Guatemala City
Ciudad de Guatemala
New Guatemala of Assumption
Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción
From top, left to right: Zone 10 skyline, Guatemala City Cathedral, Supreme Court of Justice, Zone 14, Ciudad Cayalá, Torre del Reformador, Cultural Center of Spain, Guatemala National Palace.
Flag of Guatemala City
Coat of arms of Guatemala City
"Todos somos la ciudad" (We are all the city), "Tú eres la ciudad" (You are the city).
Interactive map outlining Guatemala City
Guatemala City is located in Guatemala
Guatemala City
Guatemala City
Location within Guatemala [1]
Guatemala City is located in Central America
Guatemala City
Guatemala City
Guatemala City (Central America)
Guatemala City is located in America
Guatemala City
Guatemala City
Guatemala City (America)
Guatemala City is located in Earth
Guatemala City
Guatemala City
Guatemala City (Earth)
Coordinates: 14°36′48″N 90°32′7″W / 14.61333°N 90.53528°W / 14.61333; -90.53528Coordinates: 14°36′48″N 90°32′7″W / 14.61333°N 90.53528°W / 14.61333; -90.53528
 • TypeMunicipality
 • MayorRicardo Quiñónez Lemus (Unionist)
 • Capital city220 km2 (80 sq mi)
 • Water0 km2 (0 sq mi)
1,500 m (4,900 ft)
 • Capital city994,938[2]
 • Density4,522/km2 (11,710/sq mi)
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC−06:00 (Central America)

Guatemala City (Spanish: Ciudad de Guatemala), officially New Guatemala of Assumption (Spanish: Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción),[3] known locally as Guate, is the capital and largest city of Guatemala,[4] and the most populous urban area in Central America. The city is located in the south-central part of the country, nestled in a mountain valley called Valle de la Ermita (English: Hermitage Valley). The city is the capital of the Municipality of Guatemala and of the Guatemala Department.

Guatemala City is the site of the Mayan city of Kaminaljuyu, founded around 1500 BC. Following the Spanish conquest, a new town was established, and in 1776 it was made capital of the Kingdom of Guatemala. In 1821, Guatemala City was the scene of the declaration of independence of Central America from Spain, after which it became the capital of the newly established United Provinces of Central America (later the Federal Republic of Central America).[5]

In 1847, Guatemala declared itself an independent republic, with Guatemala City as its capital. The city was originally located in what is now Antigua Guatemala, and was moved to its current location in 1777.[6]

Guatemala City and the original location in Antigua Guatemala were almost completely destroyed by the 1917–18 earthquakes. Reconstructions following the earthquakes have resulted in a more modern architectural landscape.[citation needed] Today, Guatemala City is the political, cultural, and economic center of Guatemala.


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Early history

"Cerrito del Carmen" church. First construction ever built by the Spaniards in the valley that eventually became Guatemala City.
"Cerrito del Carmen" church. First construction ever built by the Spaniards in the valley that eventually became Guatemala City.

Main articles: History of Guatemala City and Timeline of Guatemala City

Human settlement on the present site of Guatemala City began with the Maya, who built a large ceremonial center at Kaminaljuyu. This large Maya settlement, the biggest outside the Maya lowlands in the Yucatan Peninsula, rose to prominence around 300 BC due to an increase in mining and trading of obsidian, a valuable commodity for the pre-Columbian civilizations in Mesoamerica. Kaminaljuyu then collapsed around 300 AD for unknown causes.[7]

During the Spanish conquest of Guatemala, settlers coming after the conquistador Pedro de Alvarado established a small town about 1 km south of the old ruins of Kaminaljuyu. This small town was made the capital city of the Captaincy General of Guatemala by the Spanish royal authorities in 1775 after a series of devastating earthquakes had left the old capital city, Antigua Guatemala, in ruins and unusable to the Spanish colonial authorities. During this period the central plaza, with the Cathedral of Guatemala City and the Palace of the Captain-General, were constructed. After Central American independence from Spain the city became the capital of the United Provinces of Central America in 1821.

The 19th century saw the construction of the monumental Carrera Theater in the 1850s, and the modern-day Presidential Palace in the 1890s. At this time the city was expanding around the 30 de Junio Boulevard and elsewhere, displacing native settlements on the peripheries of the growing city. Earthquakes in 1917–1918 destroyed many historic structures. Under President Jorge Ubico in the 1930s a hippodrome and many new public buildings were constructed, although slums that had formed after the 1917–1918 earthquakes continued to lack basic amenities.

During the Guatemalan Civil War, terror attacks beginning with the burning of the Spanish Embassy in 1980 led to widespread political repression and loss of life in the city. Guatemala City continues to be subject to natural disasters, with the latest being the two disasters that struck in May 2010: the eruption of the Pacaya volcano and, two days later, the torrential downpours from Tropical Storm Agatha.

Contemporary history

Zone 10 of Guatemala City.
Zone 10 of Guatemala City.

Guatemala City serves as the economic, governmental, and cultural epicenter of the nation of Guatemala. The city also functions as Guatemala's main transportation hub, hosting an international airport, La Aurora International Airport, and serving as the origination or end points for most of Guatemala's major highways. The city, with its robust economy, attracts hundreds of thousands of rural migrants from Guatemala's interior hinterlands and serves as the main entry point for most foreign immigrants seeking to settle in Guatemala.

In addition to a wide variety of restaurants, hotels, shops, and a modern BRT transport system (Transmetro), the city is home to many art galleries, theaters, sports venues and museums (including some fine collections of Pre-Columbian art) and provides a growing number of cultural offerings. Guatemala City not only possesses a history and culture unique to the Central American region, it also furnishes all the modern amenities of a world class city, ranging from an IMAX Theater to the Ícaro film festival (Festival Ícaro), where independent films produced in Guatemala and Central America are debuted.

Structure and growth

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Plaza España at Night
Plaza España at Night
Evening view from a plane
Evening view from a plane
Ciudad Cayalá, a city inside Guatemala City.
Ciudad Cayalá, a city inside Guatemala City.

Guatemala City is located in the mountainous regions of the country, between the Pacific coastal plain to the south and the northern lowlands of the Peten region.

The city's metropolitan area has recently grown very rapidly and has absorbed most of the neighboring municipalities of Villa Nueva, San Miguel Petapa, Mixco, San Juan Sacatepequez, San José Pinula, Santa Catarina Pinula, Fraijanes, San Pedro Ayampuc, Amatitlán, Villa Canales, Palencia and Chinautla forming what is now known as the Guatemala City Metropolitan Area.

The city is subdivided into 22 zones ("Zonas") designed by the urban engineering of Raúl Aguilar Batres, each one with its own streets ("Calles"). avenues ("Avenidas") and sometimes "Diagonal" Streets, making it pretty easy to find addresses in the city. Zones are numbered 1–25 with Zones 20, 22 and 23 not existing as they would have fallen in two other municipalities' territory.[8] Addresses are assigned according to the street or avenue number, followed by a dash and the number of metres it is away from the intersection.[9]

For example, the INGUAT Office on "7a Av. 1-17, Zona 4" is a building which is located on Avenida 7, 17 meters away from the intersection with Calle 1, toward Calle 2 in zone 4.

7a Av. 1-17, Zona 4; and 7a Av. 1-17, Zona 10, are two radically different addresses.

Short streets/avenues do not get new sequenced number, for example, 6A Calle is a short street between 6a and 7a.

Some "avenidas" or "Calles" have a name in addition to their number, if it is very wide, for example Avenida la Reforma is an avenue which separates Zone 9 and 10 and Calle Montúfar is Calle 12 in Zone 9.

Calle 1 Avenida 1 Zona 1 is the center of every city in Guatemala.

Zone One is the Historic Center, (Centro Histórico), lying in the very heart of the city, the location of many important historic buildings including the Palacio Nacional de la Cultura (National Palace of Culture), the Metropolitan Cathedral, the National Congress, the Casa Presidencial (Presidential House), the National Library and Plaza de la Constitución (Constitution Plaza, old Central Park). Efforts to revitalize this important part of the city have been undertaken by the municipal government.

Besides the parks, the city offers a portfolio of entertainment in the region, focused on the so-called Zona Viva and the Calzada Roosevelt as well as four degrees North. Casino activity is considerable, with several located in different parts of the Zona Viva. The area around the East market is being redeveloped.

Within the financial district are the tallest buildings in the country including: Club Premier, Tinttorento, Atlantis building, Atrium, Tikal Futura, Building of Finances, Towers Building Batteries, Torres Botticelli, Tadeus, building of the INTECAP, Royal Towers, Towers Geminis, Industrial Bank towers, Holiday Inn Hotel, Premier of the Americas, among many others to be used for offices, apartments etc. Also included are projects such as Zona Pradera and Interamerica's World Financial Center.

One of the most outstanding mayors was the engineer Martin Prado Vélez, who took over in 1949, and ruled the city during the reformist Presidents Juan José Arévalo and Jacobo Arbenz Guzman, although he was not a member of the ruling party at the time and was elected due his well-known capabilities. Of cobanero origin, married with Marta Cobos, he studied at the University of San Carlos; under his tenure, among other modernist works of the city, infrastructure projects included El Incienso bridge, the construction of the Roosevelt Avenue, the main road axis from East to West of the city, the town hall building, and numerous road works which meant the widening of the colonial city, its order in the cardinal points and the generation of a ring road with the first cloverleaf interchange in the city.[10]

In an attempt to control the rapid growth of the city, the municipal government (Municipalidad de Guatemala) headed by longtime Mayor Álvaro Arzú, has implemented a plan to focus growth along important arterial roads and apply Transit-oriented development (TOD) characteristics. This plan denominated POT (Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial) aims to allow taller building structures of mixed uses to be built next to large arterial roads and gradually decline in height and density moving away from such. It is also worth mentioning, that due to the airport being in the south of the city, height limits based on aeronautical considerations have been applied to the construction code. This limits the maximum height for a building, at 60 metres (200 feet) in Zone 10, up to 95 metres (312 feet) in Zone 1.[8]


Despite its location in the tropics, Guatemala City's has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw) bordering humid subtropical climate (Cwa), relatively high altitude moderates average temperatures. Guatemala City is generally very warm, almost springlike, throughout the course of the year. It occasionally gets hot during the dry season, but not as hot and humid as in Central American cities at sea level. The hottest month is April. The rainy season extends from May to October, coinciding with the tropical storm and hurricane season in the western Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, while the dry season extends from November to April. The city can at times be windy, which also leads to lower ambient temperatures.

The city's average annual temperature ranges are 22–28 °C (71.6–82.4 °F) during the day and 12–17 °C (53.6–62.6 °F) at night; its average relative humidity is 82% in the morning and 58% in the evening; and its average dew point is 16 °C (60.8 °F).[11]

Climate data for Guatemala City (1990-2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.0
Average high °C (°F) 24.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 18.7
Average low °C (°F) 13.2
Record low °C (°F) 6.0
Average rainfall mm (inches) 2.8
Average rainy days 1.68 1.45 2.00 4.73 12.36 21.14 18.59 19.04 20.82 14.59 6.18 2.64 125.22
Average relative humidity (%) 74.3 73.4 73.2 74.3 77.3 82.4 80.8 80.9 84.5 82.0 79.2 76.0 77.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 248.4 236.2 245.6 237.9 184.4 155.3 183.4 191.8 159.0 178.0 211.7 209.2 2,440.9
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia[12]

Volcanic activity

Four stratovolcanoes are visible from the city, two of them active. The nearest and most active is Pacaya, which at times erupts a considerable amount of ash.[13] These volcanoes lie to the south of the Valle de la Ermita, providing a natural barrier between Guatemala City and the Pacific lowlands that define the southern regions of Guatemala. Agua, Fuego, Pacaya and Acatenango comprise a line of 33 stratovolcanoes that stretches across the breadth of Guatemala, from the Salvadorian border to the Mexican border.


See also: 1917 Guatemala earthquake and 1976 Guatemala earthquake

Lying on the Ring of Fire, the Guatemalan highlands and the Valle de la Ermita are frequently shaken by large earthquakes. The last large tremor to hit the Guatemala City region occurred in the 1976, on the Motagua Fault, a left-lateral strike-slip fault that forms the boundary between the Caribbean Plate and the North American Plate. The 1976 event registered 7.5 on the moment magnitude scale. Smaller, less severe tremors are frequently felt in Guatemala City and environs.


Torrential downpours, similar to the more famous monsoons, occur frequently in the Valle de la Ermita during the rainy season, leading to flash floods that sometimes inundate the city. Due to these heavy rainfalls, some of the slums perched on the steep edges of the canyons that criss-cross the Valle de la Ermita are washed away and buried under mudslides, as in October 2005.[14] Tropical waves, tropical storms and hurricanes sometimes strike the Guatemalan highlands, which also bring torrential rains to the Guatemala City region and trigger these deadly mudslides.

Piping pseudokarst

2007 Sinkhole
2007 Sinkhole
The 2010 sinkhole in Zona 2
The 2010 sinkhole in Zona 2

In February 2007, a very large, deep circular hole with vertical walls opened in northeastern Guatemala City (14°39′1.40″N 90°29′25″W / 14.6503889°N 90.49028°W / 14.6503889; -90.49028), killing five people. This sinkhole, which is classified by geologists as either a "piping feature" or "piping pseudokarst", was 100 metres (330 ft) deep, and apparently was created by fluid from a sewer eroding the loose volcanic ash, limestone, and other pyroclastic deposits that underlie Guatemala City.[15][16] As a result, one thousand people were evacuated from the area.[17] This piping feature has since been mitigated by City Hall by providing proper maintenance to the sewerage collection system[18] and plans to develop the site have been proposed. However, critics believe municipal authorities have neglected needed maintenance on the city's aging sewerage system, and have speculated that more dangerous piping features are likely to develop unless action is taken.[19]

3 years later the 2010 Guatemala City sinkhole arose.


Aerial View of Guatemala City
Aerial View of Guatemala City

It is estimated that the population of Guatemala City proper is about 1 million,[20][21] while its urban area is almost 3 million.[22] The growth of the city's population has been robust, abetted by the mass migration of Guatemalans from the rural hinterlands to the largest and most vibrant regional economy in Guatemala.[23] The inhabitants of Guatemala City are incredibly diverse given the size of the city, with those of Spanish and Mestizo descent being the most numerous.[23] Guatemala City also has sizable indigenous populations, divided among the 23 distinct Mayan groups present in Guatemala. The numerous Mayan languages are now spoken in certain quarters of Guatemala City, making the city a linguistically rich area. Foreigners and foreign immigrants comprise the final distinct group of Guatemala City inhabitants, representing a very small minority among the city's denizens.[23]

Due to mass migration from impoverished rural districts wracked with political instability, Guatemala City's population has exploded since the 1970s, severely straining the existing bureaucratic and physical infrastructure of the city. As a result, chronic traffic congestion, shortages of safe potable water in some areas of the city, and a sudden and prolonged surge in crime have become perennial problems. The infrastructure, although continuing to grow and improve in some areas,[24] is lagging in relation to the increasing population of rural migrants, who tend to be poorer.[25]


Guatemala City is headquarters to many communications and telecom companies, among them Tigo, Claro-Telgua, and Movistar-Telefónica. These companies also offer cable television, internet services and telephone access. Due to Guatemala City's large and concentrated consumer base in comparison to the rest of the country, these telecom and communications companies provide most of their services and offerings within the confines of the city. There are also seven local television channels, in addition to numerous international channels. The international channels range from children's programming, like Nickelodeon and the Disney Channel, to more adult offerings, such as E! and HBO. While international programming is dominated by entertainment from the United States, domestic programming is dominated by shows from Mexico. Due to its small and relatively income-restricted domestic market, Guatemala City produces very little in the way of its own programming outside of local news and sports.

Economy and Finance

Guatemala City, as the capital, is home to Guatemala's central bank, from which Guatemala's monetary and fiscal policies are formulated and promulgated. Guatemala City is also headquarters to numerous regional private banks, among them CitiBank, Banco Agromercantil, Banco Promerica, Banco Industrial, Banco GyT Continental, Banco de Antigua, Banco Reformador, Banrural, Grupo Financiero de Occidente, BAC Credomatic, and Banco Internacional.

By far the richest and most powerful regional economy within Guatemala, Guatemala City is the largest market for goods and services, which provides the greatest number of investment opportunities for public and private investors in all of Guatemala. Financing for these investments is provided by the regional private banks, as well as through foreign direct investment mostly coming from the United States. Guatemala City's ample consumer base and service sector is represented by the large department store chains present in the city, among them Siman, Hiper Paiz & Paiz (Walmart), Price Smart, ClubCo, Cemaco, Sears and Office Depot.[citation needed]

Places of interest by zones

Guatemala City is divided into 22 zones in accordance with the urban layout plan designed by Raúl Aguilar Batres. Each zone has its own streets and avenues, facilitating navigation within the city. Zones are numbered 1 through 25. However, numbers 20, 22 and 23 have not been designated to zones, thus these zones do not exist within the city proper.[8]

Zone Main places Pictures
Zone 1
Guatemala National Theater.
Guatemala National Theater.
Guatemala National Palace of Culture
Guatemala National Palace of Culture
Zone 2
  • Guatemala's Relief Map[26]
  • Hipódromo del Norte park
  • Simeón Cañas Avenue
  • Enrique Torrebiarte Baseball Stadium
Guatemala's Relief Map.
Guatemala's Relief Map.
Zone 3
Zone 4
  • La Terminal Market
  • El Triángulo Building
  • Cuatro Grados Norte borough
Zone 5
Zone 6
Zone 7
  • Kaminaljuyú Archeological Site
  • Erick Barrondo Sports Park
  • Peri-Roosevelt Mall
  • Megacentro Mall
Zone 9
Plazuela españa
Plazuela españa
Zone 10
Zona Viva at night
Zona Viva at night
Sunrise on Diagonal 6.
Sunrise on Diagonal 6.
Zone 11
Zone 12
University of San Carlos Central Campus.
University of San Carlos Central Campus.
Zone 13
La Aurora International Airport
La Aurora International Airport
Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología
Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología
Zone 14
  • Centro Recreativo Universitario Los Arcos
  • Las Américas Avenue
  • Gerentes de Guatemala Association (AGG)
Zone 15
Latter Day Saints Guatemala City Temple
Latter Day Saints Guatemala City Temple
Zone 16
Universidad Rafael Landívar
Universidad Rafael Landívar
Paseo Cayalá upscale new district
Paseo Cayalá upscale new district


La Aurora International Airport
La Aurora International Airport

Traditional buses are now required to discharge passengers at transfer stations at the city's edge to board the Transmetro. This is being implemented as new Transmetro lines become established. In conjunction with the new mass transit implementation in the city, there is also a prepaid bus card system called Transurbano that is being implemented in the metro area to limit cash handling for the transportation system. A new fleet of buses tailored for this system has been purchased from a Brazilian firm.

A light rail line known as Metro Riel is proposed.

Universities and schools

See also: List of universities in Guatemala

Guatemala City is home to ten universities, among them the oldest institution of higher education in Central America, the University of San Carlos of Guatemala. Founded in 1676, the Universidad de San Carlos is older than all North American universities except for Harvard University.

The other nine institutions of higher education to be found in Guatemala City include the Universidad Mariano Gálvez, the Universidad Panamericana, the Universidad Mesoamericana, the Universidad Rafael Landivar, the Universidad Francisco Marroquín, the Universidad del Valle, the Universidad del Istmo, Universidad Galileo, Universidad da Vinci and the Universidad Rural. Whereas these nine named universities are private, the Universidad de San Carlos remains the only public institution of higher learning.


Guatemala City possesses several sportsgrounds and is home to many sports clubs. Football is the most popular sport, with CSD Municipal, Aurora F.C. and Comunicaciones being the main clubs.[citation needed]

The Estadio Doroteo Guamuch Flores, located in the Zone 5 of the city, is the largest stadium in the country, followed in capacity by the Estadio Cementos Progreso, Estadio del Ejército & Estadio El Trébol. An important multi-functional hall is the Domo Polideportivo de la CDAG.[citation needed]

The city has hosted several promotional functions and some international sports events: in 1950 it hosted the VI Central American and Caribbean Games, and in 2000 the FIFA Futsal World Championship. On 4 July 2007 the International Olympic Committee gathered in Guatemala City and voted Sochi to become the host for the 2014 Winter Olympics and Paralympics.[29] In April 2010, it hosted the XIVth Pan-American Mountain Bike Championships.[30]

Guatemala City hosted the 2008 edition of the CONCACAF Futsal Championship, played at the Domo Polideportivo from 2 to 8 June 2008.[31]

Panoramic views of Guatemala City


Guatemala City skyline in 1875, by Eadweard Muybridge.


Panoramic view of Guatemala City.
Skyline of the zone 14 or residential buildings zone.

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Central America

International organizations with headquarters in Guatemala City

Twin towns – sister cities

Guatemala City is twinned with:

City Jurisdiction Country Year
Caracas Capital District  Venezuela 1969
San Salvador San Salvador  El Salvador 1979
Madrid Madrid  Spain 1983[32]
Lima Lima  Peru 1987
Santiago de Chile Metropolitan Santiago  Chile 1991
Saltillo Coahuila  Mexico 1993
La Habana La Habana  Cuba 1997
Bogotá Distrito Capital  Colombia 1997
San Pedro Sula Cortés  Honduras 1999
Santa Cruz de Tenerife Santa Cruz de Tenerife  Spain 2002
San José San José  Costa Rica 2005
Ciudad de Panamá Panamá  Panama 2005
Taipei Northern Taiwan  Republic of China 2007[33]
Managua Managua  Nicaragua 2008
Beijing Beijing  China 2009
Providence Rhode Island  United States 2016[34]

Notable residents

See also

Notes and references


  1. ^ "United Nations "Map"" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2001.
  2. ^ a b "Guatemala City, Guatemala Population". PopulationStat. 15 July 2020. Retrieved 24 October 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ Article 231 of the Constitution of the Republic of Guatemala Archived 22 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine (in Spanish)
  4. ^ "Carlos Enrique Valladares Cerezo, "The case of Guatemala City, Guatemala"" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 May 2004.
  5. ^ Encyclopedia Brittanica. (2019). United Provinces of Central America. In Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved June 26, 2022 from Archived 12 July 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Estos son los 4 lugares donde ha estado la capital de Guatemala". Aprende (in Spanish). 2 October 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  7. ^ Wright, Lori E.; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Burton, James H.; Douglas Price, T.; Schwarcz, Henry P. (June 2010). "The children of Kaminaljuyu: Isotopic insight into diet and long distance interaction in Mesoamerica". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 29 (2): 155–178. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2010.01.002. ISSN 0278-4165.
  8. ^ a b c Municipalidad de Guatemala 2008.
  9. ^ "City Layout in Guatemala City". Frommers.
  10. ^ Morán Mérida 1994, p. 9.
  11. ^ "Guatemala City, Guatemala Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase.
  12. ^ "Ministerio de comunicaciones Infraestructura y Vivienda". Archived from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  13. ^ "MTU-VP Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala". 1 June 1995. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  14. ^ Carlos, Juan (7 October 2005). "Mudslide in Guatemala kills dozens". San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  15. ^ Waltham 2008, pp. 291–300.
  16. ^ Halliday 2007, pp. 103–113.
  17. ^ David L Miller (4 July 2009). "Massive Guatemala Sinkhole Kills 2 Teens". CBS News. Archived from the original on 25 February 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  18. ^ Municipalidad de Guatemala 2014.
  19. ^ Constantino Diaz-Duran (1 June 2010). "Sinkhole in Guatemala City Might Not Be the Last". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 3 June 2010. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
  20. ^ "Guatemala: Estimaciones de la Población total por municipio. Período 2008-2020" [Guatemala: Estimates of the total population by municipality. 2008-2020 period.] (PDF). Organismo Judicial República de Guatemala (in Spanish). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 July 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  21. ^ "Productividad y eficiencia: La Municipalidad incorpora tecnología para atender al vecino" [Productivity and efficiency: The municipality incorporates technology to service the neighbor]. Muniguate (in Spanish). 21 October 2018. Archived from the original on 15 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  22. ^ "CIA World Factbook, Guatemala". July 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  23. ^ a b c INE 2013, p. 13.
  24. ^ Morán Mérida 1994, p. 14.
  25. ^ Morán Mérida 1994, pp. 14–17.
  26. ^ "Mapa en Relieve de Guatemala". Funtec-Guatemala (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2009.
  27. ^ Museo Ixchel 2008.
  28. ^ "Jardin Botanico". (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2009.
  29. ^ "Topnews - Sport - Remscheid: Remscheider General-Anzeiger". Archived from the original on 5 June 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  30. ^ "XIVth Pan-American Mountain Bike Championships". Archived from the original on 13 March 2010.
  31. ^ "Futsal Championship 2008 Recap". CONCACAF. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014.
  32. ^ "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2009.
  33. ^ "Taipei - International Sister Cities". Taipei City Council. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  34. ^ "Guatemala City now sister city with Rhode Island's capital". AP NEWS. 12 October 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  35. ^ AGN. "María Dolores, la única mujer que participó en la independencia de Guatemala | Agencia Guatemalteca de Noticias" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  36. ^ Contreras, Joseph (2005). "10 Big Thinkers for Big Business". Newsweek. p. 4. Archived from the original on 4 January 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
  37. ^ Estey, Myles (15 August 2011). "Guatemala: art out of violence". Global Post. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2012.