Central American Integration System
  • Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana (Spanish)
  • (SICA)
Flag of the Central American Integration System
Logo of the Central American Integration System
Motto: "Dios, unión y libertad" (Spanish)
"God, Union and Liberty"
Anthem: La Granadera
The Grenadier
States in the Central American Integration System.
States in the Central American Integration System.
Administrative centerEl Salvador San Salvador, El Salvador
Official languagesSpanish
TypeRegional organization
Membership8 states
11 regional observers
21 extraregional observers
• President pro tempore
Johnny Briceño
• General Secretary
Werner Isaac Vargas Torres
LegislatureCentral American Parliament
20 December 1907
14 October 1951
13 December 1960
13 December 1991
• Total
572,510 km2 (221,050 sq mi)
• 2009 estimate
• Density
89.34/km2 (231.4/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2010 estimate
• Total
$506.258 billion
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2010 estimate
• Total
$266.213 billion
• Per capita

The Central American Integration System (Spanish: Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana, or SICA) has been the economic and political organization of Central American states since 1 February 1993. On 13 December 1991, the ODECA countries (Spanish: Organización de Estados Centroamericanos) signed the Protocol of Tegucigalpa, extending earlier cooperation for regional peace, political freedom, democracy and economic development. SICA's General Secretariat is in El Salvador.

In 1991, SICA's institutional framework included Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Belize joined in 1998 as a full member, while the Dominican Republic became an associated state in 2004 and a full member in 2013. Mexico, Chile and Brazil became part of the organization as regional observers, and the Republic of China, Spain, Germany, Georgia and Japan became extra-regional observers. SICA has a standing invitation to participate as observers in sessions of the United Nations General Assembly,[1] and maintains offices at UN Headquarters.[2]

Four countries (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua) experiencing political, cultural and migratory integration have formed a group, the Central America Four or CA-4, which has introduced common internal borders and the same type of passport. Belize, Costa Rica, Panama and the Dominican Republic subsequently joined the CA-4 for economic integration.


SICA's administrative centre is located in San Salvador, El Salvador.


See also: History of Central America, Puebla-Panama Plan, and Mesoamerican region

First Central American Court of Justice

Between 14 November and 20 December 1907, after a proposal by Mexico and the United States, five Central American nations (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua) took part in the Central American Peace Conference in Washington, D.C. sponsored by United States Secretary of State Elihu Root. The five nations, all former Spanish colonies, had previously tried to form a political alliance. Their first attempt was the Federal Republic of Central America, and the most recent effort was the founding of the Republic of Central America 11 years earlier.

The participants concluded the conference with an agreement creating the Central American Court of Justice (Corte de Justicia Centroamericana). The court would remain in effect for ten years from the final ratification, and communication would be through the government of Costa Rica. It was composed of five judges, one from each member state. The court heard ten cases, five of which were brought by private individuals (and declared inadmissible) and three begun by the court. The court operated until April 1918 from its headquarters in Costa Rica; despite efforts beginning in March 1917 (when Nicaragua submitted a notice of termination of the agreement), it then dissolved.

Reasons for the agreement's failure include:

Exclusive Economic Zones of the member states of the Central American Integration System. Considering them, the total area reaches 2 351 224 km².

Organization of Central American States

At the end of World War II, interest in integrating the Central American governments began. On 14 October 1951 (33 years after the CACJ was dissolved) the governments of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua signed a treaty creating the Organization of Central American States (Organización de Estados Centroamericanos, or ODECA) to promote regional cooperation and unity. The following year (12 December 1952), ODECA's charter was amended to create a new Central American Court of Justice (Corte Centroamericana de Justicia, or CCJ) without the time limit of its previous incarnation.

The Charter of San Salvador was ratified by all Central American governments, and on 18 August 1955 their foreign ministers attended its first meeting in Antigua Guatemala. The Declaration of Antigua Guatemala authorized subordinate organizations of ODECA to facilitate economic cooperation, better sanitation and progress in the "integral union" of the Central American nations.[3]

The Central American Common Market, the Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE) and the Secretariat for Central American Economic Integration (SIECA) were established by the five Central American nations on 13 December 1960 at a conference in Managua.[4] All nations ratified the membership treaties the following year. Costa Rica joined the CACM in 1963, but Panama had not yet joined. The organization froze during the 1969 war between Honduras and El Salvador; in 1973 ODECA was suspended, and progress toward regional integration ground to a halt.


See also: Central American Free Trade Agreement and Mesoamerica Project

In 1991 the integration agenda advanced with the creation of the SICA, which provided a legal framework to resolve disputes between member states. SICA was supported by the United Nations General Assembly in a resolution of 20 December 1993.[5] SICA includes seven Central America nations and the Dominican Republic, which is part of the Caribbean. Central America has several supranational institutions, such as the Central American Parliament, the Central American Bank for Economic Integration and the Central American Common Market. The Central America trade bloc is governed by the General Treaty for Economical Integration (the Guatemala Protocol), which was signed on 29 October 1993. The CACM has removed duties on most products throughout the member countries, and has unified external tariffs and increased trade within its members. The bank has five non-regional members: Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, the Republic of China and Spain.

All SICA members are also part of the Mesoamerica Project, which includes Mexico and Colombia. Haiti joined SICA in 2013 as an associate member,[citation needed] and the Dominican Republic became a full member on 27 June 2013.[6]

Members and observers

Member states

Flag State Capital Largest City Code Accession Population
Area Population density HDI (2019)
Belize Belmopan Belize City BZ 1998 400,031 22,966 km2
(8,867 sq mi)
(41/sq mi)
Costa Rica San José CR Founder 5,153,957 51,100 km2
(19,700 sq mi)
(250/sq mi)
Dominican Republic Santo Domingo DO 2013 11,117,873 48,671 km2
(18,792 sq mi)
(570/sq mi)
El Salvador San Salvador SV Founder 6,314,167 21,041 km2
(8,124 sq mi)
(780/sq mi)
Guatemala Guatemala City GT Founder 17,608,483 108,889 km2
(42,042 sq mi)
(390/sq mi)
Honduras Tegucigalpa HN Founder 10,278,345 112,090 km2
(43,280 sq mi)
(210/sq mi)
Nicaragua Managua NI Founder 6,850,540 130,370 km2
(50,340 sq mi)
(120/sq mi)
Panama Panama City PA Founder 4,351,267 75,420 km2
(29,120 sq mi)
(140/sq mi)
8 total 58,096,944 570,547 km2
(220,289 sq mi)
(260/sq mi)

Regional observers


Extra-regional observers


Economic integration

Unified Central American currency

The Central American Bank for Economic Integration has not introduced its own common currency, and dollarization is possible. However, for formal purposes the US Dollar is sometimes referred to as "Central American Peso" pegged 1:1 to the Dollar. There are no coins or notes in this currency and it is little known outside of legal circles. Central America is increasing its regional economic development, accelerating its social, political and economic integration. The region has diversified output and price and wage flexibility; however, there is a lack of business-cycle synchronization, dissimilar levels of public-sector debt, diverging inflation rates and low levels of intra-regional trade.[10]

Policy integration

In the parliamentary body are proposals to consider regional air travel as domestic travel, to eliminate roaming fees on telephone calls and to create a regional penitentiary (affiliated with the Central American Court of Justice) to address regional trafficking and international crimes.[11]


Central American Parliament

Main article: Central American Parliament

Parlacen was born as a parliamentary body emulating the Federal Republic of Central America, with Costa Rica an observer. It evolved from the Contadora Group, a project launched during the 1980s to deal with civil wars in El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua. Although the Contadora Group was dissolved in 1986, the concept of Central American integration is implicitly referenced in several countries' constitutions. The Esquipulas Peace Agreement (among other acts) agreed to the creation of a Central American Parliament composed of 20–22 directly-elected deputies from each country. Costa Rica has not ratified the agreement, and is not represented in the Parlacen. Parlacen is seen by some (including former President of Honduras Ricardo Maduro) as a white elephant.[12]

Central American Court of Justice

The CCJ's mission is to promote peace in the region and the unity of its member states. The Court[13] has jurisdiction to hear cases:

The court may offer consultation to the region's supreme courts. In 2005, it ruled that Nicaraguan congressional reforms (which removed control of water, energy and telecommunications from President Enrique Bolaños) were "legally inapplicable".[citation needed] As of July 2005, the CCJ had made 70 resolutions since hearing its first case in 1994.


Antigua and BarbudaArgentinaBahamasBarbadosBelizeBoliviaBrazilCanadaChileColombiaCosta RicaCubaDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEl SalvadorGrenadaGuatemalaGuyanaHaitiHondurasJamaicaMexicoMontserratNicaraguaPanamaParaguayPeruSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSurinameTrinidad and TobagoUnited StatesUruguayVenezuelaInter-American Treaty of Reciprocal AssistanceCommunity of Latin American and Caribbean StatesLatin American Economic SystemUnion of South American NationsAmazon Cooperation Treaty OrganizationAndean CommunityMercosurCaribbean CommunityPacific AllianceALBACentral American Integration SystemCentral American ParliamentOrganisation of Eastern Caribbean StatesLatin American Integration AssociationCentral America-4 Border Control AgreementUnited States–Mexico–Canada AgreementForum for the Progress and Integration of South AmericaAssociation of Caribbean StatesOrganization of American StatesPetrocaribeCARICOM Single Market and Economy
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational organizations in the Americasvde

See also


  1. ^ "United Nations list of observing international organizations". un.org. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  2. ^ "El Sistema De La Integracion Centroamericana - New York". www.sgsica-ny.org. Archived from the original on 30 August 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  3. ^ "Central American Defense Council - Some Problems and Achievements". Lieutenant Colonel Laun C. Smith, JR. Archived from the original on 5 October 2006. Retrieved 22 May 2006.
  4. ^ "General Treaty on Central American Economic Integration between Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua signed at Managua, on 13 December 1960" (PDF). WorldTradeLaw.net. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009.
  5. ^ "The situation in Central America: Procedures for the establishment of a firm and lasting peace and progress in fashioning a region of peace, freedom, democracy and development" (PDF). United Nations General Assembly. 20 December 1993. Retrieved 17 March 2024.
  6. ^ "Jefes de Estado y Gobierno del SICA celebran su 41 Cumbre Ordinaria" [Heads of State and Government of the SICA celebrate their 41st Ordinary Summit] (Press release) (in Spanish). San Salvador, El Salvador: Secretaría General del Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana. 27 June 2013.
  7. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  8. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX) ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  9. ^ a b "Estados y Organismos observadores". SICA.int (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  10. ^ Bulmer-Thomas, Victor and A. Douglas Kincaid. Central America 2020: Towards a New Regional Development Model. USAID. EU Commission. 2000
  11. ^ Digital, El 19. "El 19 Digital - Portal de Noticias de Nicaragua". El 19 Digital. Retrieved 4 April 2018.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ "América Central" (PDF). europa.eu. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  13. ^ Iustel (1 January 2018). "Revista General de Derecho Europeo - Sumario N.º 44 ENERO 2018". www.iustel.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  14. ^ "Central American Bank for Economic Integration". bcie.org. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  15. ^ Official website of the CCJ Archived 28 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine (Spanish language)
  16. ^ "History of the CACJ from WorldCourts". worldcourts.com. Archived from the original on 12 November 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  17. ^ "CACJ history page from PICT". Archived from the original on 16 May 2009. Retrieved 25 December 2008.
  18. ^ http://www..resdal.org/ebook/AtlasRESDAL2010-eng/print/page72.pdf (Spanish language)
  19. ^ "Conferencia de las Fuerzas Armadas Centroamericanas". conferenciafac.org. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  20. ^ "The EU's relations with Central America". The EU's Official Website. Archived from the original on 22 June 2006. Retrieved 19 June 2006.
  21. ^ "Inicio | Coordinación Educativa y Cultural Centroamericana (CECC SICA)". ceccsica.info.