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Hong Kong Correctional Services
懲教署
HK Correctional Services Logo.svg
Agency overview
Formed31 December 1920; 101 years ago (1920-12-31)
Jurisdiction Hong Kong
Headquarters23rd, 24th and 27th Floors, Wanchai Tower, 12 Harbour Road, Wan Chai
Employees7,052 (2018)[1]
Minister responsible
Agency executives
  • WONG Kwok Hing, Commissioner
  • NG Chiu Kok, Deputy Commissioner
Websitewww.csd.gov.hk
Hong Kong Correctional Services
Traditional Chinese懲教署
Simplified Chinese惩教署

Hong Kong Correctional Services (also called Correctional Services Department (CSD)) is responsible for the management of prisoners and prisons in Hong Kong. The Commissioner of Correctional Services reports to the Secretary for Security.

Although the Chief Magistrate (now Commissioner of Police) was given control over prisons in 1841, the legislation to create the department did not come into being until 1853. CSD was part of the Hong Kong Police Force until 1879 when the role of Superintendent of Victoria Gaol was created. The department has been financially independent from the Hong Kong Police Force since December 1920, when the Superintendent of Victoria Gaol was re-titled as the Superintendent of Prisons.[2][3][4][5][6]

History

In February 2021, it was reported that the CSD had worked with the Security Bureau to reduce "collusion" between foreign governments and those in custody. The CSD began to ask those in custody to produce both their HKID and foreign passports, or else consulate staff would not be allowed to assist them. In addition, for those in custody who may have broken the national security law, they would be required to sign an oath to declare their nationalities. The Canadian government revealed that a prisoner with a Canadian passport was forced to choose a nationality on 18 January 2021.[7] A spokesperson for the United States said that there were now "deep concerns that this new Hong Kong policy will compel people to declare their citizenship under duress and without an opportunity to understand the full implications of the declaration."[7] In response, the CSD declined to comment.[7]

Also in February 2021, commissioner Woo Ying Ming claimed that some people were becoming prisoners for the glorification of being imprisoned for political reasons, and also said that district councillors would be restricted from visiting prisoners unless they give a "valid reason."[8]

In March 2021, Apple Daily reported that sources told the newspaper that the CSD's "secret unit" handled the detention of Andy Li, who was arrested for attempting to flee to Taiwan.[9]

Ranks

As with all of the Hong Kong Disciplined Services, British-pattern rank insignia continue to be utilised, with the only change being the replacement of the St. Edward's Crown by the Bauhinia flower crest in 1997.[10]

Equipment

Corrections guards presently wear green uniforms. The prison vehicles are blue and yellow and have the logo on them.[11]

Firearms

Facilities

CSD runs 28 facilities across Hong Kong ranging from maximum security prisons to rehabilitation centres.

Lantau
Name of Facility Location Years of Operation Facility Type Capacity Status/Remarks
Shek Pik Prison Shek Pik 1984–present Maximum security institution 426 active
Sha Tsui Correctional Institution Shek Pik 1972–present Minimum security institution 121 active
Tong Fuk Correctional Institution Ma Po Ping 1966–present Medium security institution 925 active
Lai Chi Rehabilitation Centre Shek Pik 2002–present Minimum security institution 90 active
New Territories
Name of Facility Location Years of Operation Facility Type Capacity Status/Remarks
Bauhinia House Tai Lam Chung 1984–present Half-way House 24 active; moved to current location in 2002
Lai King Correctional Institution Kwai Chung 2008–present Minimum security institution 200 active
Chi Lan Rehabilitation Centre Kwai Chung 2002–present Minimum security institution 40 active; relocated from Shek O Road to Kwai Chung in 2008
Pik Uk Correctional Institution Sai Kung 1975–present Maximum security institution 385 active
Pik Uk Prison Sai Kung 1975–present Minimum security prison 550 active
Siu Lam Psychiatric Centre Tai Lam Chung 1972–present Maximum security institution 261 active
Tai Lam Centre for Women Tai Lam Chung 1969–present Maximum security institution 391 active
Tai Lam Correctional Institution Tai Lam Chung 1980–present Minimum security institution 598 active
Wai Lan Rehabilitation Centre Tai Lam Chung 2002–present Minimum security institution 24 active
Lo Wu Correctional Institution Lo Wu 2010–present Medium security institution 1400 active
Kowloon
Name of Facility Location Years of Operation Facility Type Capacity Status/Remarks
Lai Chi Kok Reception Centre Lai Chi Kok 1977–present Maximum security institution 1484 active
Lai Hang Rehabilitation Centre Tai Wo Ping 2002–present Minimum security institution 70 active
Phoenix House Tai Wo Ping 1983–present Half-way house 30 active
Pelican House Tai Wo Ping 1995–present Half-way house 40 active; moved to present location in 2004
Hong Kong Island
Name of Facility Location Years of Operation Facility Type Capacity Status/Remarks
Cape Collinson Correctional Institution Cape Collinson 1958–present Minimum security institution 192 active
Pak Sha Wan Correctional Institution Stanley 1999–present Medium security institution 424 active, adult no smoking correctional facility
Tung Tau Correctional Institution Stanley 1982–present Minimum security institution 452 active, adult no smoking correctional facility
Stanley Prison Stanley 1937–present Maximum security institution 1511 active
Hei Ling Chau
Name of Facility Location Years of Operation Facility Type Capacity Status/Remarks
Lai Sun Correctional Institution Hei Ling Chau 1984–present Minimum security institution 202 active
Hei Ling Chau Correctional Institution Hei Ling Chau 1984–present Medium security institution 532 active
Hei Ling Chau Addiction Treatment Centre Hei Ling Chau 1975–present Drug Addiction Treatment Centre 672 active
Nei Kwu Correctional Institution Hei Ling Chau 2002–present Minimum security institution 236 active

Prisoner demographics

As of 2018 there was a daily average of 8,310 prisoners in the Hong Kong prison system. The prisons had an occupancy rate of 81.6 per cent, while training, detention, rehabilitation, and drug addiction treatment centres had an occupancy rate of 30.8 per cent.[1]

Reading materials

As of 2018 there were about 100,000 books in the prison libraries; the percentages by language were 83% Chinese, 10% English, and 7% not in Chinese nor English. Prison authorities stated that they did not wish to buy very many books in neither official language to ensure the security of the prisons; Legco member Shiu Ka-chun criticised this rationale.[12]

Crest

Badge of the Correctional Service Department before 1 July 1997.
Badge of the Correctional Service Department before 1 July 1997.

The current crest of the force was adopted in 1997 to replace most of the colonial symbols:[13]

Staff associations

CSD in popular media

References

Flag of the Correctional Service Department before 1 July 1997.
Flag of the Correctional Service Department before 1 July 1997.
  1. ^ a b "Head 30 — CORRECTIONAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT" (PDF). The 2019–20 Budget. Hong Kong Government. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-02-21. Retrieved 2020-02-21.
  2. ^ CHAU Hing-wah and SIU Lai-kuen (2011). "History of Hong Kong Correctional Services (1921-2011)". Hong Kong Correctional Services Department. Archived from the original on 2020-05-26. Retrieved 2020-05-21.
  3. ^ "Annual Review 2012" (PDF). Hong Kong Correctional Services Department. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-05-21.
  4. ^ "90 years ago, prisoners had better meals than the general populace". Apple Daily (Hong Kong). 27 Dec 2011. Archived from the original on 21 May 2020.
  5. ^ Kevin Sinclair and Lui Lai-kuen (March 1999). "Society's Guardians: A history of correctional services in Hong Kong 1841-1999" (PDF). Kevin Sinclair and Associates Limited. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-05-21.
  6. ^ "Early History". Hong Kong Correctional Services Department. Archived from the original on 2018-04-04.
  7. ^ a b c "West sounds alarm over consular access in HK - RTHK". news.rthk.hk. Retrieved 2021-02-04.
  8. ^ "Stop glorifying prisoners: CSD chief". The Standard. Archived from the original on 2021-01-31.
  9. ^ "Hong Kong activist Andy Li held at psychiatric hospital in secret after return from mainland | Apple Daily". Apple Daily 蘋果日報 (in Chinese (Hong Kong)). Archived from the original on 2021-03-29. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  10. ^ "International Encyclopaedia of Uniform Insignia, Hong Kong Correctional Services". Archived from the original on 2014-10-27. Retrieved 2014-10-27.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2021-06-03. Retrieved 2021-06-03.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ Lam, Jeffie (2018-06-24). "Prisoners in Hong Kong who read no Chinese or English have few books to choose from behind bars". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 2018-07-19. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  13. ^ "Correctional Services Department". Archived from the original on 2010-02-23. Retrieved 2010-10-20.

Media related to Hong Kong Correctional Services Department at Wikimedia Commons