedberg, these parties' "purpose is to create the illusion of inclusiveness and representation."[7] One of the ways the CCP controls the minor parties is through its United Front Work Department (UFWD), which vets the membership applications and controls who is the leader of these parties.[8] UFWD also keeps the parties in check by preventing them from expanding widely in counties and villages.[8] There is officially a ranking system of the parties; the ranking is based on their "contribution to the new democratic revolution".[9]

Ranking Name
(abbreviation)
Date founded Ideology Members Chairperson NPC seats NPCSC seats CPPCC seats[b]
1. Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang (RCCK)
中国国民党革命委员会 (民革)
1948
158,000 (2022) Zheng Jianbang
44 / 2,980
6 / 175
65 / 544
2. China Democratic League (CDL)
中国民主同盟 (民盟)
1941
Chinese socialism 330,600 (2020) Ding Zhongli
57 / 2,980
9 / 175
65 / 544
3. China National Democratic Construction Association (CNDCA)
中国民主建国会 (民建)
1945
Chinese socialism 193,000 (2018) Hao Mingjin
57 / 2,980
3 / 175
65 / 544
4. China Association for Promoting Democracy (CAPD)
中国民主促进会 (民进)
1945
Chinese socialism 156,808 (2016) Cai Dafeng
58 / 2,980
7 / 175
45 / 544
5. Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party (CPWDP)
中国农工民主党 (农工党)
1930
Chinese socialism 177,943 (2019) He Wei
54 / 2,980
7 / 175
45 / 544
6. China Zhi Gong Party (CZGP)
中国致公党 (致公党)
1925
48,000 (2016) Jiang Zuojun
38 / 2,980
3 / 175
30 / 544
7. Jiusan Society (JS)
九三学社
1945
Chinese socialism 183,710 (2019) Wu Weihua
63 / 2,980
4 / 175
45 / 544
8. Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (TDSL)
台湾民主自治同盟 (台盟)
1947
3,000 (2018) Su Hui
13 / 2,980
3 / 175
20 / 544

Other parties

Banned parties

The following parties formed in China are (or have previously been) banned by the government:

Historical parties

Main article: History of political parties in China

See also: List of political parties in Taiwan

Sun Yat-sen together with the members of the Singapore branch of the Tongmenghui
Sun Yat-sen together with the members of the Singapore branch of the Tongmenghui

The Republic of China (ROC) was founded by the Kuomintang (KMT) leader Dr. Sun Yat-sen in 1912. The Kuomintang's prior revolutionary political group, the Revive China Society, was founded on 24 November 1894. It later merged with various other revolutionary groups to form the Tongmenghui in 1905. In August 1911, the Tongmenghui further merged with various other political parties in Beijing to form the KMT. In July 1914, the KMT re-organized itself as the Chinese Revolutionary Party in Tokyo, Japan. In 1919, the party officially renamed itself as Kuomintang of China, which literally translates to Chinese Nationalist Party.[21] It was China's first major political party. In 1921, the CCP was founded by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in Shanghai as a study society and an informal network. Slowly, the CCP began to grow. These were the two major political parties in China during the time when the ROC ruled mainland China from 1911 to 1949.

This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (August 2016)

Notes

  1. ^ Seats for political parties
  2. ^ Seats for reserved for political parties

References

  1. ^ Buckley, Roger (1997-05-28). Hong Kong: The Road to 1997 (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511612220. ISBN 978-0-521-47008-7. S2CID 162068953.
  2. ^ a b Liao, Xingmiu; Tsai, Wen-Hsuan (2019). "Clientelistic State Corporatism: The United Front Model of "Pairing-Up" in the Xi Jinping Era". China Review. 19 (1): 31–56. ISSN 1680-2012. JSTOR 26603249.
  3. ^ Tselichtchev, Ivan, ed. (2012-01-02). China Versus the West: The Global Power Shift of the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/9781119199311. ISBN 978-1-119-19931-1. OCLC 883259659.
  4. ^ "IV. The System of Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 2022-12-30.
  5. ^ a b "China: Nipped In The Bud - Background". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2021-03-18.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. ^ Kesselman, Mark (2012-01-01). Introduction to Politics of the Developing World: Political Challenges and Changing Agendas. Cengage Learning. p. 324. ISBN 978-1-133-71258-9.
  7. ^ Friedberg, Aaron L. (2022). Getting China Wrong. Cambridge. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-509-54512-4. OCLC 1310457810.
  8. ^ a b "Are there other political parties in China?". South China Morning Post. 2021-06-11. Retrieved 2022-12-26.
  9. ^ "我国八个民主党派排序考". Lishui Municipal Committee of the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang. 9 December 2012. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2022.
  10. ^ Su, Yuan (2017). 1978-1979: Diary. China Cultural Communication Press.
  11. ^ "'四人帮'在福建打游击". 展望. 01. 1977-01-01.
  12. ^ "福建四人帮战讯". 展望. 1977-12-01.
  13. ^ a b Gittings, John (2005). The Changing Face of China: From Mao to Market. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-280612-2.
  14. ^ a b Goldsmith, Jack L.; and Wu, Tim (2006). Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515266-2.
  15. ^ "国台办称中国泛蓝联盟是非法组织" [The Taiwan Affairs Office said the Union of Chinese Nationalists is an illegal organization.]. Phoenix TV (in Chinese (China)). 25 April 2007.
  16. ^ Demick, Barbara (20 March 2012). "China puts a stop to Maoist revival". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  17. ^ Moore, Malcolm. "Former teacher names Bo Xilai chairman of 'new political party'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  18. ^ Benjamin Kang Lim and Ben Blanchard (9 November 2013). "Bo Xilai supporters launch new political party in China". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  19. ^ Shao, Heng. "Bizarre China Report: The Grand Wedding, Power Play & Smog-Inspired Creativity". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2018-01-27. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  20. ^ "北京民政局发出取缔"至宪党"决定". Deutsche Welle. 14 December 2013. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  21. ^ "- 中國國民黨全球資訊網 KMT Official Website". Kuomintang. Archived from the original on 2012-08-23. Retrieved 2018-08-03.

See also