Ministry of State Security of the People's Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guójiā Ānquán Bù
National Emblem of the People
Ministry of State Security of the People
Emblem of the Ministry of State Security
Agency overview
Formed1 July 1983; 39 years ago (1983-07-01)
Preceding agencies
TypeConstituent Department of the State Council (cabinet-level executive department)
Jurisdiction People's Republic of China
39°59′32″N 116°16′42″E / 39.9921°N 116.2783°E / 39.9921; 116.2783Coordinates: 39°59′32″N 116°16′42″E / 39.9921°N 116.2783°E / 39.9921; 116.2783
Annual budgetCN¥56 billion (FY2018)[1]
Agency executive
Parent agencyState Council
Ministry of State Security
Simplified Chinese中华人民共和国国家安全部
Traditional Chinese中華人民共和國國家安全部
Literal meaningChinese People Republic State Security Ministry

The Ministry of State Security (abbreviation: MSS; Chinese: 国家安全部; pinyin: Guójiā Ānquán Bù; lit. 'State Security Ministry'; IPA: [kwǒ.tɕjá án.tɕʰɥɛ̌n pû]) is the principal civilian intelligence, security and secret police agency of the People's Republic of China, responsible for counterintelligence, foreign intelligence and political security. The MSS is active in industrial espionage and increasingly adept at cyber espionage. Its military counterpart is the Intelligence Bureau of the Joint Staff. Described as one of the most secretive intelligence organizations in the world, it is headquartered in Beijing[2][3] with subordinate branches at the provincial, city, municipality and township levels throughout China.[4]

Today's MSS began as the Chinese Communist Party's Central Special Branch until it was replaced by the Central Social Affairs Department (SAD) in 1936. In 1955, the Central Investigation Department (CID) which was China's primary civilian intelligence organization from 1955 to 1983, the MSS's immediate predecessor.[5] The MSS was created in 1983 with the merging of the CID and the counterintelligence elements of the Ministry of Public Security (MPS).[6][7][5] The network of state security bureaus and the Ministry of State Security should not be confused with the separate but parallel network of public security bureaus, administered by the MPS.


The stated mission of the MSS is to ensure "the security of the country through effective measures against enemy agents, spies, and counter-revolutionary activities designed to sabotage, destabilize or overthrow China's socialist system."[8]

Article 4 of the Criminal Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China gives the MSS the same authority to arrest or detain people as regular police for crimes involving state security with identical supervision by the procuratorates and the courts.[9][better source needed] The National Intelligence Law of 2017 grants the MSS broad powers to conduct many types of espionage both domestically and abroad; it also gives the MSS the power to administratively detain those who impede or divulge information on intelligence work for up to 15 days.[10]

MSS functions as China's intelligence, security and secret police agency.[11] A document from the U.S. Department of Justice described the agency as being like a combination of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).[12] Author Clive Hamilton described it as being similar to an amalgamation of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO) and the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) "with a lot more power and less subject to the constraints of the rule of law."[13]

After the introduction of market elements in the Chinese economy in the early 1980s (leading to a hybrid economic system that includes Soviet-style economic planning and large-scale state ownership existing alongside a significant private sector) and especially after the end of the Cold War, many foreign analysts described the Communist "Party–State" and its security agencies as being left without a real ideology, relying only on repression and the stoking of Chinese nationalism; more recent works, however, highlight the increasing importance of Marxism–Leninism in the worldview, internal culture and self-image of the CCP security apparatus; Vladimir Lenin and Mao Zedong remain the central influences, although classical Chinese thinkers such as Sun Tzu are also studied. According to researchers Peter Mattis and Matthew Brazil, who have studied the MSS for many years:

"The language Chinese intelligence uses reflects its Marxist–Leninist and revolutionary heritage. The lexicon suggests (as has been borne out in interviews with former officials who had routine contacts with their Chinese counterparts) that the intelligence services are bastions of faith in the CCP. Although they may be practical in terms of techniques and methods to acquire intelligence, this information is filtered through a Marxist–Leninist lens. The implication is that foreign targets are viewed in the worst possible light."[2]

The MSS is a civilian agency, although it controls its own separate police force (the "State Security Police", one of the four components of the People's Police) and includes some People's Liberation Army (PLA) officers among its personnel. The MSS official uniform is dark navy blue, similar to that of the regular People's Police, with the only difference being a badge on the right arm with the Chinese characters "国安" ("State Security").[14]


Kang Sheng, Director of the Central Social Affairs Department (1939-1945) played a central role in the Cultural Revolution and the early intelligence apparatus of the Chinese Communist Party
Kang Sheng, Director of the Central Social Affairs Department (1939-1945) played a central role in the Cultural Revolution and the early intelligence apparatus of the Chinese Communist Party
Li Kenong, in overall command of Chinese intelligence from the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949 to his death in 1962.
Li Kenong, in overall command of Chinese intelligence from the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949 to his death in 1962.
Xiong Xianghui, famous Communist spy of the Chinese Civil War, headed Chinese foreign intelligence from 1973 to 1982.
Xiong Xianghui, famous Communist spy of the Chinese Civil War, headed Chinese foreign intelligence from 1973 to 1982.

Central Special Branch (1928–1936)

In November 1928, the CCP established its first formal intelligence service, with Zhou Enlai founding the Central Special Branch (Chinese: 中央特科; pinyin: Zhōngyāng tè kē, often shortened to Teke) to conduct "special operations" work.[15] With Xiang Zhongfa and Gu Shunzhang's assistance, Zhou designed the organization that many Chinese intelligence officers today see as the origins of their enterprise. Establishing secret bases across the Chinese territory, the Teke was composed of four operational sections led by Kang Sheng:[5][15]

Zhou's primary objective was to disrupt the Kuomintang's secret police attempts to penetrate the CCP which required both a defensive counterintelligence effort to identify potentially traitorous members of the party and an offensive intelligence effort to plant spies within the Kuomintang's security and intelligence services. To prevent leaks and limit damage caused by infiltration by Nationalist spies, agents of Teke were forbidden to have any relationship with other agents making the party so compartmentalized that many never knew the name of the organization only calling it "Wu Hao's Dagger", a reference to Zhou Enlai's nom de guerre.[5][15]

Based in Shanghai, Teke grew to become "a small army of messengers, people smugglers, and informers" with a constant presence in clubs, religious organizations, music groups, and brothels serving as Zhou Enlai's (and subsequently the CCP's) eyes and ears both in Shanghai and across the nation. Nonetheless, Teke had to compete with the newly established KMT Bureau of Investigation and Statistics (BIS) under the notorious Dai Li whose nickname as the "Chinese Himmler" lives on for his horrific torture record which included death in excruciating agony and forced heroin overdosing. Under Dai Li, the BIS created vast networks of 100,000 operatives across and outside the borders of China and mastered new means of intercepting communist communications — an art taught to the KMT by American cryptographer Herbert Yardley for use against the Japanese. The overwhelming advantages of the KMT were challenged only by the extensive and thorough infiltration of the security services by Teke agents including Qian Zhuangfei, Li Kenong, and Hu Di.[5][15]

Central Social Affairs Department (1936–1955)

In 1936, the CCP established in Yan'an, Shaanxi the Social Affairs Department, often abbreviated as SAD in English, to consolidate the party's foreign intelligence and counterintelligence efforts. It wasn't until 1938 when Kang Sheng took control of the department and restructured the organization that it took its final form in the merging of the preceding Special Branch, the Political Protection Bureau (which Kang Sheng had previously headed), and the Guard Office. The Political Protection Bureau provided rear area security to communist forces prior to the Long March and close security to Mao during the march while the Guard Office established a local constabulary and counterintelligence service. Under Kang Sheng and his deputy Li Kenon, the SAD provided the CCP foreign intelligence, domestic intelligence, military security, and political security in every province in which communist forces held terrain.[5][15]

The Social Affairs Department was constructed similarly to the Soviet model (as Kang had been trained by Soviet intelligence in Moscow):[5][15]

From 1942 to 1944, as the Social Affairs Department expanded, Kang Sheng became paranoid and fearful of spies within his organization. Kang, known as the "Chinese Beria" abroad, frequently reminded others that political deviation was inextricably linked to being a traitorous spy, remarking "There is a close link between the twin crimes of espionage and deviationism. One is not a deviationist, as we have tended to believe, by chance or error. It is, ineluctably, dialectically, because one is a Japanese agent or a Kuomintang spy—or both. We must begin a ruthless hunt to root out these two plagues from Yan'an because, by fighting against deviationism, we weaken the clandestine plots of our enemies, and vice versa." Convinced that at least 30 percent of his organization were counterrevolutionaries and spies, Kang established a counterintelligence quota which contributed greatly to the practice of bigongxin, forcing a false confession in order to build a case against the accused. Kang's counterintelligence inquisition utilized "techniques of punishment and interrogation inspired by the millennia-long Chinese tradition of torture, updated by twentieth-century Stalinism for the requirements of the era" with torture practices including driving bamboo spikes under fingernails, inserting hair from a horse's tail into the penis, pumping high-pressure water into the vagina, cutting off the breasts of women looking for their tortured husbands, forcing the ingestion of large amounts of vinegar, applying burning incense to armpits, tying to a whipped horse's tail, and live burials. Kang's perceived connection between political deviation and traitorship led many senior leaders to avoid criticizing Kang's purges.[5][15]

Known by 1944 as the "party hangman", Kang was eventually opposed by Zhou Enlai and later Mao Zedong who forced Kang to produce his own self-criticism proclaiming that perhaps only 10 percent of the comrades accused were spies and, in November 1944, relieved him of the position as head of the Social Affairs Department. Various rumors for the cause of his removal endure. One version claims that his paranoid purges made him a target of many senior communist officials, many of whom found themselves in Kang's sights. Another less likely explanation from Mao's physician, Li Zhuisui, claims that Kang suffered acute paranoia and symptoms of schizophrenia and consequently sent to a mental asylum. American intelligence reported believed Kang's downfall was the result of the recent collapse of the pro-Stalinist faction proceeding the deaths of Stalin and Beria since Kang had trained as an intelligence officer in Moscow. Li Kenong, the new head of the Social Affairs Department, developed the organization's intelligence networks and was appointed by Zhou Enlai to simultaneously serve as the nation's deputy minister of foreign affairs.[5][15][16]

Central Investigation Department (1955–1983)

In an effort to disaffiliate the intelligence service from Kang Sheng's paranoia-driven legacy of purges, the organization was renamed to the CCP Central Investigation Department (Chinese: 中央调查部; pinyin: Zhōngyāng diàochá bù) with only one SAD branch moved out to its own organization, the Legal and Administrative Work Department.[5]

In the 1950s, nearly every Chinese embassies abroad had an Investigation and Research Office, a cover for a group of intelligence officers belonging to the Central Investigation Department (CID) who kept close watch on diplomats and embassy staff, often sitting in on meetings and reporting back to CID headquarters' Eight Bureau (known later as the "Institute of Contemporary International Relations").[5][16][17]

On 9 February 1962, Li Kenong died after a period of illness from the residual effects of brain damage from a fall he had sustained three years prior. Kong Yuan, Kang Sheng's former secretary and friend of Zhou Enlai, ran the service with Zou Dapeng and Luo Qingchang as his deputies.[5]

Early in 1996, Mao Zedong and his defense chief Marshal Lin Biao plotted to overthrow army Chief of Staff and Deputy Prime Minister Luo Ruiqing who, despite being a lifelong supporter of Mao's revolution and founder of the Gonganbu, had opposed the political training in the military instituted at Mao's directive. Eager to thieve for the second time a senior position in the security services from Luo and to gain a stronghold over the party's security apparatus, Kang Sheng prepared a traitorous dossier on Luo complete with accusations of "illicit intercourse with foreigners". Lin Biao sent for Luo's arrest, and, under appalling conditions of incarceration and interrogation, Luo attempted to commit suicide in March by throwing himself from his cell breaking two legs after which Red Guards forced him to make his own self-criticism. As Mao Zedong launched his infamous Cultural Revolution in 1966, Kang Sheng attempted to limit the destructive influence of the revolution on his intelligence and security apparatus issuing in September the directive "Codes, telegrams, confidential documents, files, and secret archives are the essential secrets of the Party and State; the safeguarding of all of these elements is the responsibility of all cadres, revolutionary masses, students, and revolutionary teachers." Despite this, Kang Sheng soon found that the calamitous red wave that overtook Mao's China would grow beyond his control. It wouldn't be until October 1978, after Mao's death in September 1976, that Hua Guofeng and Wang Dongxing would rebuild the Central Investigative Department which was officially reestablished on 28 July 1978. The organization still lacked experience or established tradecraft which would cause them a number of embarrassments.[5]

Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia

The most impactful embarrassment of the newly reestablished Central Investigative Department (or Diaochabu) was their inability to predict the Vietnamese invasion of the Republic of Kampuchea (today Cambodia) in 1979. Following a visit to Democratic Kampuchea by Wang Dongxing in early November 1978, he and head of the new Central Investigative Department Luo Qinchang praised the ten-year friendship with the Khmer Rouge and helped Kaing Khek and Ta Mok to establish the neighboring communist party's notorious S-21 interrogation and extermination camp where around 20,000 Cambodians would be killed under Pol Pot's genocide.[18][19] Within a month of Wang and Luo's return to China, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam launched a full-scale invasion of Kampuchea in response to a series of border attacks on the Liberation Army of Kampuchea.[20] Perhaps by ideological closeness to Pol Pot and his followers, Chinese intelligence under the Central Investigative Department, and consequently PRC leadership, was caught by surprise by the Vietnamese invasion. Unable to contact the Khmer Rouge who, under the leadership of Ta Mok, had escaped into the jungles to organize a guerrilla resistance with only one Chinese agent carrying a defective satellite radio, a thousand Chinese military advisors fled Cambodia via Thailand and left 4,000 civilian advisors to the invading Vietnamese army. Compounding the intelligence failure, as the invasion broke the Central Investigative Department expressed confidence to Chinese leaders that the invasion would be easily repelled and that the Chinese embassy in the capital, Phnom Penh, would be unharmed.[5]

Hoping to force a Vietnamese withdrawal from its ally Cambodia, the People's Republic of China launched their own southward invasion across the border into Vietnam in February 1979 which was withdrawn four weeks later after heavy guerilla resistance by Vietnamese guerrillas bearing Soviet and American weapons.[21][22] Nonetheless, head of the CCP Deng Xiaoping supported the Khmer Rouge for another ten years in exile limiting his criticism of the two million-victim genocide assessing "the domestic counterintelligence activities created a negative atmosphere, slowing down many activities and causing social problems as well as many other problems... A thorough study of this political aspect should be undertaken and concrete measures taken."[5]

Death of the Diaochabu

At the end of the Cultural Revolution, as China struggled to regain its footing after a tumultuous decade, Deng Xiaoping and his fellow reformers Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang endeavored down the road of governmental reform. General Secretary of the CCP Central Committee Hu Yaobang decried Kang Sheng's destructive and paranoid legacy in a speech in November 1978 enumerating many of the crimes Kang Sheng had be found guilty of up to and through the Cultural Revolution. Kang's condemnation was bolstered by the investigation prepared by Luo Qingchang's Central Investigative Department which detailed how Kang had organized the Yan'an purges and named any of his opponents "counter-revolutionary".[5]

Deng Xiaoping, himself a victim of Mao's Cultural Revolution, the Gang of Four, and Kang Sheng's secret police and whose brother was wheelchair-bound after Red Guards threw him from a high window, committed to reforming the Chinese intelligence services. Firstly, Deng initiated a small but meaningful campaign to degrade Kang Sheng's legacy which began with Hu Yaobang's speech. Secondly, Deng subordinated the Central Investigative Department into a minor political organ. Finally, Deng took all the "external intelligence expertise" from the Central Investigative Department and consolidated it and all the CCP's espionage and counterintelligence functions into a new, "revolutionized" Chinese intelligence service, fitting of the new era of the Chinese "opening-up" to the world.[5]

Ministry of State Security (1983–present)

The headquarters of the Ministry of Public Security near Tiananmen Square are reported to also function as MSS headquarters, but the degree to which operations are run out of the official address of No.14 Dong Chang'an Jie vis-à-vis the secretive Xiyuan compound is disputed.[citation needed]
The headquarters of the Ministry of Public Security near Tiananmen Square are reported to also function as MSS headquarters, but the degree to which operations are run out of the official address of No.14 Dong Chang'an Jie vis-à-vis the secretive Xiyuan compound is disputed.[citation needed]

The MSS was established in July 1983 as a result of the merger of the Central Investigation Department and the counter-intelligence elements of the Ministry of Public Security (MPS).[5][6] There were serious political reasons behind the merger, as Luo Qingchang, who had been Director of the CID since 1973 and was a powerful player in Chinese Communist intelligence since the 1940s, was a fierce opponent of Deng Xiaoping. Although Deng had risen to supreme power in the late 1970s, he initially couldn't remove Luo from his post, until he finally succeeded in 1983.[2] But even after this, Luo still remained influential as an adviser on the Central Leading Group for Taiwan Affairs.[2]

The 1st Bureau of the new Ministry of State Security (MSS) managed internal affairs and security in each of the provinces with the help of local and regional offices. The MSS also maintained a number of concentration camps (Chinese: 劳改; pinyin: Láogǎi) where apprehended enemy spies like the Taiwanese "Society of the Continent" network in Tianjin. The 2nd Bureau of the MSS was responsible for foreign intelligence collection beginning in the nearby capitals of Tokyo, Bangkok, and Singapore. Intelligence officers of the 2nd Bureau operated under diplomatic cover posing as advisors or secretaries to diplomats in-country. The MSS' 3rd Bureau was responsible for nearby areas the People's Republic of China wished to draw back into the CCP's control: Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau. The 4th Bureau focused on the technical aspects of espionage, the 5th Bureau for local intelligence, the 6th Bureau for counterintelligence, the 7th Bureau that conducted surveillance or special operations, and the 8th Bureau engaged in research through open sources (OSINT). The 8th Bureau took control over the former branch of the Central Investigative Department called the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR) whose members denied any connections to the Chinese intelligence apparatus. The 9th Bureau managed the threat of enemy infiltration and MSS officer defections, the 10th Bureau worked with the State Scientific & Technological Commission and the intelligence section of the Commission for Science, Technology, and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND). The 11th Bureau managed computers, networks, and information technology equipment, and finally the 12th Bureau was responsible for liaising with foreign intelligence services under the name of the Office of Foreign Affairs. Officers of the 12th Bureau worked with the CIA's David Gries, BND's Dr. Herms Bahl, MI6's Nigel Inkster, and the DGSE's Thierry Imbot while keeping them under surveillance. The so-called Office of Foreign Affairs also took up duties to surveil visiting tourists, diplomats, and journalists who began to enter the country after China's opening to the world. The MSS' first head announced "The intelligence agencies and secret services of some foreign countries have increased their spying activities against China's state secrets and are now sending agents to subvert and destroy our country."[5]

One of the longest-serving Ministers of State Security was Jia Chunwang, a native of Beijing and a 1964 graduate of Tsinghua University, who is reportedly an admirer of the CIA. He served as Minister of State Security from 1985 until March 1998, when the MSS underwent an overhaul and Xu Yongyue was appointed the new head of the organization.[23] Jia was then appointed to the Minister of Public Security post, after 13 years as head of the MSS. The MSS was under the influence of Zhou Yongkang until his ouster and conviction for corruption in 2014.[24] One of the people responsible for "taking down" Zhou Yongkang was Chen Wenqing of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, who was nominated Minister of State Security by Chinese Premier Li Keqiang in 2016, partly as a reward for purging Zhou and his network.[25][26]

Since Xi Jinping assumed power in 2012, the MSS gained more responsibility over cyberespionage vis-à-vis the PLA, and has sponsored various advanced persistent threat groups such as Double Dragon.[27][28] In October 2018, the Deputy Minister of State Security, Yanjun Xu, was charged with economic espionage by the United States prosecutors.[29]

On May 28, 2021, a federal grand jury in the United States District Court for the Southern District of California returned an indictment against four People's Republic of China (PRC) citizens for their alleged roles in a long running campaign of computer network operations targeting trade secrets, intellectual property, and other high value information from companies, universities, research institutes, and governmental entities in the United States and abroad, as well as multiple foreign governments. The indictment alleges that Zhu Yunmin, Wu Shurong, Ding Xiaoyang, and Cheng Qingmin targeted the following sectors: aerospace/aviation, biomedical, defense industrial base, healthcare, manufacturing, maritime, research institutes, transportation (rail and shipping), and virus research from 2012 to 2018, on behalf of the PRC Ministry of State Security. Additionally, the indictment alleges the use of front companies by the PRC Ministry of State Security to conduct cyber espionage.[30][31]

MSS facilities in Xiyuan, Haidian District, Beijing
MSS facilities in Xiyuan, Haidian District, Beijing


Further information: Chinese intelligence activity abroad, Chinese espionage in the United States, and Foreign electoral intervention

In March 2009 former MSS operative Li Fengzhi told the Washington Times in an interview that the MSS was engaged in counterintelligence, the collection of secrets and technology from other countries, and repressing internal dissent within China. The internal repression, according to Li, includes efforts against houses churches, the underground church and the Falun Gong religious group, plus censoring the Internet to prevent China's population from knowing what is going on outside the country. Li emphasized that MSS's most important mission is, "to control the Chinese people to maintain the rule of the Communist Party".[32]

In 2012, an executive assistant to MSS vice minister Lu Zhongwei was found to have been passing information to the CIA. Lu Zhongwei was not formally charged, but that incident was said to have infuriated Hu Jintao and led to a tightening on information dissemination and increased counterintelligence activities in Beijing and abroad.[33]

The Shanghai State Security Bureau (SSSB) of the MSS has repeatedly been involved in both failed and successful attempts to recruit foreign agents. In 2010, the SSSB directed US citizen Glenn Duffie Shriver to apply for a position at the National Clandestine Service of the CIA. In 2017, SSSB case workers were implicated in the recruitment of US Department of State employee Candace Claiborne who was charged with obstruction of justice.[34]

In 2013, a Chinese driver was employed by Senator Dianne Feinstein who was notified that the driver was being investigated for possible Chinese spying. At some point, he visited China and was recruited by China's MSS. He worked for Senator Feinstein for several years. The FBI concluded the driver hadn't revealed anything of substance.[35]

During January 2017, the FBI arrested Candace Claiborne, a State Department employee who had previously worked in the American Embassy in Beijing between 2009 and 2012. In April 2019 Claiborne pleaded guilty to one count of conspiring to defraud the United States. Prosecutors argued that she had passed sensitive information to the MSS.[36]

Economic espionage has become a prime directive of the MSS and the FBI has estimated that 3,000 companies in the United States are covers for MSS activity.[37] Companies such as Huawei, China Mobile, and China Unicom have been implicated in MSS intelligence collection activities.[38][39][40]

In 2017, MSS officials entered the United States on the pretence of transit visas as cultural officials. During the visit the officials made an attempt to persuade Chinese dissident Guo Wengui to return to China in order to face charges for prosecution. Guo Wengui accepted the meeting, out of apparent gratitude for one of the officials, named Liu Yanping, having previously assisted in bringing the wife of Guo Wengui to America. However, Guo Wengui recorded the conversations and alerted the FBI. Subsequently, the Chinese officials were confronted by FBI agents in Pennsylvania Station, the Chinese officials initially claimed to be cultural affairs diplomats but ultimately admitted to being security officials. The Chinese officials were given a warning for their activities in New York and were ordered to return to China. Two days later, the officials again visited the apartment of Guo Wengui once more prior to leaving the country. While at the apartment the second time, the officials reportedly ate dumplings made by the wife of Guo Wengui, and Guo Wengui walked them out of the building after again declining their offer of clemency for silence. The FBI was aware of the second visit and agents were prepared to arrest the Chinese security officials at JFK Airport prior to their Air China flight on charges of visa fraud and extortion, but arrests were not made following pressure from the State Department to avoid a diplomatic crisis. The FBI did, however, confiscate the Chinese officials’ phones before the plane took off.[41]

In 2019, according to a report released by the European External Action Service, there were an estimated 250 MSS spies operating in Brussels.[42]

In September 2020, a journalist, a Chinese MSS operative and her Nepalese informant were arrested in India for providing classified information about Indian army deployments in Doklam area and India's MEA to two officers of Yunnan State Security Department (YSSD) of MSS.[43]

In December 2020, 10 MSS Operatives of Xinjiang State Security Department (XSSD) were arrested in Kabul, Afghanistan by NDS. During Questioning, one of operative told the interrogators that they were gathering information about al Qaeda, Taliban and Turkistan Islamic Party in Kunar and Badakhshan provinces, and wanted to trap and assassinate high-level members of Turkistan Islamic Party. At least two of the operatives were also in contact with the Haqqani network for this job. After days of negotiations between Afghanistan and China, all of them were pardoned and were flown out of the country in a plane arranged by the Chinese government.[44][45]

In February 2021, The Daily Telegraph reported that Britain had expelled three MSS agents posing as journalists.[46]

In March 2021, at least Six Chinese bloggers were arrested by MSS for 'insulting' People's Liberation Army Ground Force soldiers who died in the Galwan Valley clash. Those bloggers had suggested that the death toll of the China-India border clash was 11x higher than the official count of four.[47][48]

In late April 2021, the Ministry of State Security announced that it was introducing several new measures to fight alleged infiltration by "hostile forces" of Chinese companies and other institutions. These measures include drawing up a list of companies and organisations considered to be at risk of foreign infiltration and requiring them to take security measures. In addition, staff travelling on business trips to the Five Eyes countries (the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand) have been ordered to report all contacts with foreign personnel, participate in anti-espionage seminars, and leaving mobile phones, laptops, and USB drives at home before traveling abroad.[49][50]


Further information: Cyberwarfare by China

In 2017, the cyberespionage threat group known as Gothic Panda or APT3 was determined to have nation-state level capabilities and to be functioning on behalf of the MSS by researchers.[51]

In 2018, the United States Department of Justice indicted two individuals of the cyber-espionage group APT10, which it stated was under the direction of the Tianjin State Security Bureau (TSSB) of MSS.[52]

In 2020, the United States Department of Justice indicted two MSS contractors who were involved in hacking Moderna, a biotechnology company developing a vaccine for the COVID-19 pandemic.[53][54] In September 2020, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency released a security advisory regarding hacking by groups affiliated with the MSS.[55]

Surveillance of dissidents abroad

In September 2020, A New York City Police Officer of Tibetan descent was arrested for gathering information on Tibetan American community for the Tibet State Security Department (TSSD) of MSS. He was also trying to recruit potential informants inside the local Tibetan community.[56][57]

In March 2022, the U.S. Department of Justice indicted individuals, including an MSS officer, for surveilling and conspiring to harass Chinese American pro-democracy dissidents, including political candidate Xiong Yan, Olympic figure skater Alysa Liu and her father Arthur Liu.[58][59][60] In May 2022, the U.S. Department of Justice charged a US citizen for spying under the direction of the MSS on Hong Kong pro-democracy activists, Taiwan independence supporters, and Uyghur and Tibetan activists.[61]

United Front activities

Further information: United Front (China) and United Front Work Department

The ministry also carries out significant influence operations through so called "united front" work, in which overseas diaspora, business contacts and NGO's are leveraged in order to purchase political influence and sway policy direction to Beijing's favour.[62] Xi Jinping has personally spoken about the importance of United Front work in saying: "Party committees at all levels must place united front work in an important position" and the "United Front Work Department" part of the party's "magic weapon[s]".[63]

Agency heads

Since 1983, agency heads carry the title of Minister of State Security (MSS), reporting directly to the State Council.[64]

Directors of the Central Department of Social Affairs (1939–1949)

No. Name Took office Left office
1 Kang Sheng 1939 1949
2 Li Kenong 1949 1949

Directors of the Liaison Department (1949–1955)

No. Name Took office Left office
1 Li Kenong 1949 1955

Directors of the Central Investigation Department (1955–1983)

No. Name Took office Left office
1 Li Kenong 1955 1962
2 Kong Yuan 1962 1967
3 PLA military takeover due to the Cultural Revolution (Special Unit 8341 under Wang Dongxing) 1967 1969
4 Officially placed under the 2nd Bureau (Intelligence) of the PLA General Staff, in fact controlled by Kang Sheng 1969 1973
5 Luo Qingchang 1973 1983

Ministers of State Security (1983–present)

No. Name Took office Left office
1 Ling Yun June 1983 September 1985
2 Jia Chunwang September 1985 March 1998
3 Xu Yongyue March 1998 August 2007
4 Geng Huichang August 2007 November 2016
5 Chen Wenqing November 2016 Incumbent


The government lists that headquarters as shared with the Ministry of Public Security adjacent to Tiannamen Square at 14 Dongchangan Avenue, Dongcheng District, Beijing.[65] MSS facilities are reported to also operate in the northwest of Beijing in an area called Xiyuan (Chinese: 西苑; pinyin: Xīyuàn; lit. 'Western Park') next to the Summer Palace in Haidian District.[66] The Federation of American Scientists website states that Xiyuan houses the headquarters of the MSS.[67]

The MSS is divided into Bureaus, each assigned to a division with a broad directive and each bureau is given a specific task. In November 2016, a MSS associated Weibo account posted an outline of the first 11 Bureaus, however additional Bureaus up to No. 17 have been identified:[68][69]

Bureau No. Encompassing Division Directive
1 Confidential Communication Division Responsible for the management and administration of confidential communications
2 International Intelligence Division Responsible for strategic international intelligence collection
3 Political and Economic Intelligence Division Responsible for gathering political, economic, and scientific intelligence from various countries
4 Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau Division Responsible for intelligence work in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau
5 Intelligence Analysis Division Responsible for analysing and reporting on intelligence and collecting guidance on how to handle intelligence matters
6 Operational Guidance Division Responsible for directing and supervising the activities of provincial level MSS offices
7 Counterintelligence Division Responsible for gathering counterintelligence information
8 Counterintelligence Division Responsible for monitoring, investigating, and potentially detaining foreigners suspected of counterintelligence activities. This Bureau is reported to primarily cover and investigate diplomats, businessmen, and reporters.[70]
9 Internal Security and Anti-Reconnaissance Division Responsible for protecting the MSS from infiltration by foreign entities by monitoring domestic reactionary organizations and foreign institutions
10 External Security and Anti-Reconnaissance Division Responsible for monitoring students and institutions abroad in order to investigate international anti-communist activities
11 Information and Auditing Division Responsible for the collection and management of intelligence materials
12 Social Research Division Responsible for conducting public opinion polling and surveying the population
13 Science and Technology Investigative Division Responsible for managing science and technology projects and conducting research and development
14 Science and Technology Investigative Division Responsible for inspecting mail and telecommunications
15 Comprehensive Intelligence Analysis Division Responsible for the analysis and interpretation of intelligence materials
16 Imaging Intelligence Division Responsible for collecting and interpreting images of political, economic, and military targets in various countries through both traditional practices and through incorporation of satellite imagery technologies
17 Enterprises Division Responsible for the operation and management of MSS owned front companies, enterprises, and other institutions

Additionally, In 2009, the MSS was reported by a former official to have a Counterterrorism Bureau.[69]

The provincial offices of the Ministry of State Security and Ministry of Public Security located in Hubei Province (Wuhan)
The provincial offices of the Ministry of State Security and Ministry of Public Security located in Hubei Province (Wuhan)

Other managerial offices have been said to include:[69]

In December 2016, the MSS structure was split into a National Counterintelligence Agency and a National Intelligence Agency, it is unclear from public information what change this reorganization had on MSS Bureaus and Divisions.[71]

The China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR) is a large civilian think tank for international issues. Located in Beijing, the institute is affiliated with the MSS, and overseen by the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party.[72][73] CICIR has been identified by Stratfor as belonging to the No. 8 Bureau of the MSS, and as providing intelligence reports to the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party.[74] The organization itself does not speak much about its relationship with the Chinese government, however, and Chinese media reports rarely acknowledge the institution's ties with the regime.[75]

Many MSS personnel are trained at the University of International Relations in Haidian, due north of MSS housing and offices in Xiyuan.[76][77]

Popular culture and literature

An agent of the MSS, Zheng Lu Peng, is the main antagonist of the espionage hero Cono 7Q in the spy novel Performance Anomalies,[78] by Victor Robert Lee.[79] Zheng, who has engineered Beijing's takeover of Kazakhstan, comes from a family that was tormented during the Cultural Revolution, leading to his own traumatized personality.[78]

In the James Bond movie Tomorrow Never Dies (1997), Wai Lin, portrayed by Michelle Yeoh, is an MSS agent working together with Bond to stop a crisis that could lead the British and Chinese into war.[80]

In the British science fiction film The Machine (2013), an MSS agent is a major antagonist. In season three of The Last Ship (2014), MSS agents are the major antagonists of the crew of the USS Nathan James.[81]

In the television series Mr. Robot (2015), a fictional Minister of State Security is portrayed by BD Wong.[82]

See also


  1. ^ "Is Trump's 'Art of the Deal' any match for Xi Jinping's long game?". 2019-05-09. Archived from the original on 2019-05-09. Retrieved 2019-05-09.
  2. ^ a b c d Mattis, Peter; Brazil, Matthew (2019-11-15). Chinese Communist Espionage: An Intelligence Primer. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-68247-304-7. OCLC 1117319580.
  3. ^ Eftimiades, Nicholas (2017-07-28). Chinese Intelligence Operations: Espionage Damage Assessment Branch, US Defence Intelligence Agency. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-24017-2. OCLC 1118472067. Archived from the original on 2020-08-23. Retrieved 2020-05-10.
  4. ^ Mattis, Peter (9 July 2017). "Everything We Know about China's Secretive State Security Bureau". The National Interest. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Faligot, Roger (June 2019). Chinese Spies: From Chairman Mao to Xi Jinping. Oxford University Press. pp. 117–118. ISBN 978-1-78738-096-7. OCLC 1104999295. Archived from the original on 2020-08-23. Retrieved 2020-05-10.
  6. ^ a b Eftimiades, Nicholas (January 1993). "China's ministry of state security: Coming of age in the international arena". Intelligence and National Security. 8 (1): 23–43. doi:10.1080/02684529308432189. ISSN 0268-4527. Archived from the original on 2020-09-24. Retrieved 2020-08-29.
  7. ^ Smith, I. C.; West, Nigel (2012-05-04). Historical Dictionary of Chinese Intelligence. Scarecrow Press. pp. 181–186. ISBN 978-0-8108-7370-4. OCLC 1066049358. Archived from the original on 2020-08-23. Retrieved 2020-05-10.
  8. ^ "Ministry of State Security [MSS] Guojia Anquan Bu [Guoanbu] - Chinese Intelligence Agencies". Archived from the original on 2022-02-04. Retrieved 2022-07-24.
  9. ^ "Criminal Procedure Law of The People's Republic of China". Archived from the original on 2016-06-04. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  10. ^ "China passes tough new intelligence law". Reuters. Reuters. 2017-06-28. Archived from the original on 2017-07-08. Retrieved 2017-07-11.
  11. ^ See:
  12. ^ "2017 03 29 Claiborne Complaint and Redacted Affidavit". U.S. Department of Justice. p. 4 (PDF p. 5/59). Archived from the original on 2019-06-16. Retrieved 2019-02-03.
  13. ^ Hui, Echo; Welch, Dylan (22 March 2020). "A spy and a democracy pedlar: The complicated truths in the life of Australian citizen Yang Hengjun". ABC Australia. Archived from the original on 2020-10-10. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  14. ^ MSS goes with "People's Leader 人民领袖"; Dual circulation; US South China Sanctions; Missile tests; TikTok Archived 2020-11-17 at the Wayback Machine, Bill Bishop,, August 26, 2020
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Barnouin, Barbara; Yu, Changgen (2006). Zhou Enlai: A Political Life. Chinese University Press. ISBN 978-962-996-244-9. Archived from the original on 2022-07-11. Retrieved 2022-07-22.
  16. ^ a b Bennett, Richard M. (2012). Espionage: Spies and Secrets. ISBN 978-1-4481-3214-0. OCLC 1004979545.
  17. ^ Doval, Ajit (July 2013). "Chinese Intelligence: From a Party Outfit to Cyber Warriors" (PDF). Vivekananda International Foundation: 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-07-14. Retrieved 2022-07-22. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. ^ Locard, Henri, State Violence in Democratic Kampuchea (1975-1979) and Retribution (1979-2004) Archived 2021-10-31 at the Wayback Machine, European Review of History, Vol. 12, No. 1, March 2005, pp.121–143.
  19. ^ A History of Democratic Kampuchea (1975–1979). Documentation Center of Cambodia. 2007. p. 74. ISBN 978-99950-60-04-6. Archived from the original on 2019-12-12. Retrieved 2022-07-22.
  20. ^ "A Terrible Conflict – The Cambodian-Vietnamese War". War History Online. 4 November 2016. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  21. ^ Thu-Huong, pp. 139–140
  22. ^ Mei p. 78
  23. ^ Chase, Michael S.; Mulvenon, James C. (November 2002). "The Decommercialization of China's Ministry of State Security". International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence. 15 (4): 481–495. doi:10.1080/08850600290101730. ISSN 0885-0607. S2CID 154006072.
  24. ^ Nagai, Oki (December 27, 2016). "China's Xi eyes wide-ranging intelligence reform". The Nikkei. Archived from the original on August 18, 2020. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  25. ^ Senior anti-corruption official to lead China's main spy organization Archived 2020-06-21 at the Wayback Machine, Joseph Fitsanakis,, November 8, 2016
  26. ^ Top graft-buster's ally appointed China's new spy chief Archived 2017-11-16 at the Wayback Machine, Nectar Gan, South China Morning Post, November 7, 2016
  27. ^ Mozur, Paul; Buckley, Chris (2021-08-26). "Spies for Hire: China's New Breed of Hackers Blends Espionage and Entrepreneurship". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2021-08-27. Retrieved 2021-08-27.
  28. ^ Volz, Dustin (2022-03-08). "U.S. State Governments Hit in Chinese Hacking Spree". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 2022-03-10. Retrieved 2022-03-10.
  29. ^ "Oh no, Xi didn't! Chinese spymaster cuffed in Belgium, yoinked to US on aerospace snoop rap". The Register. Archived from the original on 2018-10-11. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  30. ^ "WANTED BY THE FBI APT 40 CYBER ESPIONAGE ACTIVITIES". 2021-07-19. Archived from the original on 2021-07-19. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  31. ^ "Indictment". 2021-07-19. Archived from the original on 2021-07-19. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
  32. ^ Gertz, Bill, Chinese Spy Who Defected Tells All Archived 2011-01-21 at the Wayback Machine , Washington Times, March 19, 2009, p. 1.
  33. ^ Gertz, Bill, Exclusive: Arrested spy compromised China's U.S. espionage network: sources Archived 2017-07-02 at the Wayback Machine , June 15, 2012
  34. ^ Mattis, Peter, This Is How Chinese Spying Inside the U.S. Government Really Works Archived 2017-07-03 at the Wayback Machine , June 11, 2017
  35. ^ "Feinstein had a Chinese spy connection she didn't know about — her driver -". 2018-08-01. Archived from the original on 2018-12-05. Retrieved 2018-12-13.
  36. ^ Hvistendahl, Mara (25 February 2020). "The Friendly Mr. Wu". The Economist. Archived from the original on 1 July 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  37. ^ Ministry of State Security MSS (Guojia Anquan Bu Guoanbu) Archived 2017-07-17 at the Wayback Machine , July 28, 2011
  38. ^ Gertz, Bill (11 October 2011). "Chinese telecom firm tied to spy ministry". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 2020-01-10.
  39. ^ Fuhrman, Peter (2016-01-29). "Government cyber-surveillance is the norm in China — and it's popular". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 2019-11-06. Retrieved 2020-01-10.
  40. ^ Balding, Christopher (2019). "Huawei Technologies' Links to Chinese State Security Services". SSRN Working Paper Series. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3415726. ISSN 1556-5068. S2CID 200282115. SSRN 3415726.
  41. ^ Borger, Julian (2017-10-23). "Trump sought dissident's expulsion after hand-delivered letter from China – report". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 2019-10-15. Retrieved 2020-08-02.
  42. ^ "Hundreds of Russian and Chinese spies in Brussels – report". Deutsche Welle. 9 February 2019. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  43. ^ "Journalist spying case: Delhi Police makes 2 more arrests, including Chinese woman". Hindustan Times. 19 September 2020. Archived from the original on 21 July 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  44. ^ "Apologise, Afghanistan tells China after busting its espionage cell in Kabul". The Hindustan Times. 25 December 2020. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  45. ^ "10 Chinese spies caught in Kabul get a quiet pardon, fly home in chartered aircraft". The Hindustan Times. 4 January 2021. Archived from the original on 15 July 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  46. ^ Fisher, Lucy (2021-02-04). "Exclusive: Three Chinese spies posing as journalists expelled from the UK". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved 2021-02-07.
  47. ^ "Chinese blogger charged with 'defaming martyrs' after border-clash posts". Economic Times. 3 March 2021.[permanent dead link]
  48. ^ "China detains three bloggers for 'insulting' PLA soldiers who died in Galwan Valley clash". The Hindu. 21 February 2021. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  49. ^ "China announces measures to prevent foreign spying in companies". The Straits Times. 27 April 2021. Archived from the original on 27 April 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  50. ^ Griffiths, James (27 April 2021). "China targets foreign spies and 'hostile forces' with new anti-espionage rules". CNN. Archived from the original on 10 May 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  51. ^ Spring, Tom, APT3 LINKED TO CHINESE MINISTRY OF STATE SECURITY Archived 2017-06-15 at the Wayback Machine , May 17, 2017
  52. ^ Cimpanu, Catalin (December 20, 2018). "US charges two Chinese nationals for hacking cloud providers, NASA, the US Navy". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 2021-03-08. Retrieved 2021-03-09.
  53. ^ Bing, Christopher; Taylor, Marisa (2020-07-31). "Exclusive: China-backed hackers 'targeted COVID-19 vaccine firm Moderna'". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2020-08-01. Retrieved 2020-08-02.
  54. ^ "People around the globe are divided in their opinions of China". U.S. Department of Justice. 21 July 2020. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 2020-08-06.
  55. ^ Cimpanu, Catalin (September 14, 2020). "CISA: Chinese state hackers are exploiting F5, Citrix, Pulse Secure, and Exchange bugs". ZDNet. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  56. ^ "New York City police officer spied on fellow Tibetans for China, prosecutors charge". CNBC. 22 September 2020. Archived from the original on 2020-09-22. The police officer, Baimadajie Angwang, who was born in the autonomous region of Tibet in China, allegedly repeatedly reported to officials at the Chinese Consulate in New York on the activities of other ethnic Tibetans in the New York area.
  57. ^ Sonia Moghe. "NYPD officer accused of acting as an illegal agent of the Chinese government". CNN. Archived from the original on 2020-09-22. Retrieved 2021-07-20. The officer, Baimadajie Angwang, 33, was arrested Monday, according to the US Attorney's office for the Eastern District of New York. Federal prosecutors in Brooklyn charged him with acting as a foreign agent without notifying American authorities, wire fraud and making false statements, according to a complaint. They also charged him with obstruction of an official proceeding -- prosecutors claim he lied on a national security clearance form that granted him a "secret" security clearance.
  58. ^ Rotella, Sebastian. "DOJ Charges Defendants With Harassing and Spying On Chinese Americans for Beijing". ProPublica. Archived from the original on 2022-03-22. Retrieved 2022-03-19.
  59. ^ O’Brien, Rebecca Davis (2022-03-16). "Chinese Officer Charged With Harassing N.Y. Congressional Candidate". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2022-03-23. Retrieved 2022-03-19.
  60. ^ Ho, Sally (2022-03-17). "US Olympian Alysa Liu, father targeted in Chinese spy case". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2022-03-22. Retrieved 2022-03-19.
  61. ^ "U.S. charges one American, four Chinese officials with spying". Reuters. 2022-05-19. Archived from the original on 2022-05-19. Retrieved 2022-05-19.
  62. ^ Joske, Alex (Jun 9, 2020). "The party speaks for you". Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  63. ^ Brady, Anne-Marie (September 18, 2017). "Magic Weapons: China's political influence activities under Xi Jinping". Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Archived from the original on 2019-08-25. Retrieved 2021-08-03.
  64. ^ Ministry of State Security search Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine , China Vitae. Accessed 14 March 2010.
  65. ^ 揭秘中共特务政治:国安〝里外通吃〞 特工超十万 Archived 2017-07-03 at the Wayback Machine , June 1, 2015.
  66. ^ Wise, David (2011-06-14). Tiger Trap: America's Secret Spy War with China. HMH. pp. 7–9. ISBN 978-0-547-55487-7. OCLC 759835935.
  67. ^ "Ministry of State Security Headquarters Xiyuan [Western Garden]". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 2021-06-17. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  68. ^ MSS Associated Weibo Account, "国家安全部内设11个局", November 21, 2016
  69. ^ a b c 王海天, 红墙背后的黑手 解密中共国安部(图) Archived 2017-08-26 at the Wayback Machine , Jan 31, 2012.
  70. ^ Blanchard, Ben (December 30, 2016). Macfie, Nick (ed.). "China to Prosecute Former Senior Spy Catcher for Graft". Reuters. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. A source with ties to the leadership has previously told Reuters that Ma was director of the ministry's "No.8 bureau", which is responsible for counter-espionage activities on foreigners, mainly diplomats, businessmen and reporters.
  71. ^ "中国国安部或将拆分 各设反间谍和情报单位". Radio Free Asia (in Chinese (China)). Archived from the original on 2022-07-11. Retrieved 2022-07-24.
  72. ^ Shambaugh, David (September 2002). "China's International Relations Think Tanks: Evolving Structure and Process". The China Quarterly. 171 (171): 575–596. doi:10.1017/S0009443902000360. ISSN 0305-7410. JSTOR 4618770. S2CID 154801635.
  73. ^ Austin, Greg (July 1997). "The Role of the Chinese Military in National Security Policymaking. Michael D. Swaine". The China Journal. 38: 212–215. doi:10.2307/2950360. ISSN 1324-9347. JSTOR 2950360.
  74. ^ Stratfor Global Intelligence Ministry of State Security organization chart[permanent dead link]
  75. ^ Open Source Center, "Profile of MSS-Affiliated PRC Foreign Policy Think Tank CICIR" Archived 2016-11-21 at the Wayback Machine , 25 August 2011
  76. ^ Mattis, Peter. "Assessing the Foreign Policy Influence of the Ministry of State Security". Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 2022-07-11. Retrieved 2022-07-24.
  77. ^ "Espionage with Chinese Characteristics". Stratfor. Retrieved 2022-07-24.
  78. ^ a b Lee, Victor Robert (2012-12-20). Performance Anomalies. USA: Perimeter Six. ISBN 9781938409226.
  79. ^ Pach, James. "Interview: Victor Robert Lee". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 2017-08-04. Retrieved 2017-05-22.
  80. ^ Turan, Kenneth (19 December 1997). "James Bond Is Back in Franchise That Never Dies". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 11 December 2019. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  81. ^ Katleman, Michael (2016-06-19), Rising Sun, Eric Dane, Adam Baldwin, Bridget Regan, archived from the original on 2018-06-16, retrieved 2018-02-20
  82. ^ Wigler, Josh (20 October 2019). "'Mr. Robot' Final Season: Sam Esmail Reveals Brutal Villain's Heartbreaking Backstory". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 2019-12-10.

Further reading