An enlargeable map of the People's Republic of China

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to China:

The People's Republic of China is the most extensive country in East Asia and the third most extensive country in the world.[1][note 1] With a population of over 1,400,000,000, it is the second most populous country in the world.

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has led the PRC under a one-party system since the state's establishment in 1949. The PRC is involved in a dispute over the political status of Taiwan. The CCP's rival during the Chinese Civil War, the Kuomintang (KMT), fled to Taiwan and surrounding islands after its defeat in 1949, claiming legitimacy over China, Mongolia, and Tuva while it was the ruling power of the Republic of China (ROC). The term "Mainland China" is often used to denote the areas under PRC rule, but sometimes excludes its two Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong and Macau.

Because of its vast population, rapidly growing economy, and large research and development investments, China is considered an "emerging superpower".[2][3] It has the world's second largest economy (largest in terms of purchasing power parity.) China is also a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.[4][5][6][7] Since 1978, China's market-based economic reforms have brought the poverty rate down from 53% in 1981 to 8% by 2001.[8] However, China is now faced with a number of other socioeconomic problems, including an aging population, an increasing rural-urban income gap, and rapid environmental degradation.[9][10]

China plays a major role in international trade. The country is the world's largest consumer of steel and concrete, using, respectively, a third and over a half of the world's supply of each.[11] Counting all products, China is the largest exporter and the second largest importer in the world.[12][13]

General reference

An enlargeable map of the administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China

Geography of China

An enlargeable topographic map of the People's Republic of China

Main article: Geography of China

 Mongolia 4,677 km
 Russia 3,645 km
 India (excluding the territorial border disputes; McMahon Line) 3,380 km
 Myanmar 2,185 km
 Kazakhstan 1,533 km
 North Korea 1,416 km
 Vietnam 1,281 km
   Nepal 1,236 km
 Kyrgyzstan 858 km
 Pakistan 523 km
 Bhutan 470 km
 Laos 423 km
 Tajikistan 414 km
 Afghanistan 76 km
  • Coastline: 14,500 km

Environment of China

Main article: Environment of China

An enlargeable satellite image of the People's Republic of China

Natural geographic features of China

Regions of China

Administrative divisions of China

Main article: Administrative divisions of China

Provinces of China

Main article: Provinces of China

Cities of China

Main article: List of cities in China

See also: Historical capitals of China

Demography of China

Main article: Demographics of China

Government and politics of China

Main articles: Government of China and Politics of China

United front

Ruling party

Branches of government

Main article: Government of China

Ultimate authority and Legislative branch

Administrative branch

Judicial branch

Main article: Judicial system of the People's Republic of China

Procuratorial branch

Supervisory branch

Military branch

Foreign relations of China

Main article: Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China

International organization membership

The People's Republic of China is a member of:[1]

Law and order in China

Main article: Law of China

Military of China

Main article: People's Liberation Army

Local government in China

History of China

Main articles: History of China and Timeline of the history of China

Culture of China

Main article: Culture of China

Sports in China

Main article: Sport in China

Economy and infrastructure of China

Main article: Economy of China

Education in China

Main article: Outline of education in China

See also

Main article: China


  1. ^ Area rank is disputed with the United States and is either ranked third or fourth. See List of countries and dependencies by area for more information.
  2. ^ China has the longest total land boundaries of any country.
  3. ^ China and Russia each border 14 countries, more than any other countries.
  4. ^ Article 93 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China places the authority to direct the armed forces of the PRC in the Central Military Commission. However, Article 80 gives the President of the People's Republic of China the power to proclaim martial law, proclaim a state of war, and issue mobilization orders. Since the mid-1990s, it has been standard practice to have the President, the CMC Chairman, and the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party be the same person although the differences in the start of terms means that there is some overlap between an occupant and his predecessor.


  1. ^ a b "China". The World Factbook. United States Central Intelligence Agency. July 8, 2009. Retrieved July 23, 2009.
  2. ^ Gordon, Peter. "Review of "China: The Balance Sheet -- What the World Needs to Know Now About the Emerging Superpower"". The Asia Review of Books. Archived from the original on 2012-05-27. Retrieved 2007-12-24.
  3. ^ Miller, Lyman. "China an Emerging Superpower?". Stanford Journal of International Relations. Retrieved 2007-12-24.
  4. ^ China Passes U.S. In Trade With Japan
  5. ^ Trade Policy Outlook for Second-term Bush Administration
  6. ^ "China - Taiwan Economic Ties". Archived from the original on 2019-05-11. Retrieved 2008-07-02.
  7. ^ "Beijing's Growing Politico-Economic Leverage Over Ulaanbaatar". Archived from the original on 2008-10-19. Retrieved 2008-07-02.
  8. ^ Fighting Poverty: Findings and Lessons from China's Success Archived 2013-09-22 at the Wayback Machine (World Bank). Retrieved August 10, 2006.
  9. ^ Yardley, Jim (December 29, 2007). "Beijing's Olympic Quest: Turn Smoggy Sky Blue". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  10. ^ "China fails environment targets". BBC News. January 10, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2010.
  11. ^ Center for International Trade in Forest Products Archived 2008-06-24 at the Wayback Machine China's Building Boom. Retrieved December 2, 2006,
  12. ^ The World Factbook, Rank Order - Imports.
  13. ^ "WTO: China overtakes US as second biggest exporter". Geneva: China Daily. 2007-04-12. Retrieved 2016-09-16.

Wikimedia Atlas of China