Aircraft carriers such as the USS Nimitz play an important role in modern power projection.
Aircraft carriers such as the USS Nimitz play an important role in modern power projection.

Power projection (or force projection or strength projection) is a term used in international relations to refer to the capacity of a state to deploy and sustain forces outside its territory.[1] The ability of a state to project its power into an area may serve as an effective diplomatic lever, influencing the decision-making process and acting as a potential deterrent on other states' behavior.[2][3] [4][5]

This ability is a crucial element of a state's power in international relations. Any state able to direct its military forces outside its territory might be said to have some level of power projection capability, but the term itself is used most frequently in reference to militaries with a worldwide reach (or at least significantly broader than a state's immediate area). Even states with sizable hard power assets (such as a large standing army) may only be able to exert limited regional influence so long as they lack the means of effectively projecting their power on a global scale. Generally, only a select few states are able to overcome the logistical difficulties inherent in the deployment and direction of a modern, mechanized military force.[6][7] Allies and partners can take up or share some of the burden of power projection.[8][9][10]

A state might § compete in the gray zone just short of conflict, exercising its soft power, or hard power, in a bid for potential superpower.[11][12]: 1:47 [a] While traditional measures of power projection typically focus on hard power assets (tanks, soldiers, aircraft, naval vessels, etc.), the use of soft power shows that power projection does not necessarily have to actively put military forces in combat, but only potentially.[13] Assets for power projection can often serve dual uses, as the deployment of various countries' militaries during the humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake illustrates.

History

Early examples of power projection includes Roman dominance of Europe: the ability to project power is tied to the ability to innovate and field such innovations. Roman engineering innovations such as machines (pile driver), concrete, aqueducts and modern roads provided the footing for an economic engine that powered a military that was unmatched in its day. Examples of Roman power projection include Julius Caesar constructing the Rhine bridge in 10 days to demonstrate the ability to march his 40,000 troops as he saw fit: the local inhabitants enjoyed the natural protection of the river and fled when this natural protection was overcome. Although Rome is far from the center of modern power, its influence can be seen in the architecture of modern capitols around the world (domes, arches, columns). The demonstration of an extraordinary innovative military capability will signal power and, when properly applied, terminate conflicts summarily.[citation needed]

During the Ming treasure voyages in the 15th century, the Chinese treasure fleet was heavily militarized to exercise power projection around the Indian Ocean and thereby promote its interests.[14]

The modern ability to project power and exert influence on a global scale can be tied to innovations stemming from the Industrial Revolution and the associated modernizations in technology, communications, finance and bureaucracy; this finally allowed the state to create unprecedented amounts of wealth and to effectively marshal these resources to exert power over long distances.[citation needed]

The first such industrial-technological power was the British Empire in the 19th century. As a maritime power, its strength and ability to project power to further its interests lay in the Royal Navy. A worldwide system of naval bases and coaling stations, a large logistical bureaucracy to oversee shipbuilding, the supply of coal, food, water, and sailors, and an industrial base for the manufacture and technological enhancement of the fleet were among the essential ingredients for this capability. During the First Opium War (1839–42), it was this capacity that enabled a British expeditionary force of 15 barracks ships, 4 steam-powered gunboats and 25 smaller boats with 4,000 marines to successfully defend its interests 6,000 miles from the fleet's home port.[15]

An illustration of the burning of Magdala, an event which took place during the British Expedition to Abyssinia in 1868. The expedition came about as a result of Tewodros II of Ethiopia's imprisonment of European missionaries and officials, and demonstrated the power projection capabilities of the British Empire.
An illustration of the burning of Magdala, an event which took place during the British Expedition to Abyssinia in 1868. The expedition came about as a result of Tewodros II of Ethiopia's imprisonment of European missionaries and officials, and demonstrated the power projection capabilities of the British Empire.

The Anglo-French expeditionary force sent to shore up the Ottoman Empire against Russian aggression during the Crimean War (1853–56) was one of the first examples of a planned expeditionary power-projection campaign. It was the first campaign to use modern technology, including steam-powered warships and telegraph communications.[citation needed]

Another illustrative example of industrial power projection, was the British Expedition to Abyssinia in 1868 as a retaliation against Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia's imprisonment of several missionaries and British government representatives. The expeditionary force sent was a tremendous logistical and technological challenge at the time. Commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Napier of the Bombay Army, military intelligence was used to estimate the required size of the army and the difficulties of traversing the inhospitable terrain.[citation needed]

A force of over 30,000 was shipped from British India to Zula on the Red Sea on a fleet of more than 280 steam ships, while an advance detachment of engineers built a large port with two piers, warehouses and a lighthouse, and constructed a 20-mile-long railway towards the interior.[16] A road was also built for the artillery to be moved along with the help of elephants. After three months of trekking, the British force repelled an Ethiopian attack and launched an artillery bombardment against the fortress of Magdala which led to its capitulation; Tewodros committed suicide.[17][18]

In the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05, the Japanese destruction of the Imperial Russian Navy's Pacific Fleet demonstrated Imperial Russia's inability to project force in the East. This immediately diminished Russia's diplomatic sway in that region. At the same time, Russia's western armies became less credible, as mobilization exposed organizational flaws and threw the western armies into chaos. This led analysts in Europe, such as German chief of staff Count Alfred von Schlieffen, to conclude that Russia would prove inept at projecting force in Europe, thus demoting Russia in European diplomatic relations.

Many other actions can be considered projections of force. The 19th century is full of incidents such as the 1864 Shimonoseki campaign and the Boxer Rebellion. More recently, the Falklands War provided an example of the United Kingdom's ability to project force far from home. Other recent examples of power projection include the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq and the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. The ability of the U.S. Navy, the British Royal Navy, and the French Navy to deploy large numbers of ships for long periods of time away from home are notable projection abilities. See § Power Projection capabilities, Putinism

Elements

The cargo hold and intercontinental flight capabilities of the C-5 Galaxy make it a major asset for deploying military equipment around the globe.
The cargo hold and intercontinental flight capabilities of the C-5 Galaxy make it a major asset for deploying military equipment around the globe.

The U.S. Department of Defense defines power projection as the "ability of a nation to apply all or some of its elements of national power—political, economic, informational, or military—to rapidly and effectively deploy and sustain forces in and from multiple dispersed locations to respond to crises, to contribute to deterrence, and to enhance regional stability".[19][20]

As distance between a fighting force and its headquarters increases, command and control inevitably becomes more difficult. Modern-day power projection often employs high-tech communications and information technology to overcome these difficulties, a process sometimes described as the "Revolution in Military Affairs".

While a few long-range weapons such as the intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and some unmanned combat aerial vehicles (drones) are capable of projecting deadly force in their own right, it is military logistics that is at the heart of power projection. The ability to integrate naval and air forces with land armies as part of joint warfare is a key aspect of effective power projection; airlift and sealift capabilities facilitate the deployment of soldiers and weapons to a distant theater of war.

The aircraft carrier strike group, strategic bomber, ballistic missile submarine, and strategic airlifter are all examples of power projection platforms. Military units designed to be light and mobile, such as airborne forces (paratroopers and air assault forces) and amphibious assault forces, are utilized in power projection. Forward basing is another method of power projection, which, by pre-positioning military units or stockpiles of arms at strategically located military bases outside a country's territory, reduces the time and distance needed to mobilize them.

Types

Scholars have disaggregated military power projection into nine different categories based on political goals and level of force. Four of these employ "soft" military power (securing sea lanes of communication, non-combatant evacuation, humanitarian response, and peacekeeping) and the rest are primarily concerned with "hard" military power (show the flag, compellence/deterrence, punishment, armed intervention, and conquest).[21] There is a § continuum in these capabilities.[a]

Soft power

Main article: Soft power

Examples of soft power projection include:

Gray zone competition

This section has been split from US Army Futures Command § Other armies

The gray zone between cooperation and conflict[13] has expanded due to the competition between the power projection capabilities of the world's armies, as well as the economic power of its nations.[25][26][27]

The US, Russia, China, Britain, and France have renounced the use of nuclear weapons in 2022, and going forward.[28] However, in the face of threats of nuclear war (say from Russia, as threatened during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine),[29] NATO keeps about 100 B61 nuclear bombs in storage in Europe.[30][31][32][33]: 4:50, 5:55 

The British Army is investigating innovations, such as robots and drones, including 70 technologies funded by the £800 million (US$1 billion) Defence Innovation Fund launched in 2016.[34] Two hundred troops will engage in "surveillance, long-range, and precision targeting, enhanced mobility and the re-supply of forces, urban warfare and enhanced situational awareness".[35] The British Army is reducing size by about 10,000 troops as well, by 2025.[36] The British Army will have Integrated Operating Concept (MDI—like MDO) for "gray zone" operations across domains, using a synthetic operating environment, with repeatable hard and soft strike capability.[37] The UK, Germany, and France respectively have established a joint command for space United Kingdom Space Command, a Space Situational Awareness Centre (Germany), and Commandement de l’espace (France).[38]

"By 2020 the Army's programs for modernization were now framed as a decades-long process of cooperation with allies and partners,[39][40] for competition with potential adversaries who historically have blurred the distinction between peace and war"[41]—from: Reorganization plan of United States Army

  1. In 2020, one measure of § military power projection ranks the competition between the armies of the world (after the US Army, which is ranked atop this list).[42][43][b] The list of armies, a mixture of allies, partners, and competitors is estimated to be:
  2. Russia[42] jammed the GPS signal during NATO exercises in November 2018.[45][46][47][c] In 2014 the DoD's research and engineering chief Alan Shaffer warned that the 'US lost dominance of the electromagnetic spectrum'[58] (EMS), in part due to the US government selloff of EMS radio frequencies, and also due in part to the proliferation of digital technologies which allow for low-cost jammers.[58] (See: meaconing)[59][60] General Valery Gerasimov advocates hybrid warfare, a "blend of political, economic and military power to bear against adversaries".[61][62][63] Russia took Crimea without firing a shot.[64][27][65][66] In April 2020 Russia tested an anti-satellite system for low earth orbit (LEO) satellites.[67] On 15 November 2021, a Russian anti-satellite test destroyed its Kosmos 1408, endangering its own cosmonauts on the International Space Station, and other satellites in low earth orbit.[68][69][70][71] Cyber attacks on the whole of the US government via Supply_chain_attack § Whole of government began in March 2020, but only reached the attention of the news media on 14 December 2020.[72][73] Russia is mapping the undersea cables which bear the majority of the communications traffic[c] between the US and Europe.[74]
    • On 25 December 2021 President Putin disclosed that Russia would be unable to defend itself against missiles launched against Moscow from Ukraine; their flight times would be four to five minutes, according to him.[75] However, Putin did not acknowledge that the West's Aegis Ashore sites in Poland and Romania are for defense against ballistic missiles, and not the Tomahawk missiles which he named in his statement.[12] See: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system, A-235 anti-ballistic missile system, S-400 missile system, S-500 missile system To prove that Aegis Ashore is defensive only, inspection of the sites in Poland and Romania have been offered to Russia.[76]
    • 2014 map of line separating Ukrainian and Russian-backed forces
      2014 map of line separating Ukrainian and Russian-backed forces
      Ukraine had a trench network on its border with Russia, in a standoff as of April 2021.[77][78][79][80][81][82][83] A border exercise involving 110,000 Russian troops on the Ukraine border[84][85] has pulled back; however hundreds of armored vehicles, including tanks are remaining one hundred miles from Donbas (colloquial for Donets basin)[86] in spite of a partial armor pullback.[87][88] Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OCSE) drones which are monitoring the line between Ukrainian troops and the Donbas separatists are seeing jamming of their drone's dual GPS receivers, with tens of thousands of infantry troops remaining on the Ukrainian border.[84] The OSCE has provided a map of the line dividing the Ukrainian forces and the Russian-backed forces.[89][90] As of 18 February 2022 there were up to 190,000 troops along Ukraine's borders;[91] after recognizing the separatist states of the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics, Moscow is moving troops over the border of Russia into the Donetsk and Luhansk areas, and establishing military bases there.[92] This troop movement triggered sanctions on five Russian banks and three individuals, on 22 February 2022.[93][91][94][d] (See 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine which began 24 February 2022)
      • Andrei Illarionov cites Pavel Felgengauer, who projects a scenario by which Russia can create a 'Novorossia' (see CSIS figures 2a-2c)[95] stretching across Southern Ukraine to Transnistria (Moldova) after a gas pipeline to the EU is completed (September 2021).[96] If the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline were to be weaponized by holding the liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply to Western Europe hostage, the US is countering this threat with contingency plans to redirect LNG supplies from the rest of the world.[97][98][99] Germany has agreed to safeguard Ukraine, as well.[100][101][102][103][e][97][108]
      • Cyber attacks on Ukrainian government websites are occurring in January 2022.[109][110] Frida Ghitis and Richard Galant point out that the muddy season that ends winter would bog down an armored invasion.[111][112][96] US Army Lieutenant Colonel Alex Vershinen points out that if the Russian Army were to attempt a quick fait accompli and then dig in, its logistical capability would be insufficient to complete a large land grab, as its logistic capabilities are largely based on railroads, but not trucks.[113][114] Russia's logistic capability without railroads is 90 miles, without replenishment;[113] thus Sebastien Roblin suggests that a "short, victorious war" by Russia (as in the 12-day war with Georgia in 2008), with stipulations largely resembling its current diplomatic demands, namely installation of pro-Russian leadership, Ukraine's withdrawal from the path of joining NATO etc., coupled with the expedient of bypassing Russian control of Kyiv's population, might avoid Russia's getting bogged down in Ukraine.[115] This calculation could get up-ended by a longer war, with determined resistance in Ukraine,[116][117] via guerilla warfare,[118] as in Afghanistan (1979-1989), which indirectly ended the Soviet Union.[119] Within two months of the beginning of the First Chechen War, an antiwar movement arose in Russia.[113]
        • On 22 February 2022 historian Sergey Radchenko recalled a vignette from September 1945, during the post World War II Potsdam Conference negotiations on the division of world power at the London Conference of Foreign Ministers, when Soviet Foreign Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov asked U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes whether he carried the atomic bomb in his side pocket, to which Byrnes threatened Molotov to stop stalling, or else Byrnes would pull the atomic bomb out of his pocket and use it on Molotov (laughter). Molotov was guided by Stalin's directive "It is clear that you must display complete obduracy".[120] (See Proxy war)
    • Russia and Belarus began Zapad 2021, a 200,000-troop exercise held every four years.[121][122] The Pripyat marshes would bog down an armored invasion through Belarus.[112]: 2:22 [d]
    • In the opinion of James Stavridis, the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine is showing that Special Forces, unmanned systems, and Cyber will become far more important in the future.[123]
    • In 2021 Russia spent 2.7 percent of its GDP on defense, a level which is expected to drop to 2.3 percent by 2023, as part of a mandate to boost domestic production.[124]
      • Unmanned ground combat vehicles (UGCVs), among them Uran-6, Uran-9 (Уран-9), and Uran-14 are entering service in the Russian Army as of 2021. Uran-6 is a mine flail; Uran-14 is an unmanned firefighting vehicle. Uran-9s are semi-autonomous robotic combat vehicles; specialists can operate them using mobile control stations.[125] Their first attempted service was in Syria. Analysts from BAE Systems (UK) assessed the Uran-9s in Syria as unreliable, with their radio-controls sometimes blocked by buildings; their sensors and guidance were unstabilized.[126] An armed Uran-9 weighs 12 tons,[126] and measures 5 meters long, which is a fifth of the weight and half the length of a T-90 tank.[127] Each Uran-9 control system operates at ranges up to 1.8 miles from the UGVs;[128]: min 1:00 [129]: minute 2:20  each control system currently (2021) guides 4 UGVs, in a leader-follower configuration.[127][125][130] Uran-9 was used in the Vostok 2018 exercises in 2018. At least 20 Uran-9 UGCVs exist.[130][125]
      • Russia's defense ministry has signed a contract to field the Tsirkon hypersonic missiles to its troops in 2025.[131]
      • During the 2021 negotiations for defusing the Ukraine-Russia confrontation, Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov has warned that its 9M729 nuclear-capable cruise missile, which is already deployed in the European part of Russia, might be further employed there.[132]
      • The hypersonic Kh-47M2 Kinzhal, and 3M22 Zircon (Tsirkon) are standoff strike weapons, for keeping adversaries at bay; they are land-based, and sea-based respectively.[133]
  3. China[42]—RAND simulations show Blue losses.[134] Six of the top 15 defense companies in the world are now Chinese, in 2019 for the first time.[135] The competition with China was shaped in the decade 2010–2020, according to David Kriete.[136][137][138]
    • Secretary Mark Esper said that China is aiming to be the dominant military power in Asia by 2049.[139][140][141] The 14th five-year plan (2021-2025) of China's ruling party, aims to accelerate the army's modernization and informationization, in order to improve national security for 2027 (100th anniversary of its ruling party), according to Dean Cheng.[142][143] By 2023 China's working-age demographic (a shrinking labor force/ capital savings rate) will start to work against the Party's aspiration for 2027,[144][145][146] which, according to Xi Jinping's plan, is for China's military to reach parity with the US military in 2027.[147]
    • In 2017 China adopted the National Intelligence Law which obligates Chinese companies to subordinate themselves to intelligence-gathering measures for the state.[148] China is militarizing the South China Sea.[66] In 2020 a match-up of the Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning (a rebuilt aircraft cruiser) versus the supercarrier USS Ronald Reagan is assessed to give the Ronald Reagan air superiority within one hour.[149]
    • The 3rd generation GPS network of BeiDou satellites (BDS-3) was completed in July 2020 with the launch of the 30th BDS-3 satellite.[150] The 30th BDS-3 satellite, meant to complete China's own global navigation satellite system,[151] had been previously postponed.[152]
    • Satellite images of 4 June 2021 reveal an estimated 250 additional missile silos under construction near Yumen, China, warn specialists at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies.[153]
    • The Defense Intelligence Agency projects that China will at least double its nuclear arsenal and that its production capability will be far expanded in the 2020s.[154][155]
    • China controls 80% of world rare earth mineral production, and routinely floods this market when other nations attempt to ramp up their own rare earth production.[156][157][158]
      • The tech leaders of China are being enlisted to aid 'Socialism with Chinese characteristics' by pledging part of their wealth to 'common prosperity'.[159] The Cyberspace Administration of China is regulating algorithms on its financial reporting websites which republish foreign financial journalists.[160]
    • Chinese cyber groups are attacking Russia, reports Ben Watson.[161][162]
    • 149 Chinese fighters and bombers swept over Taiwan's Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) 1–4 October 2021.[163][164][165] Taiwan has countered with Civil Air Patrol warnings.[163][166][164][167][168]
    • China is implementing its plan for 2027: Office of Secretary of Defense (3 Nov 2021) "Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China", Annual report to Congress [169][170][d]
  4. India: faces Pakistan;[42][172][157] Pakistan can be supplied with Turkey's drones (such as the Bayraktar TB2), which were used with great effect by Azerbaijan against Armenian tanks and Armenian air defense[173] during the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war. In 2010 China deployed 11,000 troops in Gilgit, near Kashmir.[174]
  5. Japan: faces North Korea;[42][175] Japan has expressed interest in developing its own F-X fighter program;[176] Brian Burton notes that interoperable materiel is needed for allies and partners of the US, and that the US could constructively influence Japan's impending 20-year development effort with lessons learned from UAVs and air defense, for example.[176] On 26 December 2019, at Putin's annual news conference with foreign media, Hirofumi Sugizaki, a Japanese journalist asked about the end of the INF Treaty and the cooperation of Russia and China on an anti-missile system. Putin characterized the anti-missile system as defensive, and the relation of US and Russia as a 'draw' (ヒキワケ—hikiwake).[177][178] Japan will compensate companies for not disclosing patents with military applications.[179]

Applications of Power projection

The Texas National Security Review projects five scenarios for the global economy:[180]

  1. Reglobalization as in the 1980s
  2. Deglobalization away from the trends of the 2000s[181]
  3. Globalization with Chinese characteristics
  4. Regional blocs with partially closed trading[106][a][183][f]
  5. Shared strategic interests and common political values, which Friedberg judges will be the choice of the Western bloc[180] and its direction for power projection.[e]

Hard power

Main article: Hard power

Examples of hard power projection include:

Power projection capabilities

Power Projection capabilities
Country Bloc/Group Maritime force Helicopter / Aircraft Carriers active Overseas bases Troops deployed in operations abroad Nuclear deterrence
 Australia G20/MIKTA/FVEY/Commonwealth/APEC/ANZUS/MNNA/QUAD/AUKUS Green-water navy 2 / 0 1 2900[211] Red XN
 Argentina G20/UNASUR/UFC/Mercosur/MNNA/Rio 0 2 1050[212] Red XN
 Bangladesh D-8/BIMSTEC/SAARC/IMCTC/Commonwealth of Nations 0 0 6417[213] Red XN
 Belgium EU/NATO 0 0 710[212] Nuclear sharing
 Brazil G20/G4/BRICS/UNASUR/Mercosur/MNNA/Rio Green-water navy 1 / 0 0 273[214] Red XN
 Canada G20/G7/NATO/APEC/FVEY/Commonwealth/UFC Green-water navy 0 0 3600[215] Red XN
 China P5/G20/BRICS/APEC/SCO Blue-water navy 2 / 2 1 11,775[212][216] Green tickY
 Egypt African Union/Arab League/D-8/MNNA 2 / 0 0 3760[214] Red XN
 France P5/G20/G7/EU/NATO/Quint Blue-water navy 3 / 1 10 10,300[217] Green tickY
 Germany G20/G7/G4/EU/NATO/Quint Green-water navy 0 1 3450[218] Nuclear sharing
 India G20/BRICS/G4/Commonwealth/SAARC/SCO/QUAD Blue-water navy 1 / 1 8 6430[214] Green tickY
 Indonesia G20/ASEAN/APEC/UFC/D-8 0 0 3064[214] Red XN
 Italy G20/G7/UFC/EU/NATO/Quint Blue-water navy 0 / 2 2 6000[219] Nuclear sharing
 Japan G20/G7/G4/APEC/MNNA/QUAD Green-water navy 2 / 2 1 278[212] Red XN
 Mexico G20/MIKTA/APEC/UFC 0 0 Red XN
 Netherlands EU/NATO Green-water navy 0 0 650[212] Nuclear sharing
 Nigeria African Union/OPEC/Commonwealth/D-8 0 0 2190[212] Red XN
 Pakistan D-8/ UFC/SCO/MNNA/SAARC/IMCTC/Commonwealth 0 1 5264[214] Green tickY
 Poland EU/NATO 0 0 3000[212] Red XN
 Russia P5/G20/BRICS/SCO/EAEU/APEC/CSTO/CIS Blue-water navy 0 / 1 10 48,500[212] Green tickY
 Saudi Arabia G20/Opec/OIC/Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf/Arab League 0 0 Red XN
 South Africa G20/BRICS/African Union/Commonwealth 0 0 1171[214] Red XN
 South Korea G20/APEC/MIKTA/UFC/MNNA Green-water navy 1 / 0 0 1008[212] Red XN
 Spain EU/NATO/UFC Green-water navy 0 / 1 0 1500[212] Red XN
 Turkey G20/D-8/MIKTA/NATO/UFC Green-water navy 1 / 0 12[220] 60,000+ [221] Nuclear sharing
 United Kingdom P5/G20/G7/FVEY/NATO/Quint/FPDA/Commonwealth/AUKUS Blue-water navy 0 / 2 15 15,000 Green tickY
 United States P5/G20/G7/NATO/APEC/FVEY/Quint/ANZUS/QUAD/Rio/AUKUS Blue-water navy 11 / 11 38 130,000 Green tickY

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d In the view of Larry Fink, the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the disruption of their supply chains show that companies and governments in regional blocs will have "to reevaluate their dependencies and reanalyze their manufacturing and assembly footprints".[182]
  2. ^ The US Army's unclassified Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) concept is "the combined arms employment of capabilities from all domains that create and exploit relative advantages to defeat enemy forces, achieve objectives and consolidate gains during competition, crisis, and armed conflict".[44]
  3. ^ a b "All types of Russian precision munitions are seeing high failure rates".[48] Connectivity to GLONASS may be a factor in the lack of Russian PGM availability,[49] and the use of 3G/4G cell towers for Russian encrypted communications (Era) [50] at the beginning of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[51] "On February 24, 2022 between 5 and 9 AM, just as Russian forces were starting their missile attacks, hackers targeted satellite modems that communicate with Viasat's KA-SAT".[52]: min 15:01  This weakness was unearthed during the use of open communication ("Russian commanders are sometimes piggybacking on Ukrainian cell phone networks to communicate")[53] when FSB was discussing the deaths of their generals: Vitaly Gerasimov, killed 7 Mar 2022;[54] Andrei Sukhovetsky, killed 28 Feb 2022.[55][49] [56][57]
  4. ^ a b c In light of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine which began 24 February 2022, earlier assumptions of the truth of public statements about the situation up to that time were reassessed. The speed of the logistical response of the partners in the NATO alliance when funnelling aid like Bayraktar TB2s to Ukraine is instructive. By 7 April 2022, "the U.S. and allies have provided [Ukraine] 60,000 anti-tank weapons and 25,000 anti-aircraft weapons"—Gen. Mark Milley.[171][170]
  5. ^ a b In 2022 Russia's actions against Ukraine alerted 'the West' (that is, Europe, and its NATO partners) to the threat to Europe's food and energy supply.[104][105] After the 2008 war in Georgia, and the 2014 takeover of Crimea and Donbas in Ukraine,[12]: 2:42  a political takeover of Ukraine is a likely objective of Russian leadership.[105][106][107]
  6. ^ Peter Zeihan's (16 Mar 2022) prediction over the next few decades: End of globalization, breakdown into regional blocs[184]

References

  1. ^ US Department of Defense (2013). The Dictionary of Military Terms. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 9781628730197.
  2. ^ BARTOSZ GŁOWACKI (4 Feb 2022) What weapons will Poland send to Ukraine – and is an alliance next?
  3. ^ Reuters (February 1, 2022) Factbox-How Ukraine's armed forces shape up against Russia's
  4. ^ a b Pravda (Правда) (17 Mar 2022) Zelenskyy explained the essence of the new military alliance   U24 from Zelenskyy's night address verbatim: "I addressed the United States and all responsible states with a proposition to create a new U24 union: a new union that will ensure that each aggressor receives a coordinated world response quickly, effectively, and immediately - not in weeks, months, years, but for the first 24 hours after the attack."   "We can no longer trust existing institutions. We cannot expect bureaucrats in international organisations to change fast enough, so we must look for new guarantees, create new tools, and to build alliances with those who have the courage to do what justice demands."
  5. ^ Salamah Magnuson, Morgan Keay, Kimberly Metcalf (Spring 2022) Countering Hybrid Warfare: Mapping Social Contracts to Reinforce Societal Resiliency in Estonia and Beyond
  6. ^ MICHAEL J. MAZARR (15 Apr 2020) TOWARD A NEW THEORY OF POWER PROJECTION
  7. ^ a b Paul Kirby (23 Feb 2022) Why is Russia ordering troops into Ukraine and what does Putin want?
  8. ^ Katie Lange (8 Oct 2018) National Defense Strategy: Alliances and Partnerships
  9. ^ Ian Ward (23 Feb 2022) Joe Biden’s Secret Constitutional Weapon
  10. ^ ANDREW DESIDERIO, TARA PALMERI and MERIDITH MCGRAW (23 Feb 2022) Republicans descend into foreign policy factionalism over Russia-Ukraine standoff
  11. ^ Matthew Brown (February 1, 2022) Putin says US, NATO have 'ignored' Russia's security demands on Ukraine: What we know
  12. ^ a b c Russia Insight (February 1, 2022) BREAKING! Putin: USA Is Using Ukraine As ‘Tool’ To Contain Russia 8:01 Video clip, English closed captions
  13. ^ a b Shashank Joshi (29 Jan 2022) The technology of seeing and shooting your enemies
  14. ^ Wang, Yuan-kang (2015). "The Myth of Chinese Exceptionalism: A Historical Perspective on China's Rise". Responding To China's Rise: US and EU Strategies. Springer. pp. 59–62. ISBN 978-3-319-10033-3.
  15. ^ "No. 19930". The London Gazette. 15 December 1840. pp. 2990–2991.
  16. ^ Moorehead, Alan (1972). The Blue Nile. New York: Harper and Row. p. 266. ISBN 9780060956400.
  17. ^ Rubenson, Survival, p. 268
  18. ^ Ferguson, Niall (2008). Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. Basic Books. ISBN 9780465013104.
  19. ^ United States Department of Defense. J1-02: Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. [1] Archived 2011-05-22 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Jeremy Herb, Jennifer Hansler and Ellie Kaufman, CNN (28 January 2022) Top US general warns of 'horrific' outcome if Russian forces 'unleashed' on Ukraine Secretary of Defense Austin puts 8,500 US troops on alert for EUCOM engagement
  21. ^ Ladwig III, Walter C. (November–December 2010). "India and Military Power Projection: Will the Land of Gandhi Become a Conventional Great Power?". Asian Survey. 50 (6): 1162–1183. doi:10.1525/as.2010.50.6.1162.
  22. ^ Zachary B. Wolf, Curt Merrill and Ji Min Lee, CNN (16 Mar 2022) Zelensky’s address to Congress, annotated
  23. ^ Volodymyr Zelenskyy (16 Mar 2022) Address by President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy to the US Congress
  24. ^ E. JOHN TEICHERT (24 Mar 2022) THE HARD POWER OF SECURITY COOPERATION
  25. ^ James Graham Military Power vs Economic Power in History Compares nations
  26. ^ James Graham Military Power vs Economic Power in History (Part 2) "[I]t is economic power that allows military power to be built up in the first place".
  27. ^ a b (7 Apr 2022) Russia facing most difficult situation in three decades, PM says after 6 weeks of economic sanctions, Mikhail Mishustin: "the current situation could be called the most difficult in three decades for Russia".
  28. ^ NBC News (4 Jan 2022) Russia, China, Britain, U.S. and France say no one can win nuclear war
  29. ^ Reuters (25 Apr 2022) Russia's Lavrov: Do not underestimate threat of nuclear war
  30. ^ Dan Zak (25 March 2022) Meet the nuke the U.S. keeps in Europe, just waiting to not be used
  31. ^ Robbin Laird (11 Apr 2022) Time to relearn nuclear escalation management for the 21st century
  32. ^ (30 Apr 2022) Russia says risks of nuclear war must be kept to minimum -TASS
  33. ^ Gen. (USA Ret.) Barry R. McCaffrey (26 Apr 2022) "Putin's threat of nuclear weapons is horrendously unsettling"
  34. ^ Army start biggest military robot exercise in British history, Defence Secretary announces, Ministry of Defence, 12 November 2018
  35. ^ Jee, Charlotte (13 November 2018), "The British Army is carrying out a massive test of military robots and drones", MIT Technology Review
  36. ^ "Defence review: British army to be cut to 72,500 troops by 2025", BBC News, 22 March 2021
  37. ^ White, Andrew (15 September 2021), Three Objectives For The UK Military's Future, Breaking Defense
  38. ^ Vivienne (13 Jul 2021) Germany establishes new military space command
  39. ^ DEFENDER-EUROPE 20 videos, images and stories
  40. ^ Lt. Col. Travis Dettmer (9 February 2020) U.S. Army Futures and Concepts Center teaches Multi-Domain Operations to NATO Allied Land Command
  41. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (January 13, 2020) Infinite Games & War By Other Means: Ryan McCarthy: "We must be engaged in constant competition, versus an episodic engagement strategy" —Secretary Ryan McCarthy
  42. ^ a b c d e Greg Norman (22 Feb 2020) The 5 most powerful armies in the world
  43. ^ The Hon. David Norquist, Deputy Secretary of Defense, DoD (10 Sep 2020) Closing Keynote: Day 2 Defense News Conference 2020 : Sept 9 - 10 22:00 minutes
  44. ^ Jen Judson (23 Mar 2022) Multidomain operations concept will become doctrine this summer
  45. ^ (4 November 2018) Russia Jammed GPS During Major NATO Military Exercise With US Troops
  46. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (6 June 2019) Army Fields Anti-Jam GPS In Germany This Fall
  47. ^ Russia has figured out how to jam U.S. drones in Syria, officials say
  48. ^ Tara Copp (25 Mar 2022) Russian Forces Halt Kyiv Advance as Kremlin Says Donbass Was Only Goal All Along "Pentagon official rebuts Moscow's claims about war aims, casualties; adds that Russian precision munitions are failing at high rates". (20 to 60 %)
  49. ^ a b Jamie Ross, who cites Christo Grozev of Bellingcat: (Tue, March 8, 2022, 5:32 AM) (7 March 2022) Russian Officer Complains About Dead General and Comms Meltdown in Intercepted Call FSB (Federal Security Service, successor agency to the KGB) officers discuss Gerasimov's death amid the destruction of 3G/4G cell towers in Ukraine, and the loss of Russian encrypted communications (Era), which compromised the FSB officer's sim-card-enabled phone call.
  50. ^ Rob Waugh (8 Mar 2022) 'Idiots': Russian military phone calls hacked after own soldiers destroy 3G towers 3G/4G Towers Needed For Russian encrypted communications (Era)
  51. ^ Caroline Vakil (25 Mar 2022) US officials say Russia behind hack of Ukrainian satellite communications at invasion start: report Apparently GRU-instigated: 'compromise of tens of thousands of satellite modems provided by Viasat's KA-SAT service' at the beginning of the invasion
  52. ^ Not What You Think (25 Mar 2022) Are Tanks Obsolete? The Future of Warfare
  53. ^ MEHUL SRIVASTAVA, MADHUMITA MURGIA, AND HANNAH MURPHY, FT (3/9/2022, 8:33 AM) The secret US mission to bolster Ukraine’s cyber defences ahead of Russia’s invasion European official: "instead of communicating solely through encrypted military-grade phones, Russian commanders are sometimes piggybacking on Ukrainian cell phone networks to communicate, at times simply by using their Russian cell phones. 'The Ukrainians love it—there is so much data in simply watching these phones, whether or not they are using encrypted apps,' he said. The Ukrainians then block Russian phones from their local networks at key moments, further jamming their communications. 'Then you suddenly see Russian soldiers grabbing cell phones off Ukrainians on the street, raiding repair shops for sims,' he said. 'This is not sophisticated stuff. It’s quite puzzling."
  54. ^ Rob Picheta and Jack Guy, CNN (8 Mar 2022) Ukraine claims Russian general has been killed in Kharkiv
  55. ^ Doug Cunningham (3 Mar 2022) Ukraine forces say Chechen commander Magomed Tushayev killed near Kyiv
  56. ^ MSNBC Morning Joe (28 Mar 2022) 'Astounding' Number Of Casualties: Why The Invasion Is Proving Deadly For Russia
  57. ^ Elizabeth Howell, Space.com (14 Apr 2022) Russia Is Jamming GPS Satellite Signals In Ukraine, US Space Force Says "When four satellites are available, GPS receivers can use their signals to calculate the user's position, often to within just a few feet" —Navstar being jammed
  58. ^ a b Sydney Freedberg, Jr. (3 September 2014) US Has Lost ‘Dominance In Electromagnetic Spectrum’: Shaffer
  59. ^ Stephen Clark (25 November 2019) Russia launches space surveillance satellite Kosmos 2542, in a polar orbit—"[To] monitor the condition of other Russian satellites in orbit."
  60. ^ Joseph Trevithick (30 JANUARY 2020) A Russian "Inspector" Spacecraft Now Appears To Be Shadowing An American Spy Satellite USA 245 is a KH-11 series satellite; Cosmos 2542 is now tailing the USA 245's movements with a precision of 150 to 300 kilometers. See Hall thruster
  61. ^ Andrew E. Kramer (2 March 2019) Russian General Pitches ‘Information’ Operations as a Form of War
  62. ^ Paul McCleary (30 May 2019) Dunford: Leaders Mull First NATO Strategy In Decades
  63. ^ Neil Hauer (26 February 2020) Russia may have met its match in Libya Is unable to tip the balance, as it has in Syria. So Russia is escalating its involvement.
  64. ^ Andrew Goodman (26 Apr 2022) PUTIN THE PLANNER Worked alongside Putin when he was Deputy Mayor of St. Petersberg. "Whatever happens on the ground now, there is good reason to think that Putin will continue to pursue a solution on his terms as long as he remains in power".
  65. ^ Clare Sebastian and Chris Liakos, CNN (20 Apr 2022) Russian billionaire Oleg Tinkov blasts Putin's 'insane war' in Ukraine
  66. ^ a b Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (21 April 2020) COVID-19: Army Futures Command Takes Wargames Online
  67. ^ Aaron Bateman (22 May 2020) As Russia stalks US satellites, a space arms race may be heating up
  68. ^ Theresa Hitchens (15 November 2021) Russian suspected ground-launched ASAT test scatters dangerous debris through LEO
  69. ^ Specialist website Russian Space Web (25 Nov 2021) Russia launches classified military satellite
  70. ^ Vladimir Isachenkov, The Associated Press (9 Aug 2020) Russia warns it will see any incoming missile as nuclear
  71. ^ Mark B. Schneider (19 Sep 2020) Will Russia Further Lower Its Nuclear Weapons Use Threshold?
  72. ^ Eric Geller (14 Dec 2020) 'Massively disruptive' cyber crisis engulfs multiple agencies
  73. ^ Ellen Nakashima & Craig Timberg (14 Dec 2020) Russian government hackers are behind a broad espionage campaign that has compromised U.S. agencies, including Treasury and Commerce Identified as SVR /APT29 /Cozy Bear, according to FireEye. Breached using the update server of SolarWinds, its Orion Platform, versions released in Mar & Jun 2020.
  74. ^ Lorne Cook (30 May 2021) As Russia tensions simmer, NATO conducts massive war games
  75. ^ Vladimir Isachenkov, The Associated Press (26 Dec 2021) Putin to mull options if West refuses guarantees on Ukraine
  76. ^ Heather Mongilio (2 Feb 2022) U.S. Offered Russians Aegis Ashore Inspections to Ease Ukraine Tensions; More American Troops Headed to Europe
  77. ^ Matthew Chance (12 Apr 2021) Ukraine's President heads to the trenches as Russia masses its troops Troops and armor are massing by rail, within Russia's border.
  78. ^ ZEYNEP BILGINSOY (10 Apr 2021) The leaders of Ukraine, Turkey stress territorial integrity Donbass and Crimea are disputed.
  79. ^ The Associated Press (12 Apr 2021) Blinken heads to Brussels for talks on Afghanistan, Ukraine SecDef Lloyd Austin will attend.
  80. ^ LARA SELIGMAN and NATASHA BERTRAND (04/12/2021) Can Ukraine deploy U.S.-made weapons against the Russians? FGM-148 Javelin anti-tank missiles barely overmatch Uran-9s
  81. ^ LARA SELIGMAN (03/31/2021) Pentagon ‘watching’ as Russia steps up aggression in Eastern Europe A ceasefire between the Ukraine Army and Donetsk separatists ended Jun 2020. EUCOM's V Corps has been on pre-planned maneuvers, but in a NATO partner's territory as of April 2021.
  82. ^ Vivian Salama in Kyiv and William Mauldin in Washington (18 Jan 2022) U.S. Aims Sanctions at Pro-Russian Agents as Blinken Plans Ukraine, Russia Meetings
  83. ^ Robert Burns (19 Jan 2022) EXPLAINER: What are US military options to help Ukraine?
  84. ^ a b Paul McLeary (7 May 2021) Jamming Strikes OSCE Drones Tracking Russian Forces
  85. ^ Olivia Gazis (22 Apr 2021)) After Putin's warning to West, Russia begins large-scale military exercises in and around Ukraine
  86. ^ Nils Adler, Laura King Los Angeles Times (21 Jan 2022) In eastern Ukraine, trench warfare grinds on against backdrop of invasion fears
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  88. ^ JIM GARAMONE, DOD NEWS (14 Jan 2022) Russia Trying to Develop Pretext for Ukraine Invasion, DOD Official Says
  89. ^ Michael Schwirtz New York Times (6 Dec 2021) On Ukrainian Front, Grinding War and Weary Anticipation of Invasion Map of "Approximate line separating Ukrainian and Russian-backed forces"
  90. ^ New York Times Ukraine map (7 Jan 2022) How Russia's Military is Positioned To Threaten Ukraine
  91. ^ a b JEFF SCHOGOL , PAUL SZOLDRA (21 Feb 2022) Moscow orders Russian troops into Ukraine
  92. ^ Reuters (22 February 2022) Putin gets green light to deploy troops to eastern Ukraine
  93. ^ Charles Riley (22 February 2022) The sanctions that could really hurt Russia
  94. ^ Charles Riley (22 February 2022) Russia is already paying a hefty financial price for its aggression
  95. ^ Ryan Pickrell (25 Jan 2022) Russian forces are massing on Ukraine's border. Here's what Russia watchers think could be Putin's next big move. Figures 2a-2c CSIS scenarios
  96. ^ a b Andrei Illarionov (30 April 2021) Putin was not ready to launch a war in the Spring
  97. ^ a b Rick Rouan, Courtney Subramanian, Joey Garrison and David Jackson, USA TODAY (22 February 2022) Biden levels sanctions on Russia for beginning an invasion of Ukraine: live updates
  98. ^ natasha Bertrand (23 Jan 2022) US putting together 'global' strategy to increase gas production if Russia invades Ukraine, officials say
  99. ^ Charles Riley (26 Jan 2022) What is SWIFT and why it might be the weapon Russia fears most
  100. ^ Deutsche Welle (27 Feb 2022) Germany commits €100 billion to defense spending Scholz: Germany has now agreed to a one-time $113 billion increase in its defense budget.
  101. ^ Christian Datoc (15 July 2021) US lifted Nord Stream 2 sanctions to gain German cooperation in safeguarding Ukraine, Biden says
  102. ^ Alexander Ratz and Pavel Polityuk (17 Jan 2022) Germany says Russia will pay price if it moves on Ukraine
  103. ^ Binkov (26 Jan 2022) What might happen if Russia does attack Ukraine? Ukraine is outgunned. Russia would likely stop when resistance stiffens, in Spring 2022. Europe would be divided over heating supplies for impending winter. Ties between Russia and China would strengthen as Europe sanctions its trade with Russia due to war.
  104. ^ a b Rob Picheta (29 Jan 2022) How a Russian invasion of Ukraine would reverberate around the world
  105. ^ a b c d Leaders: (29 Jan 2022) A war in Ukraine could have global consequences "The likelihood of China invading Taiwan would surely rise."
  106. ^ a b Michael Kofman (Apr 2019) DRIVERS OF RUSSIAN GRAND STRATEGY
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  109. ^ ROMAN OLEARCHYK AND HENRY FOY, FINANCIAL TIMES (14 Jan 2022) Ukraine says government websites hit by "massive cyber attack"
  110. ^ Howard Altman (19 Jan 2022) Russian attack could happen 'any minute' Ukraine official says
  111. ^ Frida Ghitis (13 Jan 2022) Putin's big miscalculation
  112. ^ a b Richard Galant (23 Jan 2022) Putin confronts the mud of Ukraine
  113. ^ a b c US Army Lieutenant Colonel Alex Vershinen (23 Nov 2021) FEEDING THE BEAR: A CLOSER LOOK AT RUSSIAN ARMY LOGISTICS AND THE FAIT ACCOMPLI
  114. ^ Matthew Chance, Kylie Atwood, Emmet Lyons and Ami Kaufman, CNN (19 Jan 2021) Ukraine warns Russia has 'almost completed' build-up of forces near border
  115. ^ Eric Schmitt, Julian E. Barnes and Helene Cooper (7 Apr 2022) Russia Is Recruiting Mercenaries and Syrians to Ukraine, Western Officials Say
  116. ^ (23 Jan 2022) Ukraine receives second batch of U.S. weapons in Russian stand-off
  117. ^ Julie Coleman (1 Feb 2022) 'Putin should be afraid of us': Regular Ukrainian civilians are training to fight off a Russian invasion Training in Kharkiv and Kyiv
  118. ^ Helene Cooper (14 Jan 2022) U.S. Considers Backing an Insurgency if Russia Invades Ukraine
  119. ^ Sebastien Roblin (21 Jan 2022) The ‘Georgia Model’: Russia’s Plan For Invading Ukraine?
  120. ^ Sergey Radchenko (22 February 2022) MOSCOW MUSINGS ON BRINKSMANSHIP FROM STALIN TO PUTIN
  121. ^ Anton Troianovski (10 Sep 2021) Russia and Belarus inch closer to a full-blown merger
  122. ^ Michael Kofman (8 Sep 2021) ZAPAD-2021: WHAT TO EXPECT FROM RUSSIA’S STRATEGIC MILITARY EXERCISE
  123. ^ James Stavridis (11 Apr 2022) What the U.S. Military Needs to Learn from the Ukraine War
  124. ^ Alexander Bratersky (3 Sep 2021) Private companies at ‘Army 2021’ forum strive for survival as Russian military orders shrink
  125. ^ a b c Combat Approved (13 Feb 2021) Episode 44. The Uran-9 Russia’s First Combat Robot
  126. ^ a b Isabella Beltran (10 Apr 2021) Uran-9, Russian Robotic Tanks Slated to be Deployed "Soon" Despite Flaws During Syrian Tests, THE SCIENCETIMES (Mixed-font I in 'science' appears deliberate.)
  127. ^ a b Sebastien Roblin (21 October 2019) This Is the Robot Tank Russia Used in Syria
  128. ^ Axx (14 Sep 2021) Russia one step ahead, Why Russia's strike robots is scary enough
  129. ^ Zvezda (TV channel) Воины будущего. Какими возможностями обладают поступившие на вооружение ВС РФ боевые роботы «Уран-9» Uran-9 Control system
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  131. ^ James Crump (24 Aug 2021) Russia Orders Hypersonic Missiles As Putin Vows to Put Weapons on 'Combat Alert'
  132. ^ Alexander Marrow and Mark Trevelyan (Reuters) (13 Dec 2021) Russia says it may be forced to deploy mid-range nuclear missiles in Europe
  133. ^ Roger McDermott (7 Feb 2022) The Role of Hypersonic Weapons in Russian Military Strategy Giperzvukovogo Oruzhiya—(GZO); or Giperzvukovyye letatel’nyye apparaty—(GZLA) Kinzhal, Tsirkon, Kalibr, Poseidon, Avangard, Burevestnik, Sarmat,
  134. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (7 March 2019) US ‘Gets Its Ass Handed To It’ In Wargames: Here’s A $24 Billion Fix Army prepositioned stocks (APS) vulnerability
  135. ^ Defense News (July 2019) Top 100 for 2019
  136. ^ Theresa Hitchens (31 July 2019) Competition (With China) IS The New Deterrence, US Military Leaders Say Vice Adm. David Kriete of US Strategic Command
  137. ^ aj.com (1 Oct 2019) China Confirms New Hypersonic Nuclear Missile On 70th Anniversary DF-17
  138. ^ Bill Gertz (24 December 2019) China's test of sub-launched missile a threat to peace, retired captain warns JL-3 is an SLBM
  139. ^ Robert Burns (27 Aug 2020) Esper visit to tiny Palau highlights US-China competition
  140. ^ uscc.gov (Nov 2019) CHAPTER 4: CHINA’S GLOBAL AMBITIONS
  141. ^ David Kirton (30 Sep 2021) China's high-end military technology touted at biggest air show Airshow China in Zhuhai
  142. ^ Dean Cheng (23 Nov 2020) Chinese Party Sets Bold Military Goal: ‘Mechanized & Informationized’ By 2027
  143. ^ Dean Cheng (19 May 2021) How China’s Thinking About The Next War Proposed doctrine: brigade-based, joint MDO
  144. ^ Deutsche Welle (21 May 2021) China releases population census with enormous implications for the country's future
  145. ^ Tanner Brown (17 Jan 2022) China’s Population Crisis Is Complicated. What It Means for the Country’s Economy.
  146. ^ Michael C Horowitz (19 Nov 2021) WAR BY TIMEFRAME: RESPONDING TO CHINA’S PACING CHALLENGE
  147. ^ Paul McLeary and Alexander Ward (20 Nov 2021) U.S. ‘not as advanced’ as China and Russia on hypersonic tech, Space Force general warns
  148. ^ Reuters World News (27 June 2017) China passes tough new intelligence law National Intelligence Law
  149. ^ Defense updates (30 Apr 2020) 3 REASONS CHINESE LIAONING WILL NOT LAST AN HOUR AGAINST USS RONALD REAGAN PROTECTING JAPAN !
  150. ^ Sutirtho Patranobis (31 Jul 2020) China says its Beidou system now fully operational, to challenge US’s GPS
  151. ^ P.W. Singer and Taylor A. Lee (31 March 2020) China’s version of GPS is almost complete. Here's what that means.
  152. ^ Elizabeth Howell (16 June 2020) China postpones launch of Beidou global navigation satellite
  153. ^ Huizhong Wu and Jon Gambrell, The Associated Press (30 July 2021) US military warns China is building more nuclear missile silos
  154. ^ James Anderson (31 July 2020) China's troubling nuclear buildup The New York Times Op-Ed p. A25. —James Anderson is Acting undersecretary of defense for policy
  155. ^ (18 Jun 2021) Chinese Nuke Modernization Prompts Shift In DoD Strategy cites SIPRI as authority
  156. ^ SUN YU AND DEMETRI SEVASTOPULO, FINANCIAL TIMES (16 Feb 2021) China targets rare earth export curbs to hobble US defense industry
  157. ^ a b Small Wars journal (14 Aug 2021) Letter to the Editor: Critical Afghanistan Assessment "Now the rare earth minerals in Afghanistan will fall into the hands of the CCP."
  158. ^ Daniel L. Davis (6 Aug 2021): Defense Priorities fellow Daniel Davis BBC to discuss Afghanistan withdrawal
  159. ^ Fergus Ryan (26 Aug 2021) CHINA TAKES ON ITS TECH LEADERS
  160. ^ Bloomberg (30 Aug 2021) China To Cleanse Online Content That 'Bad-Mouths' Its Economy
  161. ^ Ben Watson (6 Aug 2021) China is hacking Russia who cites Sam Bendet's tweet
  162. ^ Brandi Vincent (9 Feb 2022) New Operating System Aims to Speed AI to the Battlefield China has goal of 2030 for Parity with US on AI —Lt. Gen. Michael Groen, for DoD's Artificial Intelligence and Data Accelerator (AIDA)
  163. ^ a b Colin Clark (4 Oct 2021) 149 Chinese Fighters, Bombers Sweep Across Taiwan ADIZ In 4 Days
  164. ^ a b HARRY HALEM AND EYCK FREYMANN (7 Apr 2022) UKRAINE SHOWS WHY TAIWAN NEEDS MORE AIR DEFENSE options: "transferring air-defense systems to Taiwan, funding Taiwan’s domestic air-defense programs, and deploying American-made integrated air-defense technology"
  165. ^ Sydney J. Freedberg Jr. (8 Apr 2022) Three reasons why defense is beating offense in Ukraine – and why it matters for Taiwan 1) precision-guided firepower 2) sprawling urbanization 3) mass mobilization
  166. ^ Covert Cabal (10 Oct 2021) Can Taiwan Stop a Chinese Invasion?
  167. ^ Military Aviation History (4 Feb 2018) Air Superiority 2030 - How America Wants To Retain Dominance Encapsulates the factors for 2030
  168. ^ Mike Yeo (20 Oct 2021) China shows off drones recycled from Soviet-era fighter jets J-6=Mig-19 Drones
  169. ^ Tara Copp (3 Nov 2021) China Likely to Have ‘At Least’ 1,000 Nukes by 2030, Pentagon Estimates CJCS views Taiwan invasion unlikely over next two years.
  170. ^ a b Mike Rogers (4 Mar 2022) China is watching Ukraine closely, the US should watch China
  171. ^ Joe Gould (7 April 2022) Putin’s ‘probably given up’ on Kyiv as Ukraine war enters new phase
  172. ^ Deutsche Welle DW News (16 Aug 2021) Taliban back in power: What does it mean for the Indo-Pacific region?
  173. ^ The Print Team (14 Nov 2020) How drones helped Azerbaijan defeat Armenia, and the implications for future modern warfare
  174. ^ (28 Aug 2010) China deploys 11,000 troops in Gilgit area in Occupied Kashmir
  175. ^ DAISHI ABE and RIEKO MIKI (14 Aug 2020) Japan wants de facto 'Six Eyes' intelligence status: defense chief
  176. ^ a b Brian Burton (28 Jun 2021) AS ALLIES DESIGN FIGHTER AIRCRAFT, THE UNITED STATES FACES A DECISION
  177. ^ Russia Insight (26 December 2019) Putin Stunned By Words Of Japanese Journalist: What Are You Talking About!? Video clip: 6:51
  178. ^ Colin Clark (15 Jul 2021) 'Sense Of Crisis' On China-Taiwan: Japan Defense White Paper Japan draws closer to Taiwan
  179. ^ Reuters (25 Dec 2021) Japan to pay companies to keep sensitive patents secret- Nikkei
  180. ^ a b Aaron L. Friedberg (Winter 2021/2022) The Growing Rivalry Between America and China and the Future of Globalization
  181. ^ The Changing Order (9 Feb 2022) —Peter Zeihan: How Deglobalization Works, Full Webinar video 58:24
  182. ^ Anna Cooban (24 March 2022) BlackRock says Russia’s war in Ukraine is the end of globalization
  183. ^ AKHIL RAMESH ( Are we witnessing the beginning of de-dollarization?
  184. ^ JackCarrUSA video 1:01:50 Peter Zeihan (June 2022): The End of the World Is Just the Beginning hardcover
  185. ^ (26 Jan 2022) Will There Be a War Over Ukraine? 13 Putin Watchers Weigh In
  186. ^ David M. Herszenhorn and Paul McLeary (8 Apr 2022) Ukraine’s 'iron general' is a hero, but he's no star ala SoF
  187. ^ Sebastian Sprenger (17 Feb 2022) Ukraine, UK, Poland announce security pact amid heightened tensions
  188. ^ Jaroslaw Adamowski (9 Jul 2021) Poland could purchase M1 Abrams tanks from US 250 M1A2 SEPv3s, + dozen tracked vehicles, purchase confirmed 14 July 2021
  189. ^ Douglas London, Foreign Affairs (11 Apr 2022) A Shadow War Against Putin
  190. ^ Anna Nemtsova (28 Jan 2022) ‘Putin Lost Us’: A City of Russian-Speaking Ukrainians Is Vowing To Fight Moscow’s Aggression
  191. ^ Ivana Kottasová, Tamara Qiblawi and Helen Regan (22 Feb 2022) Putin orders troops into pro-Russian regions of eastern Ukraine
  192. ^ SERGEY RADCHENKO (22 Feb 2022) MOSCOW MUSINGS ON BRINKSMANSHIP FROM STALIN TO PUTIN
  193. ^ Sam LaGrone (8 Feb 2022) UPDATED: Russian Navy Amphibious Group Enters Black Sea as Warships Mass in the Mediterranean
  194. ^ Liudas Dapkus and Dasha Litvinova (19 Feb 2022) Russia ‘uncoiling and poised to strike’ says US defense secretary
  195. ^ Jack Watling and Nick Reynolds (22 Apr 2022) Operation Z: The Death Throes of an Imperial Delusion 26 pages
  196. ^ Reuben Johnson (19 May 2022) Russian attempts to restock its military may be doomed to failure
  197. ^ Kyle Mizokami (27 Jan 2022) Russia Won't Start a War With Ukraine Out of the Blue. Look For These 8 Warning Signs.
    1. Fuel and Ammunition Stockpiles
    2. Cyberwarfare
    3. GPS Jamming, Spoofing
    4. Attack submarine sorties
    5. Electronic warfare
    6. Social media blackout
    7. Little green men Events
    8. Drone reconnaissance
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  199. ^ Phil Stewart and Humeyra Pamuk, Reuters (5 Feb 2022) Russian forces at 70% of level needed for full Ukraine invasion - U.S. officials
  200. ^ Michael Kofman (24 Jan 2022) PUTIN’S WAGER IN RUSSIA’S STANDOFF WITH THE WEST
  201. ^ KAREN DEYOUNG, DAN LAMOTHE, JOHN HUDSON AND SHANE HARRIS THE WASHINGTON POST (5 Feb 2022) Russia could invade Ukraine within days, causing up to 50,000 civilian deaths, U.S. intelligence assessments find
  202. ^ The New York Times (24 Feb 2022) Maps: Tracking the Russian Invasion of Ukraine
  203. ^ Daniel Treisman (22 Feb 2022) Putin isn't likely to stop here
  204. ^ Reuters (23 Feb 2022) Ukraine starts drafting reservists aged 18-60 after president's order
  205. ^ JAKE HARRINGTON AND RILEY MCCABE (1 Feb 2022) KEEPING PACE IN THE GRAY ZONE: THREE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE U.S. INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY
  206. ^ Michael Kofman (23 Feb 2022) Michael Kofman, an expert on Russia’s armed forces, explains why the Kremlin will seek regime change in Ukraine
  207. ^ Valerie Insinna (24 Feb 2022) Russia aiming to ‘decapitate’ Ukrainian government: US official
  208. ^ VALERIE INSINNA (11 March 2022 at 12:35 PM) Top American generals on three key lessons learned from Ukraine Marine Corps Commandant Gen. David Berger, Army Chief of Staff Gen. James McConville, and Air Combat Command head Gen. Mark Kelly: 1) Humble “Legacy” Technology Can Still Play a Role Against a Sophisticated Adversary, 2) The Human Element (Still) Matters, and 3) Logistics Are Not Optional
  209. ^ Sky News (28 Apr 2022) Can Russia be pushed out of Ukraine entirely? Retired Air Vice Marshal Sean Bell 2:25/4:08 use 155mm howitzers, coupled with counterfire radar (i.e. TPQ-53) against Russian artillery
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