Chinese城市群
Literal meaningCity Group
Hanyu PinyinChéngshì Qún
JyutpingSing4 Si5 Kwan4

In China, a megalopolis (Chinese: 城市群; pinyin: Chéngshì Qún)[1] is a designation by the government to promote the development of a group of cities through transportation and communication links.

Conceptual history

The Economist Intelligence Unit in 2012 identified 13 megalopolises: Chang-Zhu-Tan (Greater Changsha), Chengdu, Chongqing, Greater Beijing i.e. Jing-Jin-Ji, Greater Shanghai (incl. Suzhou), Greater Xi'an, Greater Zhengzhou, Greater Guangzhou, Hefei economic circle (incl. Lu'an, Huainan, Chaohu), Shandong Peninsula, Greater Shenyang, Shenzhen and Wuhan.[2]

As of 2018, there are nine officially approved megalopolises in China. In 2017, the National Development and Reform Commission stated that plans for six city clusters had been completed in 2016, five in 2017, with eight more forthcoming for a total of 19 city cluster plans by 2020.[needs update] The new city clusters identified in 2017 were Lanzhou-Xining, Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin, Guanzhong Plain, Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone, and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area.[3]

The Thirteenth Five-Year Plan (covering 2016-2020) highlighted nineteen city clusters to be developed and strengthened pursuant to a geographic layout referred to as two horizontals and three verticals (liang heng san zong).[4]: 206  The highlighted clusters included the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Yangtze River delta region, and the Greater Bay area.[4]: 206  Development of these clusters includes establishing regional coordination mechanisms, sharing development costs and benefits, collaborative industrial development, and shared governance approaches to ecological issues and environmental protection.[4]: 208 

Location map of the first three megalopolises in China: Jing-Jin-Ji Megalopolis (yellow, north), Yangtze River Delta Megalopolis (blue, middle) and Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area (silver, south).

Major Chinese megalopolises

Megalopolises Metropolitan areas Cities Area ( km2) Population Date of approval
Yangtze River Delta Megalopolis[5]

Shanghai, Nanjing Metropolitan Area, Hangzhou Metropolitan Area, Hefei Metropolitan Area, Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou Metropolitan Area, Ningbo Metropolitan Area

Municipality: Shanghai
Jiangsu: Nanjing, Wuxi, Changzhou, Suzhou, Nantong, Yancheng, Yangzhou, Zhenjiang, Taizhou
Zhejiang: Hangzhou, Ningbo, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing, Jinhua, Zhoushan, Taizhou
Anhui: Hefei, Wuhu, Ma'anshan, Tongling, Anqing, Chuzhou, Chizhou, Xuancheng
350,000 240,000,000 (2020) 22 May 2016
[6]
Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area[7] Guangzhou-Foshan-Zhaoqing Metropolitan Area, Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou Metropolitan Area, Zhuhai-Zhongshan-Jiangmen Metropolitan Area[8] Guangdong: Guangzhou, Foshan, Zhaoqing, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Huizhou, Zhuhai, Jiangmen, Zhongshan
SARs: Hong Kong, Macau
56,000 70,000,000 (2017) 18 February 2019
[9][10]
Jing-Jin-Ji Megalopolis Beijing Metropolitan Area, Tianjin Metropolitan Area Municipalities: Beijing, Tianjin
Hebei: Xiong'an New Area, Tangshan, Baoding, Shijiazhuang, Langfang, Zhangjiakou, Chengde, Cangzhou, Qinhuangdao, Xingtai, Handan, Hengshui
217,100 130,000,000 Pending approval
Shandong Peninsula Megalopolis Jinan Metropolitan Area, Qingdao Metropolitan Area Shandong: Jinan, Qingdao, Yantai, Weihai, Zibo, Binzhou, Dongying, Tai'an, Weifang, Rizhao, Linyi 28,000,000 Pending approval
Mid-Southern Liaoning Megalopolis Shenyang Metropolitan Area, Dalian Metropolitan Area Liaoning: Shenyang, Dalian, Benxi, Liaoyang, Anshan, Yingkou, Pulandian, Gaizhou 27,000,000 Pending approval
Yangtze River Midstream Megalopolis Wuhan Metropolitan Area, Circum-Changzhutan City Cluster, Circum-Poyang Lake City Cluster Hubei: Wuhan, Huangshi, Ezhou, Huanggang, Xiaogan, Xianning, Xiantao, Qianjiang, Tianmen, Xiangyang, Yichang, Jinzhou
Hunan: Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan, Yueyang, Yiyang, Changde, Hengyang, Loudi
Jiangxi: Nanchang, Jiujiang, Jingdezhen, Yingtan, Xinyu, Yichun, Pingxiang, Shangrao, Fuzhou, Ji'an
317,000 121,000,000 (2014) 26 March 2015
[11]
Harbin-Changchun Megalopolis Harbin Metropolitan Area, Changchun-Jilin Metropolitan Area Heilongjiang: Harbin, Daqing, Qiqihar, Suihua, Mudanjiang
Jilin: Changchun, Jilin, Siping, Liaoyuan, Songyuan, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture
51,100 20,000,000 (2015) 23 February 2016
[12]
Chengyu Megalopolis Chengdu Metropolitan Area, Chongqing Metropolitan Area Municipality: Chongqing
Sichuan: Chengdu, Leshan, Luzhou, Mianyang, Nanchong, Yibin, Meishan, Ziyang, Deyang, Suining, Neijiang, Zigong, Yongchuan, Dazhou, Guang'an
185,000 90,940,000 (2014) 12 April 2016
[13]
Central Plain Megalopolis Greater Zhengzhou Metropolitan Area Henan: Zhengzhou, Kaifeng, Luoyang, Nanyang, Shangqiu, Anyang, Xinxiang, Pingdingshan, Xuchang, Jiaozuo, Zhoukou, Xinyang, Zhumadian, Hebi, Puyang, Luohe, Sanmenxia, Jiyuan
Shanxi: Changzhi, Jincheng, Yuncheng
Hebei: Xingtai, Handan
Anhui: Liaocheng, Heze
Shandong: Huaibei, Bengbu, Suzhou, Fuyang, Bozhou
287,000 24,170,000 28 December 2016
[14]
Beibu Gulf Megalopolis Nanning, Nanning-Beihai-Qinzhou-Fangchenggang, Zhanjiang-Maoming-Yangjiang, Haikou, Zhanjiang Guangxi: Nanning, Beihai, Qinzhou, Fangchenggang, Yulin, Chongzuo
Guangdong: Zhanjiang, Maoming, Yangjiang
Hainan: Haikou, Zhangzhou, Dongfang, Chengmai, Lingao, Changjiang
116,600 41,410,000 (2015) 20 January 2017
[15]
Guanzhong Plain Megalopolis Greater Xi'an Metropolitan Area Shaanxi: Xi'an, Baoji, Xianyang, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yangling Agricultural Hi-tech Industries Demonstration Zone, Shangluo (Shangzhou District, Luonan County, Danfeng County and Zhashui County)
Shanxi: Yuncheng (Pinglu County and Yuanqu County excluded), Linyi (Yaodu District, Houma City, Xiangfen County, Huozhou, Quwo County, Yicheng County, Hongtong County and Fushan County)
Gansu: Tianshui, Pingliang (Kongtong District, Huating County, Jingchuan County, Chongxin County and Lingtai County), downtown Qingyang
107,100 38,630,000 (2016) 9 January 2018
[16]
Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin Megalopolis Inner Mongolia: Hohhot, Baotou, Ordos

Shaanxi: Yulin

175,000 11,384,000 (2016) 5 February 2018
[17]
Lanzhou-Xining Megalopolis Lanzhou-Baiyin Metropolitan Area, Xining-Haidong Metropolitan Area Gansu: Lanzhou, Baiyin (Baiyin District, Pingchuan District, Jingyuan County, Jingtai County), Dingxi (Anding District, Longxi County, Weiyuan County, Lintao County), Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture (Linxia City, Dongxiang Autonomous County, Yongjing County, Jishishan Bonan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County)
Qinghai: Xining, Haidong, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Haiyan County), Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Gonghe County, Guide County, Guinan County), Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Tongren County, Jianzha County)
97,500 11,930,000 (2016) 22 February 2018
[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ In Standard for basic terminology of urban planning (GB/T 50280—98) issued in 1998, 城市群 is defined as "An area in which cities are relatively densely distributed in a certain region".
  2. ^ "Supersized Cities". Economist Intelligence Unit. 2012. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ 王建芬. "Five city clusters planned to help boost balanced growth". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  4. ^ a b c Hu, Richard (2023). Reinventing the Chinese City. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-21101-7.
  5. ^ "关于长江三角洲构建世界第六大城市群的思考". China.com.cn. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
  6. ^ "长江三角洲城市群发展规划" [Yangtze River City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese (China)). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 1 June 2016.
  7. ^ Vidal, John (22 March 2010). "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'". The Guardian. London.
  8. ^ "印发《珠江三角洲城乡规划一体化规划(2009-2020年)》的通知" (in Chinese (China)). 广东省人民政府办公厅. 30 July 2010.
  9. ^ "Outline Development Plan for the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area" (PDF).
  10. ^ "中共中央 国务院印发《粤港澳大湾区发展规划纲要》". Gov.cn (in Chinese (China)). 18 February 2019.
  11. ^ "长江中游城市群发展规划" [Middle Yangtze River Valley City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese (China)). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 13 April 2015.
  12. ^ "哈长城市群发展规划" [Harbin-Changchun City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese (China)). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 7 March 2016.
  13. ^ "成渝城市群发展规划" [Chengyu City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese (China)). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 27 April 2016.
  14. ^ "中原城市群发展规划" [Central Plain City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese (China)). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 29 December 2016.
  15. ^ "北部湾城市群发展规划" [Beibu Gulf City Cluster Development] (PDF) (in Chinese (China)). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 10 February 2017.
  16. ^ "关中平原城市群发展规划" [Guanzhong Plain City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese (China)). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 2 February 2018.
  17. ^ "呼包鄂榆城市群发展规划" [Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos-Yulin City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese (China)). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 27 February 2018.
  18. ^ "兰州—西宁城市群发展规划" [Lanzhou-Xining City Cluster Development Plan] (PDF) (in Chinese (China)). National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. 13 March 2018.