Politics of the People's Republic of China

Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó de zhèngzhì
SystemCommunist state under the system of people's congress
ConstitutionConstitution of the People's Republic of China
Formation1 October 1949
Leading force of state and society
PartyChinese Communist Party
General SecretaryXi Jinping
Supreme organNational Congress
Highest organCentral Committee
Political organPolitburo
Executive organSecretariat
Military organCentral Military Commission
Supervisory organCentral Commission for Discipline Inspection
Highest organ of state power
Full Convocation
NameNational People's Congress
Presiding bodyPresidium
Meeting placeGreat Hall of the People, Beijing
Standing Body
Standing bodyStanding Committee
ChairZhao Leji
Secretary-GeneralLiu Qi
Executive organ
NameState Council
Head of Government
CurrentlyLi Qiang
Current term14th State Council
Military organ
NameCentral Military Commission
ChairmanXi Jinping
Vice ChairmanZhang Youxia and He Weidong
Supervisory organ
NameNational Supervisory Commission
DirectorLiu Jinguo
Vice DirectorXiao Pei, Yu Hongqiu, Fu Kui, Sun Xinyang, Liu Xuexin and Zhang Fuhai
Judicial organ
NameSupreme People's Court
Chief judgeZhang Jun (President)
Procuratorial organ
NameSupreme People's Procuratorate
HeadYing Yong (Prosecutor-General)

In China, politics functions within a communist state framework based on the system of people's congress under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), with the National People's Congress (NPC) functioning as the highest organ of state power and only branch of government per the principle of unified power. The CCP leads state activities by holding two-thirds of the seats in the NPC, and these party members are, in accordance with democratic centralism, responsible for implementing the policies adopted by the CCP Central Committee and the National Congress. The NPC has unlimited state power bar the limitations it sets on itself. By controlling the NPC, the CCP has complete state power. China's two special administrative regions (SARs), Hong Kong and Macau, are nominally autonomous from this system.

The Chinese political system is considered authoritarian.[1][2][3][4][5][6] There are no freely elected national leaders, political opposition is suppressed, all religious activity is controlled by the CCP, dissent is not permitted, and civil rights are curtailed.[7][8] Direct elections occur only at the local level, not the national level, with all candidate nominations controlled by the CCP.[9][10][11][12][13][14]

The nature of the elections is highly constrained by the CCP's monopoly on power in China, censorship, and party control over elections.[15][16] According to academic Rory Truex of the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, "the CCP tightly controls the nomination and election processes at every level in the people's congress system... the tiered, indirect electoral mechanism in the People's Congress system ensures that deputies at the highest levels face no semblance of electoral accountability to the Chinese citizenry."[17]


This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2023)

See also: Paramount leader, List of national leaders of the People's Republic of China, Political position ranking of PRC, Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party, and Generations of Chinese leadership

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the government in Beijing officially asserts to be the sole legitimate government of all of China, which it defines as including mainland China and Taiwan. This has been disputed by the Republic of China (ROC) government since the Kuomintang (KMT) fled to Taipei in 1949. The Republic of China has since undergone significant political reforms.

China's population, geographical vastness, and social diversity frustrate attempts to rule from Beijing. Economic reform during the 1980s and the devolution of much central government decision making, combined with the strong interest of local CCP officials in enriching themselves, has made it increasingly difficult for the central government to assert its authority.[18]

The president of China is the head of state, serving as the ceremonial figurehead under the National People's Congress.[note 1] In March 2018, the NPC removed the term limits for the presidency.[20][21] As a one-party state, the general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party holds ultimate power and authority over state and government.[note 2] The offices of president, general secretary, and chairman of the Central Military Commission have been held simultaneously by one individual since 1993, granting the individual de jure and de facto power over the country.[note 3] The position of CCP General Secretary is the highest authority leading China's National People's Congress, State Council, Political Consultative Conference, Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate.

Central government leaders must, in practice, build consensus for new policies among party members, local and regional leaders, influential non-party members, and the population at large.[36] However, control is often maintained over the larger group through control of information. The Chinese Communist Party considers China to be in the initial stages of socialism.[citation needed] China's vast social, cultural and economic diversity has led to heterogeneity in the policies applied at the local and regional level.[37][better source needed]

Even as there have been some moves in the direction of democratization as far as the electoral system at least, in that openly contested People's Congress elections are now held at the village and town levels,[38] and that legislatures have shown some assertiveness from time to time, the CCP retains effective control over governmental appointments. This is because the CCP wins by default in most electorates.[39][needs update]

The social, cultural, and political as well as economic consequences of market reform have created tensions in Chinese society.[40][41]


The Chinese constitution describes China's system of government as a people's democratic dictatorship.[42] The CCP has also used other terms to officially describe China's system of government including "socialist consultative democracy", and whole-process people's democracy.[43] According to the CCP theoretical journal Qiushi, "[c]onsultative democracy was created by the CPC and the Chinese people as a form of socialist democracy. ... Not only representing a commitment to socialism, it carries forward China's political and cultural traditions. Not only representing a commitment to the organizational principles and leadership mode of democratic centralism, it also affirms the role of the general public in a democracy. Not only representing a commitment to the leadership of the CPC, it also gives play to the role of all political parties and organizations as well as people of all ethnic groups and all sectors of society".[44] The semi-official journal China Today stated the CCP's view: "Consultative democracy guarantees widespread and effective participation in politics through consultations carried out by political parties, peoples congresses, government departments, CPPCC committees, peoples organizations, communities, and social organizations".[45] On the other hand, according to the V-Dem Democracy indices China was 2023 the second least electoral democratic country in Asia.[46]

Communist Party

Main article: Chinese Communist Party

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) dominates the Chinese political landscape. Constitutionally, the party's highest body is the Party Congress, which meets every five years. Meetings were irregular before the Cultural Revolution but have been periodic since then. The National Congress elects the Central Committee and the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI); the Central Committee in turn elects bodies such as:

In relative liberalization periods, the influence of people and groups outside the formal party structure has increased, particularly in the economic realm. Nevertheless, in all governmental institutions in the PRC, the party committees at all levels maintain a powerful and pivotal role in the administration.[48] According to scholar Rush Doshi, "[t]he Party sits above the state, runs parallel to the state, and is enmeshed in every level of the state."[49] Central party control is tightest in central government offices and urban economic, industrial, and cultural settings; it is considerably looser over the government and party establishments in rural areas, where the majority of mainland Chinese people live. The CCP's most important responsibility comes in the selection and promotion of personnel. They also see that party and state policy guidance is followed and that non-party members do not create autonomous organizations that could challenge party rule. Significant are the leading small groups which coordinate activities of different agencies. State-owned enterprises, private companies and foreign-owned businesses are also required to have internal CCP committees.[50]

Intra-party factions

Chinese politics have long been defined by the competition between intra-party factions' ability to place key members and allies in positions of power within the CCP and Chinese government.[51][52][53]

Under general secretaries Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao, the two main factions were thought to be the Tuanpai and the Shanghai Clique.[52] The Tuanpai were thought to be cadres and officials that originated from the Communist Youth League of China, while the Shanghai Clique were thought to be officials that rose to prominence under Jiang Zemin when he was first mayor, and then CCP committee secretary, of Shanghai.[53]

Xi Jinping, who became general secretary in 2012, has significantly centralized power, removing the influence of the old factions and promoting his allies, sometimes called the "Xi Jinping faction". Due to this, the old factions, including the Tuanpai, are considered extinct,[54] especially since the 20th CCP National Congress, in which Xi's allies dominated the new Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee.[55]

Politburo Standing Committee

Members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the 20th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party
Rank Portrait Name Hanzi 19th PSC Birth PM Birthplace Academic attainment No. of offices Ref.
1 Xi Jinping Xi Jinping 习近平 Old 1953 1974 Beijing
2 Li Qiang Li Qiang 李强 New 1959 1983 Zhejiang
3 Zhao Leji Zhao Leji 赵乐际 Old 1957 1975 Qinghai [59]
4 Wang Huning Wang Huning 王沪宁 Old 1955 1984 Shanghai [60]
5 Cai Qi Cai Qi 蔡奇 New 1955 1975 Fujian [61]
6 Ding Xuexiang Ding Xuexiang 丁薛祥 New 1962 1984 Jiangsu
7 Li Xi Li Xi 李希 New 1956 1982 Gansu [63]

Full Politburo members

Members of the Political Bureau of the 20th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party
Name Hanzi 19th POL Birth PM Birthplace Education No. of offices Ref.
Cai Qi 蔡奇 Old 1955 1975 Fujian Graduate [61]
Chen Jining 陈吉宁 New 1964 1984 Liaoning Graduate
  • Party office
    • Secretary, Shanghai Municipal Party Committee
Chen Min'er 陈敏尔 Old 1960 1982 Zhejiang Graduate
  • Party office
    • Secretary, Tianjin Municipal Party Committee
Chen Wenqing 陈文清 New 1960 1983 Sichuan Graduate [67]
Ding Xuexiang 丁薛祥 Old 1962 1984 Jiangsu Graduate
He Lifeng 何立峰 New 1955 1981 Guangdong Graduate [68]
He Weidong 何卫东 New 1957 1978 Fujian Undergraduate [69]
Huang Kunming 黄坤明 Old 1956 1976 Fujian Graduate
  • Party office
    • Secretary, Guangdong Provincial Party Committee
Li Ganjie 李干杰 New 1964 1984 Hunan Graduate
Li Hongzhong 李鸿忠 Old 1956 1976 Shenyang Graduate [72]
Li Qiang 李强 Old 1959 1983 Zhejiang Graduate
Li Shulei 李书磊 New 1964 1986 Henan Graduate
Li Xi 李希 Old 1956 1982 Gansu Graduate [63]
Liu Guozhong 刘国中 New 1962 1986 Heilongjiang Graduate
Ma Xingrui 马兴瑞 New 1959 1988 Heilongjiang Graduate
  • Party office
    • Secretary, Xinjiang Provincial Party Committee
Shi Taifeng 石泰峰 New 1956 1982 Shanxi Graduate [76]
Wang Huning 王沪宁 Old 1955 1984 Shanghai Graduate [60]
Wang Yi 王毅 New 1953 1981 Beijing Graduate [77]
Xi Jinping 习近平 Old 1953 1974 Beijing Graduate
Yin Li 尹力 New 1962 1980 Shandong Graduate
  • Party office
    • Secretary, Beijing City Party Committee
Yuan Jiajun 袁家军 New 1962 1992 Jilin Graduate
  • Party office
    • Secretary, Chongqing Municipal Party Committee
Zhang Guoqing 张国清 New 1964 1984 Henan Graduate
Zhang Youxia 张又侠 Old 1950 1969 Beijing Graduate [81]
Zhao Leji 赵乐际 Old 1957 1975 Shandong Graduate [59]

National People's Congress

Political Consultative Conference

Constitutionally the supreme state authority and legislature of China is the National People's Congress (NPC). It meets annually for about two weeks to review and approve major new policy directions, laws, the budget, and major personnel changes. The NPC elects and appoints important state positions such as the president, the vice president, the chairman and other members of the Central Military Commission, the premier and rest of the State Council, the president of the Supreme People's Court, and procurator general of the Supreme People's Procuratorate.[citation needed]

The NPC also elects a Standing Committee (NPCSC), its permanent body which meets regularly between NPC sessions. Most national legislation in China is adopted by the NPCSC. Most initiatives are presented to the NPCSC for consideration by the State Council after previous endorsement by the CCP Politburo Standing Committee.[citation needed]

Members of the State Council include the Premier, a variable number of vice premiers (now four), five state councilors (protocol equal of vice premiers but with narrower portfolios), and 29 ministers and heads of State Council commissions. During the 1980s there was an attempt made to separate CCP and state functions, with the former deciding general policy and the latter carrying it out.[82] The attempt was abandoned in the 1990s with the result that the political leadership within the state are also the leaders of the CCP.[82]

Minor parties

Main article: List of political parties in China

No legal political opposition groups exist in China. There are eight minor political parties in the country under the CCP's united front system. They participate in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) but have to support the "leading role" of the CCP for their continued existence,[83] and their leadership is appointed by the United Front Work Department (UFWD) of the CCP.[84] Their original function was to create the impression that the PRC was being ruled by a diverse national front, not a one-party dictatorship. The major role of these parties is to attract and subsequently muzzle niches in society that have political tendencies, such as academia.[85]

Coordination between the eight minor parties and the CCP is done through the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference which meets annually in Beijing in March at about the same time that the National People's Congress meets. In addition, there are banned political parties that are actively suppressed by the government, such as the Maoist Communist Party of China, China Democracy Party and China New Democracy Party, which have their headquarters outside of the mainland China.[86]

State Council

The Premier of China is the head of government, presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions.

Local-level politics

Each local Bureau or office is under the coequal authority of the local leader and the leader of the corresponding office, bureau or ministry at the next higher level. People's Congress members at the county level are elected by voters. These county-level People's Congresses have the responsibility of oversight of local government and elect members to the Provincial (or Municipal in the case of independent municipalities) People's Congress. The Provincial People's Congress, in turn, elects members to the National People's Congress that meets each year in March in Beijing.[87] The ruling CCP committee at each level plays a large role in the selection of appropriate candidates for election to the local congress and to the higher levels.[citation needed]

Administrative divisions

See also: Administrative divisions of China

Click any region for more info. For a larger version of this map, see here.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous RegionTibet Autonomous RegionQinghaiGansuSichuanYunnanNingxia Hui Autonomous RegionInner Mongolia Autonomous RegionShaanxiChongqing MunicipalityGuizhouGuangxi Zhuang Autonomous RegionShanxiHenanHubeiHunanGuangdongHainanHebeiHeilongjiangJilinLiaoningBeijing MunicipalityTianjin MunicipalityShandongJiangsuAnhuiShanghai MunicipalityZhejiangJiangxiFujianHong Kong Special Administrative RegionMacau Special Administrative RegionTaiwan

Armed forces

Main articles: People's Liberation Army, People's Armed Police, and Militia (China)

See also: List of wars involving the People's Republic of China

The CCP created and leads the People's Liberation Army. After the PRC was established in 1949, the PLA also became a state military. The state military system inherited and upholds the principle of the CCP's absolute leadership over the people's armed forces, often referred to under Mao's maxim that "the Party commands the gun." The CCP and the state jointly established the Central Military Commission that carries out the task of supreme military leadership over the armed forces.[88]

Legal system

Main article: Law of the People's Republic of China

A trial by the Guizhou High People's Court

Nationality and ethnicity law

See also: Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China and Regional ethnic autonomy system of China

Nationality is granted at birth to children with at least one Chinese-national parent, with some exceptions. In general, naturalization or the obtainment of the People's Republic of China nationality is difficult. The Nationality Law prescribes only three conditions for the obtainment of PRC nationality (marriage to a PRC national is one, permanent residence is another). PRC nationals who acquire a foreign nationality automatically lose Chinese nationality.[89][non-primary source needed] State functionaries and military personnel on active service are not permitted renounce their Chinese nationality. If a citizen wishes to resume PRC nationality, foreign nationality is no longer recognized.[90][non-primary source needed]

Policies toward Uyghurs

Main article: Uyghur genocide

Further information: Xinjiang internment camps

In 2020, widespread public reporting detailed the Chinese government's pattern of human rights violations in its continuing maltreatment of Uyghurs.[91][92][93][94] These abuses include forced labor, arbitrary detainment, forced political indoctrination, destruction of cultural heritage, and forced abortions and sterilization.[95][96][97] Critics of the policy have described it as the sinicization of Xinjiang and called it an ethnocide or cultural genocide, with many activists, NGOs, human rights experts, government officials, and the U.S. government calling it a genocide.[98][99][100][101][102] The Chinese government denies it is committing human rights violations in Xinjiang.[103][104]

Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of China

Chinese leader Hu Jintao and US president George W. Bush, with first ladies Liu Yongqing and Laura Bush, wave from the White House. The relationship between the world's sole superpower United States and the emerging superpower status of the PRC is closely watched by international observers.
The Karakoram Highway connecting China and Pakistan is an example of China's international development involvements.

The PRC maintains diplomatic relations with most countries in the world. In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China, commonly known as "Taiwan" since the 1970s, as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.[105] China had been represented by the Republic of China at the time of the UN's founding in 1945. (See also China and the United Nations.)

Under the One-China policy, the PRC has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to all of China, including Taiwan, and severs any official ties with the Republic of China (ROC) government. The government actively opposes foreign government meetings with the 14th Dalai Lama in a political capacity, as the spokesperson for a separatist movement in Tibet.[citation needed]

The PRC has been playing a leading role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbours. In 2004, the PRC proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues that pointedly excluded the United States.[106] The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005. China is also a founder and member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), alongside Russia and the Central Asian republics.[citation needed]

Much of the current[when?] foreign policy is based on the concept of "China's peaceful development".[needs update] Nonetheless, crises in relations with foreign countries have occurred at various times in its recent history, particularly with the United States; e.g., the U.S. bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade during the Kosovo conflict in May 1999 and the Hainan Island incident in April 2001. China's foreign relations with many Western nations suffered for a time following the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre. A much troubled foreign relationship is that between China and Japan, which has been strained at times by Japan's refusal to acknowledge its wartime past to the satisfaction of the PRC, such as revisionistic comments made by prominent Japanese officials, and insufficient details given to the Nanjing Massacre and other atrocities committed during World War II in Japanese history textbooks. Another point of conflict between the two countries is the frequent visits by Japanese government officials to the Yasukuni Shrine, which honors not only Japanese World War II dead but also many convicted World War II war criminals, including 14 Class A convictions.[citation needed]

Foreign aid

Main articles: Chinese foreign aid and Belt and Road Initiative

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China under the CCP in 1949, China joined the international community in providing foreign aid. In the past few decades, the international community has seen an increase in Chinese foreign aid. Specifically, a recent example is the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), a global infrastructure project that was launched in 2013 by Chinese leader Xi Jinping.[107] The stated goal of the program is to expand maritime routes and land infrastructure networks connecting China with Asia, Africa, and Europe, boosting trade and economic growth.[108] It involves a massive development of trade routes that will create a large expansion of land transportation infrastructure and new ports in the Pacific and Indian oceans to facilitate regional and intercontinental trade flow and increase oil and gas supply.[109]

International territorial disputes

Main article: Territorial disputes of the People's Republic of China

The PRC is in a number of international territorial disputes, several of which involved the Sino-Russian border. Although the great majority of them are now resolved,[citation needed] China's territorial disputes have led to several localized wars in the last 50 years, including the Sino-Indian War in 1962, the Sino-Soviet border conflict in 1969 and the Sino-Vietnam War in 1979. In 2001, China and Russia signed the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation,[110][better source needed] which ended the conflict. Other territorial disputes include islands in the East and South China Seas, and undefined or disputed borders with India, Bhutan and North Korea.[citation needed]

International organizations

On 26 October 1971, the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 2758 to transfer the seat from the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan to the People's Republic of China (PRC).[111]

United Nations

Main article: China and the United Nations

Today, not only is China a part of many UN organizations, it is also one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. A memo done by the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission identified Chinese nationals serving in leadership position within international organizations signifies China's increasing involvement in the international arena.[112] For instance, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and so on are all organizations that Chinese nationals are currently in position of (The memo is updated on a semi-annual basis).[112]

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)

See also: List of non-governmental organizations in China

Although NGO development in China is relatively slow compared to other countries, a Harvard University academic study reveals that China had NGOs as early as during the Dynasties. Specifically in the forms of American missionaries, which assisted in rural reconstruction programs and ideological reforms locally.[113] After the establishment of The People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, Mao banned any NGOs that were related to counter revolutionary goals. During the reform era under Deng beginning the 1970s, NGOs although not completely banned, three laws were implemented to keep relatively tight control over them––the Regulations on the Registration and Management of Social Organizations, the Regulations on the Registration and Management of Foundations, and the Interim Provisions for the Administration of Foreign Chambers of Commerce in China.[114] The latter two were implemented after the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre, and the general tone of all the regulations emphasized government control. For instance, the regulations require a two-tiered management system, in which before being legally registered by the Ministry of Civil Affairs, a government agency must sponsor the organization; thus, two governmental agencies must be monitoring the day-to-day operations of the NGO.[114] However, in the 1990s, NGOs began to regain momentum despite restrictions in place.[114] Today, the number of registered organizations in China has grown to over 700,000, "... including many professional and friendship associations, foundations working in the fields of education, science, and culture, and a large number of nonprofits engaged in poverty alleviation, social work with people with disabilities, children, and the elderly. The number of nonprofits and environmental education and climate action groups has also significantly grown".[115]

In 2017, a policy called "Management of Overseas NGOs' Activities in Mainland China Law" (FNGO Law) was enacted, which creates registration barriers that, for instance, require a Chinese partner organization to sign on. The reaction from the West has widely been that the space for NGOs to conduct work in may be shrinking.[116]

Many NGOs in the PRC have been described as government-organized non-governmental organization (GONGOs) that are organized under the CCP's united front system.[117][118][119]

Civil society

Academic debates on whether China has a civil society are ongoing.[120]: 62 

Within China, academic debate regarding theories of the public sphere began in the 1980s.[120]: 62  There is no consensus and academic debates involve disagreements in the applicability of concepts like "civil society," "private sphere," and "state" in the Chinese context.[120]: 62  Among the issues is that the terminology developed by Jürgen Habermas was developed in discourse on German bourgeois society.[120]: 63–64  The major groups in Habermasian theory include merchants, bankers, manufacturers, and entrepreneurs, which is not consistent with Chinese views of the "general public."[120]: 64 

The majority of research on Chinese civil society from the early 1990s to the early 2010s has been to examine "the organizational independence of civic associations from the state".[121] Researchers have argued that the western driven definition of "civil society" is too narrowly fixed, which does not allow for a full understanding of Chinese civil society. Taru Salmenkari, an associate professor specializing in contemporary China and issues of democracy and civil society in East Asia at Tallinn University, has argued in her "Theoretical Poverty in the Research on Chinese Civil Society" that to understand Chinese civil society, one must "...go beyond the question of the degree of autonomy from the state. It must address the nature of horizontal contacts through which civil society is constituted".[121]


A 2013 study by Harvard University found that while the censorship exists, the purpose of the censorship is not to silence all comments made about the state or any particular issues, but rather to prevent and reduce the probability of collective action.[122] As the study illustrates, allowing social media to flourish also has allowed negative and positive comments about the state and its leaders to exist.[122] According to another study, the development of technology and the internet has also allowed certain civil society advocacy, such as the Weiquan movement, to flourish.[123]

Public sentiment

Surveys[when?] have shown a high level of the Chinese public's satisfaction with their government.[124]: 137  These views are generally attributed to the material comforts and security available to large segments of the Chinese populace as well as the government's attentiveness and responsiveness.[124]: 136  A majority of the Chinese middle class are satisfied with the CCP and are among those who tend to credit it for the increase of living standards in China since reform and opening up.[125]: 61 

According to the World Values Survey (2017–2020), 95% of Chinese respondents have significant confidence in their government.[124]: 13  Confidence decreased to 91% in the survey's 2022 edition.[124]: 13 

A 2020 survey by Harvard University found that citizen satisfaction with the government had increased since 2003, also rating China's government as more effective and capable than ever before in the survey's history.[126]: 163  A 2020 survey by Stanford University and the Hoover Institution found that support for the CCP is between 50 and 70 percent, and that support for the government is typically overstated by almost 30 percent in citizen surveys.[127][128] The same survey found that Han Chinese are more supportive of the CCP than are ethnic minorities and that minorities tend to conceal their views of the CCP.[128][129]

Survey data compiled by academic Bruce Dickson concludes that approximately 70% of China's population supports the Chinese Dream.[130]: 148 


Main articles: Protest and dissent in China and Mass incidents in China

The authoritarian government in China suppresses protests that challenge the authority of the government while showing greater tolerance for protests that are rooted in localized economic or social unrest.[38] Under Xi Jinping's rule, the government has resorted to greater suppression.[38]

See also


  1. ^ The office of the President is largely powerless, with the powers and functions under the Constitution of 1982 comparable to that of a constitutional monarch or a head of state in a parliamentary republic.[19][better source needed]
  2. ^ Xi Jinping was elected President of the People's Republic of China on 14 March 2013.[22][23]
  3. ^ Recently, as of April 2020, Xi Jinping, the current general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and paramount leader of China, has been accused of drawing too much power to himself.[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]


  1. ^ Truex, Rory (28 October 2016). Making Autocracy Work. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-17243-2.
  2. ^ Mattingly, Daniel C. (5 December 2019). The Art of Political Control in China. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-316-99791-8.
  3. ^ Tang, Wenfang (4 January 2016). Populist Authoritarianism: Chinese Political Culture and Regime Sustainability. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-049081-2.
  4. ^ Nathan, Andrew J.; Diamond, Larry; Plattner, Marc F. (1 September 2013). Will China Democratize?. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-1244-3.
  5. ^ Teets, Jessica C. (9 June 2014). Civil Society under Authoritarianism: The China Model. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-03875-2.
  6. ^ Heurlin, Christopher (27 October 2016). Responsive Authoritarianism in China: Land, Protests, and Policy Making. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-10780-8.
  7. ^ Economy, Elizabeth C. (25 October 2021). The World According to China. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-5095-3751-8. OCLC 1251737887.
  8. ^ "China: Freedom in the World 2021 Country Report". Freedom House. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  9. ^ Gandhi, Jennifer; Lust-Okar, Ellen (1 June 2009). "Elections Under Authoritarianism". Annual Review of Political Science. 12 (1): 403–422. doi:10.1146/annurev.polisci.11.060106.095434. ISSN 1094-2939.
  10. ^ Geddes, Barbara; Wright, Joseph; Frantz, Erica (2018). How Dictatorships Work. Cambridge University Press. p. 141. doi:10.1017/9781316336182. ISBN 978-1-316-33618-2. S2CID 226899229.
  11. ^ Landry, Pierre F.; Davis, Deborah; Wang, Shiru (1 June 2010). "Elections in Rural China: Competition Without Parties". Comparative Political Studies. 43 (6): 763–790. doi:10.1177/0010414009359392. ISSN 0010-4140. S2CID 43175132.
  12. ^ Manion, Melanie (1 March 2017). ""Good Types" in Authoritarian Elections: The Selectoral Connection in Chinese Local Congresses". Comparative Political Studies. 50 (3): 362–394. doi:10.1177/0010414014537027. ISSN 0010-4140. S2CID 155166131.
  13. ^ Lee, Ching Kwan; Zhang, Yonghong (1 May 2013). "The Power of Instability: Unraveling the Microfoundations of Bargained Authoritarianism in China". American Journal of Sociology. 118 (6): 1475–1508. doi:10.1086/670802. ISSN 0002-9602. S2CID 144559373.
  14. ^ Wallace, Jeremy L. (2016). "Juking the Stats? Authoritarian Information Problems in China". British Journal of Political Science. 46 (1): 11–29. doi:10.1017/S0007123414000106. ISSN 0007-1234. S2CID 154275103.
  15. ^ Hernández, Javier C. (15 November 2016). "'We Have a Fake Election': China Disrupts Local Campaigns". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  16. ^ "The West once dreamed of democracy taking root in rural China". The Economist. 14 January 2021. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  17. ^ Truex, Rory (28 October 2016). Making Autocracy Work. Cambridge University Press. pp. 52, 111. ISBN 978-1-107-17243-2.
  18. ^ He, Qinglian; 何清涟 (1998). Xian dai hua de xian jing : dang dai Zhongguo de jing ji she hui wen ti (Di 1 ban ed.). Beijing: Jin ri Zhongguo chu ban she. ISBN 7-5072-0908-3. OCLC 39847047.
  19. ^ Krishna Kanta Handique State Open University Archived 2 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine, EXECUTIVE: THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC.
  20. ^ Shi, Jiangtao; Huang, Kristin (26 February 2018). "End to term limits at top 'may be start of global backlash for China'". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  21. ^ Phillips, Tom (4 March 2018). "Xi Jinping's power play: from president to China's new dictator?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  22. ^ "Who's Who in China's New Communist Party Leadership Lineup – Bloomberg". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  23. ^ "China new leaders: Xi Jinping heads line-up for politburo". BBC News. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 29 July 2016.
  24. ^ Phillips, Tom (26 February 2018). "'Dictator for life': Xi Jinping's power grab condemned as step towards tyranny". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  25. ^ Anderlini, Jamil (11 October 2017). "Under Xi Jinping, China is turning back to dictatorship". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  26. ^ Radchenko, Sergey (5 March 2018). "Dictatorship nearly destroyed China once. Will it do so again?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  27. ^ Carrico, Kevin (2 April 2018). "A deepening dictatorship promises a grim future for China". East Asia Forum. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  28. ^ Stelzer, Irwin (4 March 2018). "Emasculate America: The dictator's plan for world domination". The Times. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  29. ^ "Kim Jong Un entertains Xi Jinping at home". The Economist. 21 June 2019. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 17 August 2019. It was Mr Xi's first visit to North Korea since he and Mr Kim took the helm of their respective countries... It is not known what precisely the two dictators discussed once they retired to a guest house for talks.
  30. ^ Mair, Victor H. (28 February 2018). "China's war on words show Xi Jinping is a dictator for life". Newsweek. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  31. ^ Hein, Matthias (26 February 2018). "Opinion: Xi Jinping – Today's chairman, tomorrow's dictator?". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  32. ^ Cohen, Jerome A. (28 February 2018). "China Is Likely to Enter Another Long Period of Severe Dictatorship". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  33. ^ Patten, Chris (30 July 2019). "Great Countries, Bad Leaders". Project Syndicate. Retrieved 17 August 2019. Moreover, Xi is deploying cutting-edge technology to reinforce his dictatorship.
  34. ^ Feldman, Noah (27 February 2018). "China Now Faces the Downsides of Dictatorship". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  35. ^ Tisdall, Simon (23 November 2018). "The Chinese export we really should be worried about: repression". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 17 August 2019. What is different, and underappreciated in the west, is the way Xi is inexorably and single-mindedly expanding draconian systems of social control centred on the Communist party and the de facto dictatorship of one man: himself.
  36. ^ Yang, Dali L. (28 July 2004). Remaking the Chinese Leviathan: Market Transition and the Politics of Governance in China. Stanford University Press. doi:10.1515/9781503619449. ISBN 978-1-5036-1944-9. S2CID 248351747.
  37. ^ Boum, Aomar (1999). Journal of Political Ecology: Case Studies in History and Society Archived 23 November 2004 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 18 April 2006.
  38. ^ a b c Dickson, Bruce J. (2021). The Party and the People: Chinese Politics in the 21st Century. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-21696-6.
  39. ^ "Does China's Land-Tenure System Discourage Structural Adjustment?" Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Lohmar & Somwaru, USDA Economic Research Service, 1 May 2006. Accessed 3 May 2006.
  40. ^ Part I of summary of Zhou Tianyong's 2004 book Reform of the Chinese Political System Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 7 February 2007.
  41. ^ Part II of summary of Zhou Tianyong's 2004 book Reform of the Chinese Political System Archived 13 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 7 February 2007.
  42. ^ "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". National People's Congress. 20 November 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  43. ^ "Full Text: China: Democracy That Works". Xinhua News Agency. State Council Information Office. 4 December 2021. Retrieved 20 December 2022.
  44. ^ "The Development of Socialist Consultative Democracy in China". Qiushi. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  45. ^ "Socialist Consultative Democracy_参考网". www.fx361.com. Archived from the original on 14 May 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  46. ^ V-Dem Institute (2023). "The V-Dem Dataset". Retrieved 14 October 2023.
  47. ^ "Backgrounder: 中国共产党第十九届中央领导机构". Government of China. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  48. ^ "What party control means in China". The Economist. 9 March 2023. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  49. ^ Doshi, Rush (30 September 2021). The Long Game: China's Grand Strategy to Displace American Order (1 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 35. doi:10.1093/oso/9780197527917.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-752791-7. OCLC 1256820870.
  50. ^ Marquis, Christopher; Qiao, Kunyuan (2022). Mao and Markets: The Communist Roots of Chinese Enterprise. New Haven: Yale University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctv3006z6k. ISBN 978-0-300-26883-6. JSTOR j.ctv3006z6k. OCLC 1348572572. S2CID 253067190.
  51. ^ Huang, Jing (3 July 2000). Factionalism in Chinese Communist Politics (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511571688. ISBN 978-0-521-62284-4.
  52. ^ a b Zhiyue, Bo (18 August 2017), Lam, Willy Wo-Lap (ed.), "Factional politics in the Party-state apparatus", Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Communist Party (1 ed.), Routledge, pp. 122–134, doi:10.4324/9781315543918-8, ISBN 978-1-315-54391-8
  53. ^ a b Lai, Alexis (24 October 2012). "'One party, two coalitions' -- China's factional politics". CNN. Retrieved 3 January 2023.
  54. ^ "China's 20th Party Congress Leadership Reshuffle: Stasis or Sweep?". Asia Society. Retrieved 14 October 2022.
  55. ^ Cheng, Evelyn. "China shuffles leadership committee and retains many Xi allies". CNBC. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  56. ^ "Chinese Government Leadership". US-China Business Council. 7 October 2013. Archived from the original on 27 April 2023. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
  57. ^ a b Li, Cheng. "Xi Jinping 习近平" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2023. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
  58. ^ a b Li, Cheng. "Li Qiang 李强" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2023. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
  59. ^ a b Li, Cheng. "Zhao Leji 赵乐际" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 December 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
  60. ^ a b Li, Cheng. "Wang Huning 王沪宁" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 November 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
  61. ^ a b Li, Cheng. "Cai Qi 蔡奇" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 May 2023. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
  62. ^ a b Li, Cheng. "Ding Xuexiang 丁薛祥" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2023. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
  63. ^ a b Li, Cheng. "Li Xi 李希" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 October 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
  64. ^ "The 20th Politburo". South China Morning Post. 21 November 2022. Archived from the original on 15 March 2023. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
  65. ^ "Chen Jining appointed Shanghai Party chief". China Daily. 28 October 2022. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
    "Chen Jining 陈吉宁". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  66. ^ Li, Cheng. "Chen Min'er 陈敏尔" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 May 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  67. ^ "Brief introductions of members of CPC central leading bodies". State Council of the People's Republic of China. 24 October 2022. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
    "Chen Wenqing 陈文清". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  68. ^ Pei, Minxin (1 June 2023). "Xi Jinping's New Economic Team and Government Re-organization". China Leadership Monitor. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
    "He Lifeng 何立峰". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  69. ^ Jiayao, Li (11 March 2023). "He Weidong -- Vice Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission". China Military. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  70. ^ Li, Cheng. "Huang Kunming 黄坤明" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 May 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  71. ^ "China puts scientist in charge of Communist Party's human resources department". South China Morning Post. 27 April 2023. Archived from the original on 27 April 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
    "Li Ganjie 李干杰". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  72. ^ "Brief introduction of vice chairpersons, secretary-general of 14th NPC Standing Committee". People's Daily. 11 March 2023. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
    "Li Hongzhong 李鸿忠". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  73. ^ Mai, Jun (13 March 2023). "Politburo newcomer and Xi protégé confirmed as China's new propaganda chief before presenting summary of party congress". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 27 October 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
    "Li Shulei 李书磊". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  74. ^ "Liu Guozhong -- Vice premier". State Council of the People's Republic of China. 13 March 2023. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
    "Liu Guozhong 刘国中". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  75. ^ Li, Cheng. "Ma Xingrui 马兴瑞" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December 2022. Retrieved 21 July 2023.
  76. ^ "Shi Taifeng". National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. 11 March 2023. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  77. ^ "Wang Yi". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  78. ^ "Yin Li 尹力". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  79. ^ "Brief introductions of members of CPC central leading bodies". China Daily. 24 October 2022. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
    "Yuan Jiajun 袁家军". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  80. ^ "Zhang Guoqing -- Vice premier". State Council of the People's Republic of China. 13 March 2023. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
    "Zhang Guoqing 张国清". China Vitae. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  81. ^ Li, Cheng. "Zhang Youxia 张又侠" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
    Li Jiayao (11 March 2023). "Zhang Youxia -- Vice Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission". China Military. Archived from the original on 22 July 2023. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  82. ^ a b Ma, Josephine (17 May 2021). "Party-state relations under China's Communist Party: separation of powers, control over government and reforms". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  83. ^ Tselichtchev, Ivan, ed. (2 January 2012). China Versus the West: The Global Power Shift of the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/9781119199311. ISBN 978-1-119-19931-1. OCLC 883259659.
  84. ^ Baptista, Eduardo (11 June 2021). "Are there other political parties in China?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 26 December 2022.
  85. ^ Brady, Anne-Marie (2017). "Magic Weapons: China's political influence activities under Xi Jinping" (PDF). Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. S2CID 197812164. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 June 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  86. ^ "China", The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 27 May 2023, retrieved 4 June 2023
  87. ^ Wei, Changhao (29 March 2022). "Explainer: How Seats in China's National People's Congress Are Allocated". NPC Observer. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  88. ^ Fravel, M. Taylor (2019). Active Defense: China's Military Strategy since 1949. Vol. 2. Princeton University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctv941tzj. ISBN 978-0-691-18559-0. JSTOR j.ctv941tzj. S2CID 159282413.
  89. ^ "Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China | Immigration Department". www.immd.gov.hk. Retrieved 13 January 2023.
  90. ^ "Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China". www.mfa.gov.cn.
  91. ^ "'Cultural genocide': China separating thousands of Muslim children from parents for 'thought education'". The Independent. 5 July 2019. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  92. ^ "'Cultural genocide' for repressed minority of Uighurs". The Times. 17 December 2019. Archived from the original on 25 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  93. ^ "China's Oppression of the Uighurs 'The Equivalent of Cultural Genocide'". Der Spiegel. 28 November 2019. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  94. ^ "Fear and oppression in Xinjiang: China's war on Uighur culture". Financial Times. 12 September 2019. Archived from the original on 14 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  95. ^ "China cuts Uighur births with IUDs, abortion, sterilization". Associated Press. 20 April 2021.
  96. ^ "China 'using birth control' to suppress Uighurs". BBC News. 29 June 2020. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  97. ^ "China accused of genocide over forced abortions of Uighur Muslim women as escapees reveal widespread sexual torture". The Independent. 6 October 2019. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  98. ^ "Menendez, Cornyn Introduce Bipartisan Resolution to Designate Uyghur Human Rights Abuses by China as Genocide". foreign.senate.gov. United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. 27 October 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  99. ^ Alecci, Scilla (14 October 2020). "British lawmakers call for sanctions over Uighur human rights abuses". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  100. ^ "Committee News Release – October 21, 2020 – SDIR (43–2)". House of Commons of Canada. 21 October 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  101. ^ Gordon, Michael R.; Xiao, Eva (19 January 2021). "U.S. Says China Is Committing Genocide Against Uighur Muslims". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  102. ^ Steger, Isabella (20 August 2020). "On Xinjiang, even those wary of Holocaust comparisons are reaching for the word "genocide"". Quartz. Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
  103. ^ Ivan Watson, Rebecca Wright and Ben Westcott (21 September 2020). "Xinjiang government confirms huge birth rate drop but denies forced sterilization of women". CNN. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  104. ^ Finnegan, Ciara (2020). "The Uyghur Minority in China: A Case Study of Cultural Genocide, Minority Rights and the Insufficiency of the International Legal Framework in Preventing State-Imposed Extinction". Laws. 9: 1. doi:10.3390/laws9010001.
  105. ^ Eddy Chang (22 Aug 2004). Perseverance will pay off at the UN Archived 6 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine, The Taipei Times, 22 August 2004
  106. ^ Dillon, Dana and John Tkacik Jr, "China's Quest for Asia" Archived 10 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine, Policy Review, December 2005 and January 2006, Issue No. 134. Accessed 22 April 2006.
  107. ^ "China's Massive Belt and Road Initiative". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  108. ^ "Belt and Road Initiative". World Bank. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  109. ^ Ascensão, Fernando; Fahrig, Lenore; Clevenger, Anthony P.; Corlett, Richard T.; Jaeger, Jochen A. G.; Laurance, William F.; Pereira, Henrique M. (May 2018). "Environmental challenges for the Belt and Road Initiative". Nature Sustainability. 1 (5): 206–209. Bibcode:2018NatSu...1..206A. doi:10.1038/s41893-018-0059-3. ISSN 2398-9629. S2CID 133850310.
  110. ^ Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Archived 26 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine (21 March 2006). Retrieved 16 April 2006.
  111. ^ Kent, Ann (2013), Zhang, Yongjin; Austin, Greg (eds.), "China's participation in international organisations", Power and Responsibility in Chinese Foreign Policy, ANU Press, pp. 132–166, ISBN 978-1-925021-41-7, JSTOR j.ctt5vj73b.11
  112. ^ a b "PRC Representation in International Organizations". United States–China Economic and Security Review Commission. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  113. ^ Thomson, James Claude (1969). While China faced West : American reformers in Nationalist China, 1928–1937. James C. Thomson, Jr. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-95135-2. OCLC 462172943.
  114. ^ a b c Ye, Zhang (1 August 2003). "China's Emerging Civil Society". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  115. ^ Kuhn, Berthold (11 June 2019). "Civil society in China: A snapshot of discourses, legislation, and social realities". Dialogue of Civilization (DOC) Research Institute. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  116. ^ Lang, Bertram; Holbig, Heike (2018). "Civil Society Work in China:: Trade-Offs and Opportunities for European NGOs". German Institute of Global and Area Studies. JSTOR resrep24803.
  117. ^ Fedasiuk, Ryan (13 April 2022). "How China's united front system works overseas". The Strategist. Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  118. ^ Sotoudeh, Nazpari; Stefano, Erica (29 September 2021). "Free speech risky as China keeps close tabs on its overseas students". Eurasianet. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  119. ^ French, Paul (4 February 2012). "China Briefing Part 3: Civil society - The land of the Gongo". Reuters. Retrieved 11 September 2022.
  120. ^ a b c d e Lin, Chunfeng (2023). Red Tourism in China: Commodification of Propaganda. Routledge. ISBN 9781032139609.
  121. ^ a b Salmenkari, Taru (2013). "Theoretical Poverty in the Research on Chinese Civil Society". Modern Asian Studies. 47 (2): 682–711. doi:10.1017/S0026749X12000273. ISSN 0026-749X. JSTOR 23359834. S2CID 145320886.
  122. ^ a b King, Gary; Pan, Jennifer; Roberts, Margaret E. (2013). "How Censorship in China Allows Government Criticism but Silences Collective Expression". American Political Science Review. 107 (2): 326–343. doi:10.1017/S0003055413000014. ISSN 0003-0554. JSTOR 43654017. S2CID 53577293.
  123. ^ Biao, Teng; Mosher, Stacy (2012). "Rights Defence (weiquan), Microblogs (weibo), and the Surrounding Gaze (weiguan): The Rights Defence Movement Online and Offline". China Perspectives. 3 (91): 29–41. doi:10.4000/chinaperspectives.5943. ISSN 2070-3449. JSTOR 24055481.
  124. ^ a b c d Jin, Keyu (2023). The New China Playbook: Beyond Socialism and Capitalism. New York: Viking. ISBN 978-1-9848-7828-1.
  125. ^ Dubravčíková, Klára (2023). "Living Standards and Social Issues". In Kironska, Kristina; Turscanyi, Richard Q. (eds.). Contemporary China: a New Superpower?. Routledge. pp. 58–70. doi:10.4324/9781003350064-7. ISBN 978-1-03-239508-1.
  126. ^ Zhao, Suisheng (2023). The Dragon Roars Back: Transformational Leaders and Dynamics of Chinese Foreign Policy. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. doi:10.1515/9781503634152. ISBN 978-1-5036-3088-8. OCLC 1331741429.
  127. ^ "China's leaders are less popular than they might think". The Economist. 16 January 2024. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 16 January 2024. The results suggest that when the survey was conducted in June and November 2020 between 50% and 70% of Chinese people supported the party. (This is an upper bound, say the researchers, because concerns about online surveillance may still have spooked some respondents into giving positive responses.)
  128. ^ a b Wachtel, Ileana (29 January 2024). "When Chinese citizens are surveyed anonymously, support for party and government plummets". Phys.org. Retrieved 31 January 2024.
  129. ^ Carter, Erin Baggott; Carter, Brett L.; Schick, Stephen (10 January 2024). "Do Chinese Citizens Conceal Opposition to the CCP in Surveys? Evidence from Two Experiments". The China Quarterly: 1–10. doi:10.1017/S0305741023001819. ISSN 0305-7410.
  130. ^ Garlick, Jeremy (2024). Advantage China: Agent of Change in an Era of Global Disruption. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-350-25231-8.