|National Supervisory Commission|
|Governing body||National People's Congress|
|Elected officer responsible|
|National Supervisory Commission of the People's Republic of China|
The National Supervisory Commission of the People's Republic of China is the highest supervisory and anti-corruption authority of the People's Republic of China. Formed in 2018 by an amendment to the Constitution, the Commission holds the same constitutional status as that of the State Council, of the Supreme People's Court, and of the Supreme People's Procuratorate.
According to the 2018 Constitution, the Director of the National Supervisory Commission is elected by the National People's Congress and shall not serve more than two consecutive terms. The Director reports to the National People's Congress and the National People's Congress Standing Committee. The Deputy Directors and Members of the Commission are nominated by the Director and are appointed by the National People's Congress Standing Committee.
The National Supervisory Commission is co-located with the Chinese Communist Party's Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.
See also: Control Yuan
The National Supervisory Commission was formed as part of a series of reforms to China's anti-corruption system during the first term of Xi Jinping as General Secretary of the Communist Party. The NSC roots originated from the imperial Chinese supervision system which originated in the Qin and Han dynasties. The system has been functioning for more than two thousand years. The names and structures of the supervisory offices may vary from one dynasty to another. However, they share the same values. For centuries, these offices aimed to uphold justice, enforce discipline and supervise government ethics. To achieve the goals, government officials periodically investigated, conducted visits and reported cases of impeachment to emperors.
After the 1911 Revolution, the founder of the Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen advocated a five-power constitution to spearhead the Chinese revolution. Drawing from the Western separation of powers (three branches: a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary), he added another two traditional Chinese government powers, examination and supervision (control), to propose the Five-Power Constitution. The Constitution of the Republic of China was promulgated in 1947 which made the Control Yuan a parliamentary chamber until the reforms of 1991 which it became the sole auditory body in Taiwan.
While the Communist Party had institutionalized internal mechanisms for combating corruption in some form since its founding and the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, it was apparent that it was largely ineffective at curbing systemic corruption, and otherwise had no legal basis, as the main organ tasked with combating corruption and malfeasance, the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, was a party organ, not a state one.
Prior to Xi's anti-corruption campaign, offenses were often prosecuted at the direction of local party authorities through their control of local Commissions for Discipline Inspection (CDIs) and procuratorial organs. While these authorities theoretically reported to their superior commissions at the next higher level of administration (i.e. the municipal organ would report to the provincial one, the provincial organ would report into the CCDI), in addition to answering to the local party leadership, in reality the local CDIs only answered to local party leaders, as they controlled the budgets, personnel, and resources of these organizations. This often led to arbitrary exercise of power and political selectiveness in the targets of corruption efforts.
In late 2016, Supervisory Commissions (SCs) began pilot initiatives in Shanxi, Beijing and Zhejiang. Provincial level chiefs of Discipline Inspection began serving concurrently as heads of the local Supervisory Commissions.
The formation of the National Supervisory Commission centralized control of anti-corruption resources to the central authorities and was aimed at curbing local interference in anti-corruption efforts. The former National Anti-Corruption Bureau, the Office Against Dereliction of Duty, and the anti-corruption department of the Procuratorate were all folded into a single agency.
In February 2018, an amendment to the constitution was proposed to make national and local supervision commissions official state organs. Local commissions will be appointed by local peoples' congresses at county and higher level and will be accountable to them and to the supervision commission at the higher level.
|No.||Name||Chinese name||Took office||Left office|
|1||Yang Xiaodu||杨晓渡||18 March 2018||11 March 2023|
|2||Liu Jinguo||刘金国||11 March 2023|
((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)