State Committee for National Security
Tajik: Кумитаи давлатии амнияти миллӣ
Special service overview
Formed27 December 1991
Preceding agencies
JurisdictionTajikistan
HeadquartersDushanbe, Tajikistan
EmployeesClassified
Annual budgetClassified
Special service executive

The State Committee for National Security (SCNS; Tajik: Кумитаи давлатии амнияти миллӣ; Russian: Государственный комитет национальной безопасности) is the principal national security and intelligence agency of Tajikistan. Its main responsibilities include internal and border security, counter-intelligence, counter-terrorism, counter-narcotics, fighting organized crime, and surveillance. The chairman of the committee and all of his deputies are appointed by and answerable to the president of Tajikistan. Colonel General Saimumin Yatimov has served as the SCNS chairman since September 2, 2010.

The SCNS is governed by the Law About National Security Bodies of the Republic of Tajikistan. Its activity is formally overseen by the Office of the Prosecutor General, although in practice the external oversight of the SCNS is virtually non-existent.

History

The SCNS is the Tajik successor organization to the Committee for State Security (KGB) of the Soviet Union and its regional affiliate in the Tajik SSR. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the State Security Committee of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic was renamed the National Security Committee (Tajik: Кумитаи амнияти миллӣ; Russian: Комитет национальной безопасности) of the Republic of Tajikistan on December 28, 1991.[1] In 1995, the State Security Committee was reorganized and renamed into the Ministry of Security (Tajik: Вазорати амният; Russian: Министерство безопасности). On November 30, 2006, the Ministry of Security was disbanded, and the newly created State Committee for National Security took over its responsibilities. The new agency also took responsibility for border security that had previously fallen under the mandate of the State Committee for Border Protection.[2]

Colonel General Khayriddin Abdurakhimov served as Tajikistan's Minister of Security from March 1999 to November 2006. When the SCNS was created, Abdurakhimov was appointed its chairperson and led the committee until September 2010.[3] Following a daring escape of 25 inmates from the SCNS high-security detention center in Dushanbe on August 23, 2010, Abdurakhimov and his four deputies filed resignations letters. On September 2, 2010, president Emomali Rahmon signed the resignation letters, appointing Lieutenant General Saymumin Yatimov, one of Abdurakhimov's deputies, as the chairperson of the SCNS.[4]

Organization

The SCNS is headquartered at the intersection of Jalol Ikrami Street and Sheroz Street in the center of Dushanbe. Below the nationwide level, the SCNS has regional offices in all districts and regions of Tajikistan. It also has administrations in the armed forces and other military institutions, Ministry of Internal Affairs, national railway company, and national air carrier.[5]

There is no open information about the current organizational structure of the SCNS due to the atmosphere of secrecy shrouding the organization. However, the SCNS has most likely retained a structure similar to the Soviet Union's Committee for State Security. The SCNS has separate departments (Russian: управление) responsible for foreign espionage, counter-intelligence, political surveillance in the armed forces, counter-terrorism and counter-extremism, border control, economic security, protection of the top political officials, censorship and surveillance, economic security, personnel, and investigation.

Bodies under its jurisdiction

The committee operates the Higher School of the State Committee for National Security in Dushanbe which trains officers for the agency. It has command over the Tajik Alpha Group unit.

List of chairmen

Chairmen of the KGB of the Tajik SSR

Ministers of National Security/Chairmen of the SCNS

Criticism

The SCNS is often accused of human rights violations and disregard for the due process of law. Susan Corke, director of Eurasia Programs at Freedom House, has described the SCNS as "a notoriously corrupt and repressive institution, allegedly involved in drug smuggling and openly engaged in repression of legitimate political dissent".[7] The organization is frequently accused of using torture, deaths in custody, and occasional extrajudicial killings.[8][9]

Overall, Tajikistan's law enforcement agencies, and the SCNS in particular, are notorious for ignoring the due process of law, using violence as an interrogation technique, extrajudicial killings, searches without warrants, disappearances, the planting of incriminating evidence, and arresting individuals for conduct that was not illegal.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ "В Москве отметили 90-летный юбилей КГБ Таджикистана". TojNews. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  2. ^ "УКАЗ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА РЕСПУБЛИКИ ТАДЖИКИСТАН о совершенствовании структуры центральных органов исполнительной власти Республики Таджикистан". Asia-Plus. Asia-Plus News Agency. 1 December 2006. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  3. ^ "Кто есть кто: АБДУРАХИМОВ Хайриддин Саидович". Asia-Plus. Asia-Plus News Agency. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  4. ^ "Перестановка в ГКНБ: Ятимов вместо Абдурахимова". Asia-Plus. Asia-Plus News Agency. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  5. ^ "ЗАКОН РЕСПУБЛИКИ ТАДЖИКИСТАН от 20 марта 2008 года №362 Об органах национальной безопасности Республики Таджикистан". Законодательство стран СНГ. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  6. ^ "КГБ Таджикской ССР". shieldandsword.mozohin.ru. Retrieved 2019-06-03.
  7. ^ Kucera, Joshua (28 June 2013). "The Tajiks Who Fight Their Own Government". The Atlantic. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  8. ^ "Tajikistan: Severe Crackdown on Political Opposition". Human Rights Watch. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  9. ^ "Tajikistan: Torture and Other Ill-Treatment of People Deprived of Their Liberty and Deaths in Custody" (PDF). Amnesty International. 21 June 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  10. ^ Roudik, Peter (2004). "Tajikistan". In Sullivan, Larry E.; et al. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc. pp. 1332. ISBN 9780761926498.