Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America – Peoples' Trade Treaty
Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América – Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos (Spanish)
Emblem of ALBA-TCP
Official languages
  • Spanish
  • English
Member states
• Secretary General
Venezuela Félix Plasencia[1]
• Cuba–Venezuela Agreement
14 December 2004
• People's Trade Agreement
29 April 2006
• Total
2,513,337[2] km2 (970,405 sq mi)
• 2008 estimate
• Density
27.65/km2 (71.6/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2008 estimate
• Total
$636.481 billion
• Per capita
Time zoneUTC-4 to -6
Internet TLD

ALBA or ALBA–TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Spanish: Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America – Peoples' Trade Treaty (Spanish: Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América – Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of political and economic integration of Latin American and Caribbean countries.

Founded initially by Cuba and Venezuela in 2004, it is associated with socialist and social democratic governments wishing to consolidate regional economic integration based on a vision of social welfare, bartering and mutual economic aid. The ten member countries are Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Nicaragua, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Venezuela.[3] Suriname was admitted to ALBA as a guest country at a February 2012 summit.[citation needed]


Late Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, founder of ALBA

The agreement was proposed by the government of Venezuela, led by Hugo Chávez[4] as an alternative to the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA or ALCA in Spanish, an agreement proposed by the United States), which never materialized.[citation needed]

This Cuba–Venezuela Agreement,[5] signed on 14 December 2004, by Presidents Chávez and Fidel Castro, was aimed at the exchange of medical and educational resources and petroleum between the two nations. Venezuela began to deliver about 96,000 barrels of oil per day from its state-owned oil company, PDVSA, to Cuba at very favorable prices. In exchange, Cuba sent 20,000 state-employed medical staff and thousands of teachers to Venezuela's poorest states. The agreement also made it possible for Venezuelans to travel to Cuba for specialized medical care, free of charge.[6][7][self-published source?]

When it was launched in 2004, ALBA had only two member states, Venezuela and Cuba.[7][8] Subsequently, a number of other Latin American and Caribbean nations entered into this 'Peoples' Trade Agreement' (Spanish: Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos, or TCP), which aims to implement the principles of ALBA. Bolivia under Evo Morales joined in 2006, Nicaragua under Daniel Ortega in 2007, and Ecuador under Rafael Correa in 2009. Honduras, under Manuel Zelaya, joined in 2008, but withdrew in 2010 after the 2009 Honduran coup d'état.[9] The Caribbean nations Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Saint Lucia also joined.[10]

Jamaica, at the invitation of Chávez,[11] and Mexico, at the invitation of Ortega,[12] were invited to join the ALBA countries. Chávez also invited the countries of Central America to join ALBA,[13] and invited Argentina to use SUCRE.[14] In the 11th Summit of ALBA in February 2012, Suriname, Saint Lucia and Haiti requested admission to the organization. Haiti was granted the special status of permanent member and the other two countries were named special members, while awaiting their full incorporation.[7]

In July 2013, Chávez was honored posthumously by the nine member countries of the group and special guests Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil, Suriname, Guyana and Haiti at the group's 12th Presidential Summit in Guayaquil, Ecuador.[15]

In December 2014, Grenada and Saint Kitts and Nevis were accepted as full members during the 13th Summit of the Alliance, which occurred in Havana, Cuba.[16]

Ecuador withdrew from ALBA in August 2018.[17] Bolivia's interim government withdrew in November 2019 during the political crisis,[18] but the newly elected government of Luis Arce rejoined following the 2020 Bolivian general election.[19][20]

Amid the international isolation Russia is facing due to the invasion of Ukraine, ALBA invited Russia to participate at the 2023 ALBA Games.[21]

Virtual currency

In October 2009, ALBA leaders agreed at a summit in Bolivia to create a virtual currency, named the SUCRE. "The document is approved," said Bolivian President Evo Morales, the summit host. President of Venezuela Hugo Chávez announced "The sucre [is] an autonomous and sovereign monetary system that will be agreed upon today so that it can be implemented in 2010."[22] As of 2015, the virtual currency is being used to compensate trade between Bolivia, Cuba, Nicaragua, and especially Ecuador and Venezuela.[7]

Summits of heads of state and government

I Ordinary 14 December 2004 Havana  Cuba Founding summit of ALBA. Cuba-Venezuela Agreement signed by presidents Hugo Chávez and
Fidel Castro.
II Ordinary 27–28 April 2005 Havana  Cuba Attended by presidents Hugo Chávez and Fidel Castro.
III Ordinary 29 April 2006 Havana  Cuba Attended by presidents Hugo Chávez, Fidel Castro and Evo Morales from Bolivia,
who joins the group. The TCP is signed.
IV Ordinary 10 January 2007 Managua  Nicaragua Meeting coinciding with inauguration as president of Nicaragua of Daniel Ortega, who announces
the entry in the bloc as fourth country member.
V Ordinary 28–29 April 2007 Barquisimeto  Venezuela
VI Ordinary 24–26 January 2008 Caracas  Venezuela Dominica joins the bloc.
I Extraordinary 22 April 2008 Caracas  Venezuela
II Extraordinary 25 August 2008 Tegucigalpa  Honduras Honduras joins the bloc.
III Extraordinary 26 November 2008 Caracas  Venezuela
IV Extraordinary 2 February 2009 Caracas  Venezuela Celebration of the tenth anniversary of Bolivarian Revolution.
V Extraordinary 16–17 April 2009 Cumaná  Venezuela
VI Extraordinary 24 June 2009 Maracay  Venezuela Antigua and Barbuda, Ecuador and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines join the bloc.
VII Extraordinary 29 June 2009 Managua  Nicaragua Condemnation of the coup d'état in Honduras and demand of restoration of deposed president
Manuel Zelaya.
VII Ordinary 16–17 October 2009 Cochabamba  Bolivia The Unified System for Regional Compensation (SUCRE) is adopted.
VIII Ordinary 13–14 December 2009 Havana  Cuba Celebration of the fifth anniversary of the bloc.
IX Ordinary 19 April 2010 Caracas  Venezuela Honduras had left the group.[23]
X Ordinary 25 June 2010 Otavalo  Ecuador
XI Ordinary 4–5 February 2012 Caracas  Venezuela
XII Ordinary 30 July 2013 Guayaquil  Ecuador Saint Lucia joins the bloc.
VIII Extraordinary 20 October 2014 Havana  Cuba Summit to deal with the Ebola crisis.
XIII Ordinary 14 December 2014 Havana  Cuba Grenada and Saint Kitts and Nevis join the bloc. Celebration of the tenth anniversary of the bloc.
IX Extraordinary 17 March 2015 Caracas  Venezuela
XIV Ordinary 5 March 2017 Caracas  Venezuela
XV Ordinary 5 March 2018 Caracas  Venezuela
XVI Ordinary 14 December 2018[24] Havana  Cuba
XVII Ordinary 14 December 2019[25] Havana  Cuba Celebration of the fifteenth anniversary of the bloc.
XVIII Ordinary 14 December 2020[26] videoconference Celebration of the sixteenth anniversary of the bloc and of the rejoining of Bolivia into it.
XIX Ordinary 24 June 2021[27] Caracas  Venezuela Celebration of the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Carabobo.
XX Ordinary 14 December 2021[28][29] Havana  Cuba
XXI Ordinary 27 May 2022[30][31] Havana  Cuba
XXII Ordinary 14 December 2022[32][33] Havana  Cuba Celebration of the eighteenth anniversary of the bloc.
XXIII Ordinary 24 April 2024[34] Caracas  Venezuela


Main article: Member states of ALBA

Full members

Common name
Official name
Join date
Area (km2)
E.E.Z + Area (km2)
GDP PPP (US$ bn)
 Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 24 June 2009 97,118 442 110,531 1.575 St. John's
 Bolivia Plurinational State of Bolivia 29 April 2006 9,119,152 1,098,581 50.904 Sucre
 Cuba Republic of Cuba 14 December 2004 11,451,652 110,861 460,637 114.100 Havana
 Dominica Commonwealth of Dominica 20 January 2008 72,660 754 29,736 0.977 Roseau
 Grenada[3][35] Grenada 14 December 2014 111,454 348.5 27,770 1.467 St. George's
 Nicaragua Republic of Nicaragua 11 January 2007[36] 6,466,199 129,495 254,254 18.878 Managua
 Saint Kitts and Nevis[3][37] Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis 14 December 2014 54,961 261 10,235 1.087 Basseterre
 Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 20 July 2013 180,870 617 16,156 2.101 Castries
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 24 June 2009 120,000 389 36,691 1.259 Kingstown
 Venezuela Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela 14 December 2004 28,199,825 916,445 1,387,952 374.111 Caracas
ALBA–TCP totals 10 countries 46,166,389 1,159,612.5 2,333,962 515.555

Observer members

Common name Official name Population Capital
 Haiti[38] Republic of Haiti 10,847,334 Port-au-Prince
 Iran[38] Islamic Republic of Iran 81,672,300 Tehran
 Syria[38] Syrian Arab Republic 18,284,407 Damascus

Former members

Common name Official name Join year Withdrawal year Population Capital
 Honduras Republic of Honduras 2008 2010 9,112,867 Tegucigalpa
 Ecuador Republic of Ecuador 2009 2018 16,385,068 Quito

In addition, Suriname is a "special guest member" that intends to become a full member.[39]

Other ALBA initiatives

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Antigua and BarbudaArgentinaBahamasBarbadosBelizeBoliviaBrazilCanadaChileColombiaCosta RicaCubaDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEl SalvadorGrenadaGuatemalaGuyanaHaitiHondurasJamaicaMexicoMontserratNicaraguaPanamaParaguayPeruSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSurinameTrinidad and TobagoUnited StatesUruguayVenezuelaInter-American Treaty of Reciprocal AssistanceCommunity of Latin American and Caribbean StatesLatin American Economic SystemUnion of South American NationsAmazon Cooperation Treaty OrganizationAndean CommunityMercosurCaribbean CommunityPacific AllianceALBACentral American Integration SystemCentral American ParliamentOrganisation of Eastern Caribbean StatesLatin American Integration AssociationCentral America-4 Border Control AgreementUnited States–Mexico–Canada AgreementForum for the Progress and Integration of South AmericaAssociation of Caribbean StatesOrganization of American StatesPetrocaribeCARICOM Single Market and Economy
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational organizations in the Americasvde
XIV ALBA-TCP summit, 2017


Based on the earlier San José Accords (1980) and Caracas Energy Accords (2000) between Venezuela and a number of Caribbean states, Petrocaribe was founded in 2005 to facilitate oil trade under a concessionary financial agreement. The initiative has provided the Caribbean member states with important hydrocarbon resources, which many do not possess on their territories, in exchange for services and goods. In the case of Cuba, a nation largely deprived of oil since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Petrocaribe has provided oil in exchange for medical doctors.[40]

Other energy initiatives

As part of Cuba's efforts to spread its Energy Revolution campaign through ALBA, Cuban social workers traveled to 11 countries in the Caribbean and Latin America to help develop energy efficiency projects in those countries.[41]: 294 


Launched in 2005, TeleSUR is a media conglomerate that provides news and current affairs broadcasts throughout the ALBA bloc. The program is based on an internet based television channel and is a cooperative effort between the governments of Venezuela, Cuba and Nicaragua.


PETROSUR is an inter-governmental energy alliance between Venezuelan PDVSA, Argentinean YPF, and Brazilian Petrobras nationalized oil companies. The goal of this initiative is to provide funding for social welfare programs within these nations.[citation needed]


In July 2018, President Lenín Moreno of Ecuador distanced himself from ALBA, stating that the organization "has not worked for a while."[42] In August 2018, Ecuador officially withdrew from ALBA.

Karen Longaric, appointed as foreign minister by Jeanine Áñez's interim government, announced the formal departure of the country from ALBA in November 2019 over "interference" in Bolivia's political crisis.[43] However, as a consequence of the electoral collapse of the Áñez government, the country remained in ALBA.

See also


  1. ^ "Declaración del ALBA-TCP: Justicia social y cooperación". ACN (in Spanish). 16 December 2022. Retrieved 17 December 2022.
  2. ^ The total area of ALBA reaches 5,057,735 km2 if the maritime areas is included .
  3. ^ a b c "Declaration of the ALBA-TCP XIII Summit and commemoration of its tenth anniversary, December 14, 2014 – ALBA TCP". Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  4. ^ Arana, Marie (18 April 2013). "Opinion – Bolívar, Latin America's Go-To Hero". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  5. ^ "Cuba-Venezuela Agreement - December 14, 2004". Archived from the original on 2005-11-04. Retrieved 2005-12-02. initial Cuba-Venezuela TCP
  6. ^ Ted Piccone; Harold Trinkunas (June 2014). "The Cuba-Venezuela Alliance: The Beginning of the End? Line" (PDF). Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  7. ^ a b c d Inc, IBP (20 March 2009). Latin America Energy Policy and Regulations Handbook Volume 1 Strategic Information and Programs. ISBN 9781438728360. Retrieved 24 August 2018 – via Google Books. ((cite book)): |last= has generic name (help)[self-published source]
  8. ^ Monthly Review, 2 July 2008, ALBA: Creating a Regional Alternative to Neo-liberalism?
  9. ^ "Honduran Congress Approves Withdrawal From ALBA - Americas Quarterly". Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  10. ^ "Two more Caribbean Nations join ALBA". 26 June 2009.
  11. ^ "Cuba Revolución: Chávez invita a Jamaica a sumarse al ALBA". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  12. ^ Diario, El Nuevo. "El Nuevo Diario". Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  13. ^ (ABN), Agencia Bolivariana de Noticias (20 July 2007). "Chávez invitó a toda Centroamérica a unirse al ALBA". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  14. ^ "Chávez invita a Argentina a sumarse a la moneda virtual sucre – Radio La Primerísima". Archived from the original on 2016-05-27. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  15. ^ "Twelfth ALBA Presidential Summit Takes Place in Ecuador". Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  16. ^ "Grenada Joins ALBA | NOW Grenada". December 15, 2014.
  17. ^ "Ecuador leaves Venezuelan-run regional alliance". AP NEWS. Associated Press. 2018-08-24. Retrieved 2018-12-18.
  18. ^ "Bolivia rompe relaciones con Venezuela y se retira de la Alianza Bolivariana ALBA | DW | 15.11.2019". Deutsche Welle (in European Spanish). 15 November 2019. Retrieved 2019-11-16.
  19. ^ "Bolivia reanuda su participación en Unasur, Celac y Alba". France 24. 2020-11-20. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
  20. ^ "ALBA-TCP member countries celebrate 16 years of regional integration". 14 December 2020.
  21. ^ "Россию пригласили на самые антиамериканские старты мира. Что это такое?". (in Russian). 23 February 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  22. ^ "Bolivia summit adopts new currency". Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  23. ^ "Honduras se retira de Alba". Honduras se retira de Alba. 13 January 2010.
  24. ^ "Inicia hoy XVI Cumbre del ALBA-TCP en La Habana. In: 12/14/2018". Archived from the original on 2018-12-14. Retrieved 2018-12-14.
  25. ^ "17th Summit of ALBA-TCP in Cuba focuses on regional situation". Prensa Latina. 14 December 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  26. ^ "ALBA-TCP celebra su 16 aniversario vía videoconferencia con presidentes de países miembros". ABI (in Spanish). 13 December 2020. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  27. ^ "Venezuela acoge la XIX Cumbre del ALBA-TCP en el marco del Bicentenario de la Batalla de Carabobo". ABI (in Spanish). 24 June 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  28. ^ "Inaugura Presidente cubano la XX Cumbre del ALBA-TCP (+Fotos)". ACN (in Spanish). 14 December 2021. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  29. ^ "ALBA-TCP Summit Declaration endorses independent politics". Prensa Latina. 14 December 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  30. ^ "ALBA-TCP Summit in Havana without exclusions". PL. 27 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  31. ^ "ALBA-TCP Summit in Cuba rejects exclusion and discrimination". PL. 27 May 2022. Retrieved 28 May 2022.
  32. ^ "ALBA-TCP chief arrives in Cuba to attend 22nd Summit (+Photo)". PL. 13 December 2022. Retrieved 14 December 2022.
  33. ^ "ALBA-TCP define fortalecer liderazgo y actuar en bloque en la cumbre de la CELAC". Bolivia TV (in Spanish). 15 December 2022. Retrieved 15 December 2022.
  34. ^ "Declaración final de la XXIII Cumbre del ALBA-TCP". El Universal (in Spanish). 2024-04-25. Retrieved 2024-04-25.
  35. ^ "Granada – ALBA TCP". Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  36. ^ "Nicaragua celebra 14 años de solidaridad y respeto como parte del ALBA-TCP". La Voz del Sandinismo (in Spanish). 11 January 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  37. ^ "San Cristóbal y Nieves – ALBA TCP". Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  38. ^ a b c Hirst, Joel D. (15 August 2019). "A Guide to ALBA". Americas Quarterly. Retrieved 25 October 2022.
  39. ^ El Universal, 6 February 2012, ALBA summit ends with entry of guest countries
  40. ^ Cederlöf, Gustav; Kingsbury, Donald V. (2019). "On PetroCaribe: Petropolitics, Energopower, and Post-Neoliberal Development in the Caribbean Energy Region". Political Geography. 72: 124–133. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2019.04.006. S2CID 164598358.
  41. ^ Yaffee, Helen (2020). We Are Cuba! How a Revolutionary People Have Survived in a Post-Soviet World (hardcover ed.). USA: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-23003-1.
  42. ^ "Lenin Moreno ordenó a la UNASUR desalojar edificio en Ecuador". La Prensa (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  43. ^ "La política internacional de Añez: anunció la salida de Bolivia del Alba, de la Unasur y rompió relaciones con Venezuela". Latinomerica Piensa (in Spanish). 15 November 2019.