National Development and Reform Commission of the People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国国家发展和改革委员会
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
Guójiā Fāzhǎn hé Gǎigé Wěiyuánhuì
Agency overview
FormedNovember 1952; 71 years ago (1952-11)
Preceding agencies
  • State Planning Commission (1952–1998)
  • State Development Planning Commission (1998–2003)
TypeConstituent Department of the State Council (cabinet-level)
JurisdictionGovernment of China
Headquarters38 Yuetan South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing
Minister responsible
Parent agencyState Council
Child agency
Websiteen.ndrc.gov.cn Edit this at Wikidata
National Development and Reform Commission
Simplified Chinese国家发展和改革委员会
Traditional Chinese國家發展和改革委員會
Literal meaningState Development and Reform Commission
Commonly abbreviated as
Simplified Chinese发改委
Traditional Chinese發改委
Literal meaningDevelop-Reform-Commission

The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) is the third-ranked executive department of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, which functions as a macroeconomic management agency. Established as the State Planning Commission, the NDRC has broad administrative and planning control over the economy of mainland China, and has a reputation of being the "mini-state council".[1]

History

The body was first established in November 1952 as the State Planning Commission of the Central People's Government. In 1954, it was transformed to the State Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China. The NDRC's functions are to study and formulate policies for economic and social development, maintain the balance of economic development, and to guide restructuring of the economic system of mainland China.[2]

In March 1998, the commission was renamed into the State Development Planning Commission. It was renamed again in March 2003 to its current name, the National Development and Reform Commission.[citation needed]

In 2008, the NDRC issued a set of policies designed to further development the economies of central regions of China, consistent with the Hu-Wen administration's efforts to balance regional development.[3]: 217 

In 2017, the NDRC announced the creation of China's national carbon emissions trading system.[4]: 76 

Prior to 2018, it was also responsible for enforcing China's antitrust law, but this function has been transferred to the State Administration for Market Regulation. In February 2015, the NDRC completed an investigation into Qualcomm, finding that violated the Anti-Monopoly Law by imposing unreasonable requirements for patent licensing.[5] Qualcomm was fined the equivalent of US$975 million.[5]

Also in 2018, the NDRC's climate policymaking functions were transferred to the newly created Ministry of Ecology and Environment.[6]: 95 

On 19 December 2020, the NDRC published rules for reviewing foreign investment on national security grounds.[7][8] The rules allow government agencies "to preview, deny and punish foreign investment activities in areas that are deemed as important to national security."[8] In October 2021, the NDRC published rules restricting private capital in "news-gathering, editing, broadcasting, and distribution."[9]

On 4 September 2023, the NDRC announced it established the Private Economy Development Bureau in order monitor the country's private economy, as well as establish regular communication with private businesses.[10]

Functions

The NDRC is China's main macroeconomic control institution,[11]: 102  as well as the top organization in the State Council in matters related to economic policymaking. It oversees the planning system in China, including producing the five-year plans of China.[12] The NDRC has responsibilities over economic targets, price policies, market policies, supply-side structural reform, overseas investment, domestic investment policy, regional development strategies, industrial development strategies, major infrastructure projects, consumption policy, innovation-driven development, scientific and technological infrastructure, high-tech industries, social development, basic public services and social development.[12] NDRC's responsibility for large infrastructure is intended to prevent the economy from becoming too hot or cold, as well as to address China's overcapacity in production for sectors like aluminum, iron, steel, and energy.[11]: 106 

The NDRC works with other departments to formulate policies, including drafting laws and regulations.[13]: 39  It monitors Chinese businesses' outbound foreign direct investment to ensure they do not invest in blacklisted projects.[14]: 80  The NDRC must approve sensitive projects, including projects in countries that do not recognize the People's Republic of China, projects in countries experiencing civil war or other major domestic difficulties, or projects involving sensitive subject matter like cross-border water issues or weapons production.[14]: 80 

The NDRC works with the National Health Commission to research demographic trends and formulate policies on population.[12]

It promotes sustainable development strategies.[13]: 39  The NDRC is involved in the foreign aid process through coordinating aid to other countries for climate cooperation.[14]: 73 

The NDRC is also one of the main government agencies responsible for data collection for the Chinese Social Credit System.[15]

The NDRC's Social Development Division has a planning role in cultural industries including sports, tourism, and mass media.[16]: 100 

The NDRC manages the General Offices several leading groups, including the National Defense Mobilization Commission, the State Council Leading Group for Western Development, and the State Council Leading Group for the Revitalization of Old Industrial Bases in Northeast China; all of these are led by the premier.[12] It also hosts the General Offices of the State Council Leading Group for Promoting the Belt and Road Initiative, the Leading Group for Coordinated Development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, the Leading Group for Promoting the Development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, the Leading Group for Promoting the Development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, and the Leading Group for Promoting Comprehensive Deepening of Reform and Opening in Hainan; these are led by the first-ranking vice premier, with the NDRC chairman usually being the Office director.[12]

List of ministers

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Officially, the candidate for the chairperson of the NDRC is nominated by the premier of the State Council, who is then approved by the National People's Congress or its Standing Committee and appointed by the president.[17] The commission has been headed by Zheng Shanjie since March 2023.

No. Name Office Took office Left office Premier
1 Gao Gang Chairman of the
Central People's Government State Planning Commission
November 1952 August 1954 Independent of the Premier Zhou Enlai
2 Li Fuchun Minister in charge of the
State Planning Commission
September 1954 January 1975 Zhou Enlai
3 Yu Qiuli January 1975 August 1980 Zhou Enlai
Hua Guofeng
4 Yao Yilin August 1980 June 1983 Zhao Ziyang
5 Song Ping June 1983 June 1987
6 Yao Yilin June 1987 December 1989 Zhao Ziyang
Li Peng
7 Zou Jiahua December 1989 March 1993 Li Peng
8 Chen Jinhua March 1993 March 1998
9 Zeng Peiyan Minister in charge of the
State Development Planning Commission
March 1998 March 2003 Zhu Rongji
10 Ma Kai Minister in charge of the
National Development and Reform Commission
March 2003 March 2008 Wen Jiabao
11 Zhang Ping March 2008 16 March 2013
12 Xu Shaoshi 16 March 2013 24 February 2017 Li Keqiang
13 He Lifeng 24 February 2017 12 March 2023
14 Zheng Shanjie 12 March 2023 Incumbent Li Qiang

Current leadership

Minister in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission
  1. Zheng Shanjie
Vice-ministers
  1. Mu Hong - Minister level, Deputy General Office chief of the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms
  2. Zhang Yong - Minister level
  3. Ning Jizhe - Minister level
  4. Lian Weiliang (连维良)
  5. Lin Nianxiu (林念修)
  6. Hu Zucai (胡祖才)
  7. Luo Wen (罗文)[2]

Subordinates

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Sub-ministry-level national administrations administered by the NDRC

See also

References

  1. ^ Woodall, Brian (May 29, 2014). "The Development of China's Developmental State: Environmental Challenges and Stages of Growth". China Research Center. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  2. ^ a b "中华人民共和国国家发展和改革委员会".
  3. ^ Ang, Yuen Yuen (2016). How China Escaped the Poverty Trap. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-1-5017-0020-0. JSTOR 10.7591/j.ctt1zgwm1j.
  4. ^ Ding, Iza (2020). "Pollution Emissions Trading in China". In Esarey, Ashley; Haddad, Mary Alice; Lewis, Joanna I.; Harrell, Stevan (eds.). Greening East Asia: The Rise of the Eco-Developmental State. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-74791-0. JSTOR j.ctv19rs1b2.
  5. ^ a b Cheng, Wenting (2023). China in Global Governance of Intellectual Property: Implications for Global Distributive Justice. Palgrave Socio-Legal Studies series. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 124. ISBN 978-3-031-24369-1.
  6. ^ Lewis, Joanna I. (2023). Cooperating for the Climate: Learning from International Partnerships in China's Clean Energy Sector. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-54482-5.
  7. ^ "China issues national security rules on foreign investment". Reuters. December 19, 2020.
  8. ^ a b "China Defends National Security Rules for Foreign Investment". Bloomberg News. December 19, 2020.
  9. ^ Hui, Mary (October 11, 2021). "China wants an even more dominant state monopoly on the media". Quartz. Retrieved October 11, 2021.
  10. ^ Huang, Raffaele (September 4, 2023). "China Creates Government Body to Support Private Sector". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 5, 2023.
  11. ^ a b Li, David Daokui (2024). China's World View: Demystifying China to Prevent Global Conflict. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393292398.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Decoding Chinese Politics". Asia Society. Retrieved October 2, 2023.
  13. ^ a b Zhang, Angela Huyue (2024). High Wire: How China Regulates Big Tech and Governs Its Economy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780197682258.
  14. ^ a b c Chen, Muyang (2024). The Latecomer's Rise: Policy Banks and the Globalization of China's Development Finance. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. ISBN 9781501775857. JSTOR 10.7591/jj.6230186.
  15. ^ Liang & al. (2018). "Constructing a Data-Driven Society: China's Social Credit System as a State Surveillance Infrastructure". Policy & Internet. 10 (4): 415–453. doi:10.1002/poi3.183. S2CID 149771597.
  16. ^ Lin, Chunfeng (2023). Red Tourism in China: Commodification of Propaganda. Routledge. ISBN 9781032139609.
  17. ^ "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". National People's Congress. Retrieved August 8, 2022.