Association of Caribbean States (ACS)
  • Asociación de Estados del Caribe (Spanish)
  • Association des États de la Caraïbe (French)
Flag of the Association of Caribbean States
Map indicating ACS members (cream-coloured).
Map indicating ACS members (cream-coloured).
Seat of SecretariatTrinidad and Tobago Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
TypeRegional organization
  • 25 members
  • 10 associate members
  • 28 observers
Rodolfo Sabonge
• Ministerial Council Chair
Barbados Bridgetown, Barbados[1]
EstablishmentColombia Cartagena, Colombia July 24, 1994

The Association of Caribbean States (ACS; Spanish: Asociación de Estados del Caribe; French: Association des États de la Caraïbe) is an advisory association of nations centered on the Caribbean Basin. It was formed with the aim of promoting consultation, cooperation, and concerted action among all the countries of the Caribbean coastal area. The primary purpose of the ACS is to promote greater trade between the nations, enhance transportation, develop sustainable tourism, and facilitate greater and more effective responses to local natural disasters.

It comprises twenty-five member states and seven associate members.[2] The convention establishing the ACS was signed on July 24, 1994, in Cartagena, Colombia.

ACS objectives and goals

Antigua and BarbudaArgentinaBahamasBarbadosBelizeBoliviaBrazilCanadaChileColombiaCosta RicaCubaDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEl SalvadorGrenadaGuatemalaGuyanaHaitiHondurasJamaicaMexicoMontserratNicaraguaPanamaParaguayPeruSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSurinameTrinidad and TobagoUnited StatesUruguayVenezuelaInter-American Treaty of Reciprocal AssistanceCommunity of Latin American and Caribbean StatesLatin American Economic SystemUnion of South American NationsAmazon Cooperation Treaty OrganizationAndean CommunityMercosurCaribbean CommunityPacific AllianceALBACentral American Integration SystemCentral American ParliamentOrganisation of Eastern Caribbean StatesLatin American Integration AssociationCentral America-4 Border Control AgreementUnited States–Mexico–Canada AgreementForum for the Progress and Integration of South AmericaAssociation of Caribbean StatesOrganization of American StatesPetrocaribeCARICOM Single Market and Economy
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational organizations in the Americas.vde

The Association of Caribbean States is intended to promote regionalism among the member states. The success and functionality of the ACS is greatly debated among scholars. The main goals of the association are "to confirm the new concept of the Caribbean Basin by (A) accentuating those interests the Caribbean nations hold in common and (B) working to eliminate barriers left over from its colonial past."[3]

The organization seeks to use geographic proximity and regional cooperation (regionalism) for political and economic advantage[3] with respect to the global economy and trade blocs such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), European Union, Arab League, and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. The ACS has four distinct areas of interest: Trade, Transport, Sustainable Tourism, and Natural Disasters. Each is pursued by a Special Committee which meets at least twice yearly in order to discuss current regional issues and draft treaties.[4]

Caribbean Sea agenda

One agenda adopted by the ACS has been an attempt to secure the designation of the Caribbean Sea as a special zone in the context of sustainable development, it is pushing for the UN to consider the Caribbean sea as an invaluable asset that is worth protecting and treasuring.[5] The organisation has sought to form a coalition among member states to devise a United Nations General Assembly resolution to ban the transshipment of nuclear materials through the Caribbean Sea and the Panama Canal.

VERB programme

VERB (Value, Empowerment, Resources, Betterment) programme aimed by ACS for empowering Caribbean peoples in all sectors (agriculture, education, fishery, etc.) with better resources and betterment of infrastructures in Caribbean by prioritising ecological and community welfare values and using renewable natural resources.

Performance evaluation

The success of the ACS is debated by many scholars on both sides. Those who suggest the ACS is successful would point to the many initiatives the developmental coalition has undertaken, as well as its large membership and relations with other international organisations like the European Union. Those who suggest it is unsuccessful note how by the end of the 1990s, unlike CARICOM, the ACS had failed to establish a track record which was worthy enough to allow for the evaluation of the ACS as a developmental coalition.[6] Furthermore, some scholars suggest that the ACS is unlikely to become a true player on the international level. Skeptics often point to other failed attempts at economic coalition building like the Central American Common Market (CACM) as an example of the instability of the region.[6] The influence of NAFTA on the Caribbean outlines the future struggle of the ACS. The future of the ACS in relation to the western hemisphere is uncertain. "Despite governmental statements of commitment to liberalisation, it will be difficult for Caribbean countries to succeed in putting their economies on a firmer footing that would enable them to compete effectively."[7]


The ACS has held nine summits:



Member states

Associate member states

Observer states


Observer organisations

Relationship with other supranational organisations

Parts of this article (those related to Anguilla) need to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2012)
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean StatesCaribbean CommunityAssociation of Caribbean StatesMontserratAntigua and BarbudaDominicaGrenadaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesThe BahamasBarbadosBelizeGuyanaHaitiJamaicaSurinameTrinidad and TobagoColombiaCosta RicaCubaDominican RepublicGuatemalaHondurasMexicoNicaraguaPanamaEl SalvadorVenezuela
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various Supranational Caribbean Organisations and agreements.

Observer organisations

See also


  1. ^ "ACS Leaders Pledge to Tackle Climate Change, Promote Sovereignty, Safe Migration & Reparations". ACS. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
  2. ^ "ACS Membership increases". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved Jun 20, 2020.
  3. ^ a b Serbin, Andres. "Towards an Association of Caribbean States: Raising Some Awkward Questions." Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs (2004): 1-19
  4. ^ a b c d e "Association of Caribbean States. 2007. Association of Caribbean States. 21 October-November 2007". Archived from the original on December 18, 2007. Retrieved Jun 20, 2020.
  5. ^ The Caribbean Sea: A constant in the ACS agenda Archived August 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine September 30, 2006
  6. ^ a b Hillman, Richard S., and Thomas J. D'agostino, eds. Understanding the Contemporary Caribbean. London: Lynne Rienner, 2003. pp. 169
  7. ^ Benn, Denis. "Global and Regional Trends: Impact on Caribbean Development." In, Caribbean Public Policy: Regional, Cultural, and Socioeconomic Issues for the 21st Century, edited by Jacqueline Braveboy-Wagner and Dennis Gayle. London: Boulder Westview, 1997.
  8. ^ "Líderes de la AEC se comprometen a enfrentar Cambio Climático, Promover Soverenidad, Migración sin Riesgos e Indemnización". ACS. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
  9. ^ "About The ACS". Association of Caribbean States. Archived from the original on August 22, 2012. Retrieved August 24, 2014.
  10. ^ "ACS Members and Associate Members". ACS. Archived from the original on 2015-02-19. Retrieved August 24, 2014.
  11. ^ "Key address by Raul Castro Ruz, President of the Council of State and Ministers of the Republic of Cuba to the Opening Session of the 7th Summit of the Association of Caribbean States. Havana, Cuba, June 4, 2016". Association of Caribbean States. 2016-06-04. Retrieved 2016-07-15.
  12. ^ Association of Caribbean States—ACS observers
  13. ^ "Observers and Partners | ACS-AEC". Archived from the original on July 3, 2019. Retrieved Jun 20, 2020.

Further reading