|Allegiance||Communist Party of China|
Military reserve force
|Role||Preparations against war;|
Assistance in maintaining public order
(under the command of military organs which are all under the Central Military Commission)
|Part of||Armed forces of the People's Republic of China|
|March||"March of the Militia"|
|Engagements||Chinese Civil War|
Sino-Soviet border conflict (1969)
Tiananmen Incident (1976)
Sino-Vietnamese War (1979)
Sino-Vietnamese conflicts (1979–1991)
South China Sea disputes
|Chairman of the Central Military Commission||Xi Jinping|
(General Secretary & President)
|Director of the National Defense Mobilization Commission||Li Keqiang|
(Premier of the State Council)
|Minister of National Defence||Gen. Wei Fenghe|
|Director of the CMC National Defense Mobilization Department||Lt. Gen. Sheng Bin|
|Old version of Cap badge and Emblem|
|Newer version of Badges, Armband and Emblem|
The Militia (Chinese: 民兵; pinyin: Mínbīng) or Militia of China (Chinese: 中国民兵; pinyin: Zhōngguó Mínbīng) is the militia part of the armed forces of China, other two parts being the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and the People's Armed Police (PAP). The Militia is under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and serves as an auxiliary and reserve force for the PLA. It is one of the largest militias in the world.
See also: History of the Communist Party of China
The role of the militia has varied over the years. During the 1940s the militia served as a support force for PLA. After 1949 the party consolidated control over the country and used the militia to maintain Law and order in the country and for defense of the borders and coast. In the mid-1950s, Peng Dehuai attempted to build the militia as a reserve force. However, his efforts were thwarted, when the party expanded the militia, assigning it duties as an internal security force during the Great Leap Forward. Lin Biao reduced the size of the militia and reemphasized military training in the early 1960s. The militia was fragmented during the early years of the Cultural Revolution, but in the 1970s it was rebuilt to support the PLA. The Gang of Four also attempted to build up the urban militia as an alternative to the PLA, but the urban militia failed to support the Gang of Four, when Hua Guofeng and other moderate military leaders deposed them. The militia's logistical support of the PLA was essential during the Sino-Vietnamese War. In the 1980s, Chinese leaders improved the militia's capabilities by reducing its size and economic works.
According to Article 22 of the Law of the People's Republic of China on National Defence, the Militia, under the command of military organs, shoulders the tasks of preparations against war and defence operations, and assists in maintaining public order.
According to Article 36 of the Military Service Law of the People's Republic of China, the Militia's tasks are:
The militia is organized into regional militia corps in every theater command of the PLA, which in turn oversee militia divisions and subordinate formations, and is subdivided into specialty militia units. It is overseen by the National Defense Mobilization Commission, which can order the deployment of its personnel during peacetime and wartime contingencies as may be ordered by the President of the PRC, who, as General Secretary of the Party and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, is overall supreme commander of the armed services of the Republic.
Main article: People’s Armed Forces Maritime Militia
China Maritime Militia (CMM) is a subset of China's national militia. The CMM trains with and supports the People's Liberation Army Navy and the China Coast Guard in tasks including
In the South China Sea, the CMM plays a major role in controversial maritime activities to achieve China's political goals.
Maritime Militia funding and associated paramilitary training led to a reversal of the downward trend of the Chinese commercial fishing fleet. This Maritime Militia fueled expansion has led to an increase in illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing.