Politics of the People's Republic of China

中华人民共和国的政治
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó de zhèngzhì
SystemCommunist state under the system of people's congress
ConstitutionConstitution of the People's Republic of China
Formation1 October 1949
Leading force of state and society
PartyChinese Communist Party
General SecretaryXi Jinping
Supreme organNational Congress
Highest organCentral Committee
Political organPolitburo
Executive organSecretariat
Military organCentral Military Commission
Supervisory organCentral Commission for Discipline Inspection
Highest organ of state power
Full Convocation
NameNational People's Congress
TypeUnicameral
Presiding bodyPresidium
Meeting placeGreat Hall of the People, Beijing
Standing Body
Standing bodyStanding Committee
ChairZhao Leji
Secretary-GeneralLiu Qi
Executive organ
NameState Council
Head of Government
TitlePremier
CurrentlyLi Qiang
AppointerPresident
Current term14th State Council
HeadquartersZhongnanhai
Ministries26
Military organ
NameCentral Military Commission
ChairmanXi Jinping
Vice ChairmanZhang Youxia and He Weidong
Supervisory organ
NameNational Supervisory Commission
DirectorLiu Jinguo
Vice DirectorXiao Pei, Yu Hongqiu, Fu Kui, Sun Xinyang, Liu Xuexin and Zhang Fuhai
Judicial organ
NameSupreme People's Court
Chief judgeZhang Jun (President)
SeatBeijing
Procuratorial organ
NameSupreme People's Procuratorate
HeadYing Yong (Prosecutor-General)
SeatBeijing

In China, politics functions within a communist state framework based on the system of people's congress under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), with the National People's Congress (NPC) functioning as the highest organ of state power and only branch of government per the principle of unified power. The CCP leads state activities by holding two-thirds of the seats in the NPC, and these party members are, in accordance with democratic centralism, responsible for implementing the policies adopted by the CCP Central Committee and the National Congress. The NPC has unlimited state power bar the limitations it sets on itself. By controlling the NPC, the CCP has complete state power. China's two special administrative regions (SARs), Hong Kong and Macau, are nominally autonomous from this system.

The Chinese political system is considered authoritarian.[1][2][3][4][5][6] There are no freely elected national leaders, political opposition is suppressed, all religious activity is controlled by the CCP, dissent is not permitted, and civil rights are curtailed.[7][8] Direct elections occur only at the local level, not the national level, with all candidate nominations controlled by the CCP.[9][10][11][12][13][14]

The nature of the elections is highly constrained by the CCP's monopoly on power in China, censorship, and party control over elections.[15][16] According to academic Rory Truex of the Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, "the CCP tightly controls the nomination and election processes at every level in the people's congress system... the tiered, indirect electoral mechanism in the People's Congress system ensures that deputies at the highest levels face no semblance of electoral accountability to the Chinese citizenry."[17]

Overview

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2023)

See also: Paramount leader, List of national leaders of the People's Republic of China, Political position ranking of PRC, Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party, and Generations of Chinese leadership

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the government in Beijing officially asserts to be the sole legitimate government of all of China, which it defines as including mainland China and Taiwan. This has been disputed by the Republic of China (ROC) government since the Kuomintang (KMT) fled to Taipei in 1949. The Republic of China has since undergone significant political reforms.

China's population, geographical vastness, and social diversity frustrate attempts to rule from Beijing. Economic reform during the 1980s and the devolution of much central government decision making, combined with the strong interest of local CCP officials in enriching themselves, has made it increasingly difficult for the central government to assert its authority.[18]

The president of China is the head of state, serving as the ceremonial figurehead under the National People's Congress.[note 1] In March 2018, the NPC removed the term limits for the presidency.[20][21] As a one-party state, the general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party holds ultimate power and authority over state and government.[note 2] The offices of president, general secretary, and chairman of the Central Military Commission have been held simultaneously by one individual since 1993, granting the individual de jure and de facto power over the country.[note 3] The position of CCP General Secretary is the highest authority leading China's National People's Congress, State Council, Political Consultative Conference, Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate.

Central government leaders must, in practice, build consensus for new policies among party members, local and regional leaders, influential non-party members, and the population at large.[36] However, control is often maintained over the larger group through control of information. The Chinese Communist Party considers China to be in the initial stages of socialism.[citation needed] China's vast social, cultural and economic diversity has led to heterogeneity in the policies applied at the local and regional level.[37][better source needed]

Even as there have been some moves in the direction of democratization as far as the electoral system at least, in that openly contested People's Congress elections are now held at the village and town levels,[38] and that legislatures have shown some assertiveness from time to time, the CCP retains effective control over governmental appointments. This is because the CCP wins by default in most electorates.[39][needs update]

The social, cultural, and political as well as economic consequences of market reform have created tensions in Chinese society.[40][41]

Self-description

The Chinese constitution describes China's system of government as a people's democratic dictatorship.[42] The CCP has also used other terms to officially describe China's system of government including "socialist consultative democracy", and whole-process people's democracy.[43] According to the CCP theoretical journal Qiushi, "[c]onsultative democracy was created by the CPC and the Chinese people as a form of socialist democracy. ... Not only representing a commitment to socialism, it carries forward China's political and cultural traditions. Not only representing a commitment to the organizational principles and leadership mode of democratic centralism, it also affirms the role of the general public in a democracy. Not only representing a commitment to the leadership of the CPC, it also gives play to the role of all political parties and organizations as well as people of all ethnic groups and all sectors of society".[44] The semi-official journal China Today stated the CCP's view: "Consultative democracy guarantees widespread and effective participation in politics through consultations carried out by political parties, peoples congresses, government departments, CPPCC committees, peoples organizations, communities, and social organizations".[45] On the other hand, according to the V-Dem Democracy indices China was 2023 the second least electoral democratic country in Asia.[46]

Communist Party

Main article: Chinese Communist Party

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) dominates the Chinese political landscape. Constitutionally, the party's highest body is the Party Congress, which meets every five years. Meetings were irregular before the Cultural Revolution but have been periodic since then. The National Congress elects the Central Committee and the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI); the Central Committee in turn elects bodies such as:

In relative liberalization periods, the influence of people and groups outside the formal party structure has increased, particularly in the economic realm. Nevertheless, in all governmental institutions in the PRC, the party committees at all levels maintain a powerful and pivotal role in the administration.[48] According to scholar Rush Doshi, "[t]he Party sits above the state, runs parallel to the state, and is enmeshed in every level of the state."[49] Central party control is tightest in central government offices and urban economic, industrial, and cultural settings; it is considerably looser over the government and party establishments in rural areas, where the majority of mainland Chinese people live. The CCP's most important responsibility comes in the selection and promotion of personnel. They also see that party and state policy guidance is followed and that non-party members do not create autonomous organizations that could challenge party rule. Significant are the leading small groups which coordinate activities of different agencies. State-owned enterprises, private companies and foreign-owned businesses are also required to have internal CCP committees.[50]

Intra-party factions

Chinese politics have long been defined by the competition between intra-party factions' ability to place key members and allies in positions of power within the CCP and Chinese government.[51][52][53]

Under general secretaries Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao, the two main factions were thought to be the Tuanpai and the Shanghai Clique.[52] The Tuanpai were thought to be cadres and officials that originated from the Communist Youth League of China, while the Shanghai Clique were thought to be officials that rose to prominence under Jiang Zemin when he was first mayor, and then CCP committee secretary, of Shanghai.[53]

Xi Jinping, who became general secretary in 2012, has significantly centralized power, removing the influence of the old factions and promoting his allies, sometimes called the "Xi Jinping faction". Due to this, the old factions, including the Tuanpai, are considered extinct,[54] especially since the 20th CCP National Congress, in which Xi's allies dominated the new Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee.[55]

Politburo Standing Committee

Members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the 20th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party
[56]
Rank Portrait Name Hanzi 19th PSC Birth PM Birthplace Academic attainment No. of offices Ref.
1 Xi Jinping Xi Jinping 习近平 Old 1953 1974 Beijing
Eleven
[57]
2 Li Qiang Li Qiang 李强 New 1959 1983 Zhejiang
Eight
[58]
3 Zhao Leji Zhao Leji 赵乐际 Old 1957 1975 Qinghai [59]
4 Wang Huning Wang Huning 王沪宁 Old 1955 1984 Shanghai [60]
5 Cai Qi Cai Qi 蔡奇 New 1955 1975 Fujian [61]
6 Ding Xuexiang Ding Xuexiang 丁薛祥 New 1962 1984 Jiangsu
One
[62]
7 Li Xi Li Xi 李希 New 1956 1982 Gansu [63]

Full Politburo members

Members of the Political Bureau of the 20th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party
[64]
Name Hanzi 19th POL Birth PM Birthplace Education No. of offices Ref.
Cai Qi 蔡奇 Old 1955 1975 Fujian Graduate [61]
Chen Jining 陈吉宁 New 1964 1984 Liaoning Graduate
One
  • Party office
    • Secretary, Shanghai Municipal Party Committee
[65]
Chen Min'er 陈敏尔 Old 1960 1982 Zhejiang Graduate
One
  • Party office
    • Secretary, Tianjin Municipal Party Committee
[66]
Chen Wenqing 陈文清 New 1960 1983 Sichuan Graduate [67]
Ding Xuexiang 丁薛祥 Old 1962 1984 Jiangsu Graduate
One
[62]
He Lifeng 何立峰 New 1955 1981 Guangdong Graduate [68]
He Weidong 何卫东 New 1957 1978 Fujian Undergraduate [69]
Huang Kunming 黄坤明 Old 1956 1976 Fujian Graduate
One
  • Party office
    • Secretary, Guangdong Provincial Party Committee
[70]
Li Ganjie 李干杰 New 1964 1984 Hunan Graduate
One
[71]
Li Hongzhong 李鸿忠 Old 1956 1976 Shenyang Graduate [72]
Li Qiang 李强 Old 1959 1983 Zhejiang Graduate
Eight
[58]
Li Shulei 李书磊 New 1964 1986 Henan Graduate
One
[73]
Li Xi 李希 Old 1956 1982 Gansu Graduate [63]
Liu Guozhong 刘国中 New 1962 1986 Heilongjiang Graduate
One
[74]
Ma Xingrui 马兴瑞 New 1959 1988 Heilongjiang Graduate
One
  • Party office
    • Secretary, Xinjiang Provincial Party Committee
[75]
Shi Taifeng 石泰峰 New 1956 1982 Shanxi Graduate [76]
Wang Huning 王沪宁 Old 1955 1984 Shanghai Graduate [60]
Wang Yi 王毅 New 1953 1981 Beijing Graduate [77]
Xi Jinping 习近平 Old 1953 1974 Beijing Graduate
Eleven
[57]
Yin Li 尹力 New 1962 1980 Shandong Graduate
One
  • Party office
    • Secretary, Beijing City Party Committee
[78]
Yuan Jiajun 袁家军 New 1962 1992 Jilin Graduate
One
  • Party office
    • Secretary, Chongqing Municipal Party Committee
[79]
Zhang Guoqing 张国清 New 1964 1984 Henan Graduate
One
[80]
Zhang Youxia 张又侠 Old 1950 1969 Beijing Graduate [81]
Zhao Leji 赵乐际 Old 1957 1975 Shandong Graduate [59]

National People's Congress

Political Consultative Conference

Constitutionally the supreme state authority and legislature of China is the National People's Congress (NPC). It meets annually for about two weeks to review and approve major new policy directions, laws, the budget, and major personnel changes. The NPC elects and appoints important state positions such as the president, the vice president, the chairman and other members of the Central Military Commission, the premier and rest of the State Council, the president of the Supreme People's Court, and procurator general of the Supreme People's Procuratorate.[citation needed]

The NPC also elects a Standing Committee (NPCSC), its permanent body which meets regularly between NPC sessions. Most national legislation in China is adopted by the NPCSC. Most initiatives are presented to the NPCSC for consideration by the State Council after previous endorsement by the CCP Politburo Standing Committee.[citation needed]

Members of the State Council include the Premier, a variable number of vice premiers (now four), five state councilors (protocol equal of vice premiers but with narrower portfolios), and 29 ministers and heads of State Council commissions. During the 1980s there was an attempt made to separate CCP and state functions, with the former deciding general policy and the latter carrying it out.[82] The attempt was abandoned in the 1990s with the result that the political leadership within the state are also the leaders of the CCP.[82]

Minor parties

Main article: List of political parties in China

No legal political opposition groups exist in China. There are eight minor political parties in the country under the CCP's united front system. They participate in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) but have to support the "leading role" of the CCP for their continued existence,[83] and their leadership is appointed by the United Front Work Department (UFWD) of the CCP.[84] Their original function was to create the impression that the PRC was being ruled by a diverse national front, not a one-party dictatorship. The major role of these parties is to attract and subsequently muzzle niches in society that have political tendencies, such as academia.[85]

Coordination between the eight minor parties and the CCP is done through the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference which meets annually in Beijing in March at about the same time that the National People's Congress meets. In addition, there are banned political parties that are actively suppressed by the government, such as the Maoist Communist Party of China, China Democracy Party and China New Democracy Party, which have their headquarters outside of the mainland China.[86]

State Council

The Premier of China is the head of government, presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions.

Local-level politics

Each local Bureau or office is under the coequal authority of the local leader and the leader of the corresponding office, bureau or ministry at the next higher level. People's Congress members at the county level are elected by voters. These county-level People's Congresses have the responsibility of oversight of local government and elect members to the Provincial (or Municipal in the case of independent municipalities) People's Congress. The Provincial People's Congress, in turn, elects members to the National People's Congress that meets each year in March in Beijing.[87] The ruling CCP committee at each level plays a large role in the selection of appropriate candidates for election to the local congress and to the higher levels.[citation needed]

Administrative divisions

See also: Administrative divisions of China

Click any region for more info. For a larger version of this map, see here.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous RegionTibet Autonomous RegionQinghaiGansuSichuanYunnanNingxia Hui Autonomous RegionInner Mongolia Autonomous RegionShaanxiChongqing MunicipalityGuizhouGuangxi Zhuang Autonomous RegionShanxiHenanHubeiHunanGuangdongHainanHebeiHeilongjiangJilinLiaoningBeijing MunicipalityTianjin MunicipalityShandongJiangsuAnhuiShanghai MunicipalityZhejiangJiangxiFujianHong Kong Special Administrative RegionMacau Special Administrative RegionTaiwan


Armed forces

Main articles: People's Liberation Army, People's Armed Police, and Militia (China)

See also: List of wars involving the People's Republic of China

The CCP created and leads the People's Liberation Army. After the PRC was established in 1949, the PLA also became a state military. The state military system inherited and upholds the principle of the CCP's absolute leadership over the people's armed forces, often referred to under Mao's maxim that "the Party commands the gun." The CCP and the state jointly established the Central Military Commission that carries out the task of supreme military leadership over the armed forces.[88]

Legal system

Main article: Law of the People's Republic of China

A trial by the Guizhou High People's Court

Nationality and ethnicity law

See also: Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China and Regional ethnic autonomy system of China

Nationality is granted at birth to children with at least one Chinese-national parent, with some exceptions. In general, naturalization or the obtainment of the People's Republic of China nationality is difficult. The Nationality Law prescribes only three conditions for the obtainment of PRC nationality (marriage to a PRC national is one, permanent residence is another). PRC nationals who acquire a foreign nationality automatically lose Chinese nationality.[89][non-primary source needed] State functionaries and military personnel on active service are not permitted renounce their Chinese nationality. If a citizen wishes to resume PRC nationality, foreign nationality is no longer recognized.[90][non-primary source needed]

Policies toward Uyghurs

Main article: Uyghur genocide

Further information: Xinjiang internment camps

In 2020, widespread public reporting detailed the Chinese government's pattern of human rights violations in its continuing maltreatment of Uyghurs.[91][92][93][94] These abuses include forced labor, arbitrary detainment, forced political indoctrination, destruction of cultural heritage, and forced abortions and sterilization.[95][96][97] Critics of the policy have described it as the sinicization of Xinjiang and called it an ethnocide or cultural genocide, with many activists, NGOs, human rights experts, government officials, and the U.S. government calling it a genocide.[98][99][100][101][102] The Chinese government denies it is committing human rights violations in Xinjiang.[103][104]

Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of China

Chinese leader Hu Jintao and US president George W. Bush, with first ladies Liu Yongqing and Laura Bush, wave from the White House. The relationship between the world's sole superpower United States and the emerging superpower status of the PRC is closely watched by international observers.
The Karakoram Highway connecting China and Pakistan is an example of China's international development involvements.

The PRC maintains diplomatic relations with most countries in the world. In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China, commonly known as "Taiwan" since the 1970s, as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.[105] China had been represented by the Republic of China at the time of the UN's founding in 1945. (See also China and the United Nations.)

Under the One-China policy, the PRC has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to all of China, including Taiwan, and severs any official ties with the Republic of China (ROC) government. The government actively opposes foreign government meetings with the 14th Dalai Lama in a political capacity, as the spokesperson for a separatist movement in Tibet.[citation needed]

The PRC has been playing a leading role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbours. In 2004, the PRC proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues that pointedly excluded the United States.[106] The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005. China is also a founder and member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), alongside Russia and the Central Asian republics.[citation needed]

Much of the current[when?] foreign policy is based on the concept of "China's peaceful development".[needs update] Nonetheless, crises in relations with foreign countries have occurred at various times in its recent history, particularly with the United States; e.g., the U.S. bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade during the Kosovo conflict in May 1999 and the Hainan Island incident in April 2001. China's foreign relations with many Western nations suffered for a time following the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre. A much troubled foreign relationship is that between China and Japan, which has been strained at times by Japan's refusal to acknowledge its wartime past to the satisfaction of the PRC, such as revisionistic comments made by prominent Japanese officials, and insufficient details given to the Nanjing Massacre and other atrocities committed during World War II in Japanese history textbooks. Another point of conflict between the two countries is the frequent visits by Japanese government officials to the Yasukuni Shrine, which honors not only Japanese World War II dead but also many convicted World War II war criminals, including 14 Class A convictions.[citation needed]

Foreign aid

Main articles: Chinese foreign aid and Belt and Road Initiative

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China under the CCP in 1949, China joined the international community in providing foreign aid. In the past few decades, the international community has seen an increase in Chinese foreign aid. Specifically, a recent example is the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), a global infrastructure project that was launched in 2013 by Chinese leader Xi Jinping.[107] The stated goal of the program is to expand maritime routes and land infrastructure networks connecting China with Asia, Africa, and Europe, boosting trade and economic growth.[108] It involves a massive development of trade routes that will create a large expansion of land transportation infrastructure and new ports in the Pacific and Indian oceans to facilitate regional and intercontinental trade flow and increase oil and gas supply.[109]

International territorial disputes

Main article: Territorial disputes of the People's Republic of China

The PRC is in a number of international territorial disputes, several of which involved the Sino-Russian border. Although the great majority of them are now resolved,[citation needed] China's territorial disputes have led to several localized wars in the last 50 years, including the Sino-Indian War in 1962, the Sino-Soviet border conflict in 1969 and the Sino-Vietnam War in 1979. In 2001, China and Russia signed the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation,[110][better source needed] which ended the conflict. Other territorial disputes include islands in the East and South China Seas, and undefined or disputed borders with India, Bhutan and North Korea.[citation needed]

International organizations

On 26 October 1971, the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 2758 to transfer the seat from the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan to the People's Republic of China (PRC).[111]

United Nations

Main article: China and the United Nations

Today, not only is China a part of many UN organizations, it is also one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. A memo done by the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission identified Chinese nationals serving in leadership position within international organizations signifies China's increasing involvement in the international arena.[112] For instance, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and so on are all organizations that Chinese nationals are currently in position of (The memo is updated on a semi-annual basis).[112]

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)

See also: List of non-governmental organizations in China

Although NGO development in China is relatively slow compared to other countries, a Harvard University academic study reveals that China had NGOs as early as during the Dynasties. Specifically in the forms of American missionaries, which assisted in rural reconstruction programs and ideological reforms locally.[113] After the establishment of The People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, Mao banned any NGOs that were related to counter revolutionary goals. During the reform era under Deng beginning the 1970s, NGOs although not completely banned, three laws were implemented to keep relatively tight control over them––the Regulations on the Registration and Management of Social Organizations, the Regulations on the Registration and Management of Foundations, and the Interim Provisions for the Administration of Foreign Chambers of Commerce in China.[114] The latter two were implemented after the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre, and the general tone of all the regulations emphasized government control. For instance, the regulations require a two-tiered management system, in which before being legally registered by the Ministry of Civil Affairs, a government agency must sponsor the organization; thus, two governmental agencies must be monitoring the day-to-day operations of the NGO.[114] However, in the 1990s, NGOs began to regain momentum despite restrictions in place.[114] Today, the number of registered organizations in China has grown to over 700,000, "... including many professional and friendship associations, foundations working in the fields of education, science, and culture, and a large number of nonprofits engaged in poverty alleviation, social work with people with disabilities, children, and the elderly. The number of nonprofits and environmental education and climate action groups has also significantly grown".[115]

In 2017, a policy called "Management of Overseas NGOs' Activities in Mainland China Law" (FNGO Law) was enacted, which creates registration barriers that, for instance, require a Chinese partner organization to sign on. The reaction from the West has widely been that the space for NGOs to conduct work in may be shrinking.[116]

Many NGOs in the PRC have been described as government-organized non-governmental organization (GONGOs) that are organized under the CCP's united front system.[117][118][119]

Civil society

Academic debates on whether China has a civil society are ongoing.[120]: 62 

Within China, academic debate regarding theories of the public sphere began in the 1980s.[120]: 62  There is no consensus and academic debates involve disagreements in the applicability of concepts like "civil society," "private sphere," and "state" in the Chinese context.[120]: 62  Among the issues is that the terminology developed by Jürgen Habermas was developed in discourse on German bourgeois society.[120]: 63–64  The major groups in Habermasian theory include merchants, bankers, manufacturers, and entrepreneurs, which is not consistent with Chinese views of the "general public."[120]: 64 

The majority of research on Chinese civil society from the early 1990s to the early 2010s has been to examine "the organizational independence of civic associations from the state".[121] Researchers have argued that the western driven definition of "civil society" is too narrowly fixed, which does not allow for a full understanding of Chinese civil society. Taru Salmenkari, an associate professor specializing in contemporary China and issues of democracy and civil society in East Asia at Tallinn University, has argued in her "Theoretical Poverty in the Research on Chinese Civil Society" that to understand Chinese civil society, one must "...go beyond the question of the degree of autonomy from the state. It must address the nature of horizontal contacts through which civil society is constituted".[121]

Advocacy

A 2013 study by Harvard University found that while the censorship exists, the purpose of the censorship is not to silence all comments made about the state or any particular issues, but rather to prevent and reduce the probability of collective action.[122] As the study illustrates, allowing social media to flourish also has allowed negative and positive comments about the state and its leaders to exist.[122] According to another study, the development of technology and the internet has also allowed certain civil society advocacy, such as the Weiquan movement, to flourish.[123]

Public sentiment

Surveys[when?] have shown a high level of the Chinese public's satisfaction with their government.[124]: 137  These views are generally attributed to the material comforts and security available to large segments of the Chinese populace as well as the government's attentiveness and responsiveness.[124]: 136  A majority of the Chinese middle class are satisfied with the CCP and are among those who tend to credit it for the increase of living standards in China since reform and opening up.[125]: 61 

According to the World Values Survey (2017–2020), 95% of Chinese respondents have significant confidence in their government.[124]: 13  Confidence decreased to 91% in the survey's 2022 edition.[124]: 13 

A 2020 survey by Harvard University found that citizen satisfaction with the government had increased since 2003, also rating China's government as more effective and capable than ever before in the survey's history.[126]: 163  A 2020 survey by Stanford University and the Hoover Institution found that support for the CCP is between 50 and 70 percent, and that support for the government is typically overstated by almost 30 percent in citizen surveys.[127][128] The same survey found that Han Chinese are more supportive of the CCP than are ethnic minorities and that minorities tend to conceal their views of the CCP.[128][129]

Survey data compiled by academic Bruce Dickson concludes that approximately 70% of China's population supports the Chinese Dream.[130]: 148 

Protests

Main articles: Protest and dissent in China and Mass incidents in China

The authoritarian government in China suppresses protests that challenge the authority of the government while showing greater tolerance for protests that are rooted in localized economic or social unrest.[38] Under Xi Jinping's rule, the government has resorted to greater suppression.[38]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The office of the President is largely powerless, with the powers and functions under the Constitution of 1982 comparable to that of a constitutional monarch or a head of state in a parliamentary republic.[19][better source needed]
  2. ^ Xi Jinping was elected President of the People's Republic of China on 14 March 2013.[22][23]
  3. ^ Recently, as of April 2020, Xi Jinping, the current general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and paramount leader of China, has been accused of drawing too much power to himself.[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]

References

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  3. ^ Tang, Wenfang (4 January 2016). Populist Authoritarianism: Chinese Political Culture and Regime Sustainability. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-049081-2.
  4. ^ Nathan, Andrew J.; Diamond, Larry; Plattner, Marc F. (1 September 2013). Will China Democratize?. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-1244-3.
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  8. ^ "China: Freedom in the World 2021 Country Report". Freedom House. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
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  10. ^ Geddes, Barbara; Wright, Joseph; Frantz, Erica (2018). How Dictatorships Work. Cambridge University Press. p. 141. doi:10.1017/9781316336182. ISBN 978-1-316-33618-2. S2CID 226899229.
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  13. ^ Lee, Ching Kwan; Zhang, Yonghong (1 May 2013). "The Power of Instability: Unraveling the Microfoundations of Bargained Authoritarianism in China". American Journal of Sociology. 118 (6): 1475–1508. doi:10.1086/670802. ISSN 0002-9602. S2CID 144559373.
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