S-500 Prometheus
C-500 Прометей
Launch vehicle of the S-500 air defense system
TypeMobile surface-to-air missile
Place of originThe Russian Federation
Service history
In service16 September 2021
Used byRussian Space Forces
Production history
DesignerAlmaz-Antey
ManufacturerAlmaz-Antey
Unit cost$2.5 billion[1]
Produced2021–present
No. built1 S-500 regiment in service [2][3]
Specifications

Operational
range
600 km[4]

The S-500 Prometheus (Russian: C-500 Прометей), also known as 55R6M "Triumfator-M",[5] is a Russian surface-to-air missile/anti-ballistic missile system supplementing the S-400 and the A-235 ABM missile system.[6] The S-500 was developed by the Almaz-Antey Air Defence Concern. Initially planned to be in production by 2014, the first unit entered service in 2021 with the 15th Air Army.[7][8][9] Russia claims that the S-500 is capable of intercepting all types of modern hypersonic weapons; and has claimed to have successfully tested such capability.[10][11][unreliable source?] Russia is reportedly planning to deploy the S-500 alongside the planned[12] S-550 missile system as part of its air defense network.[13][14]

History

According to the original plans, ten S-500 battalions were to be purchased for the Russian Aerospace Defense (VKO) under the State Armament Programme 2020 (GPV-2020).[15]

As of 2013, the S-500s were intended to work in parallel with S-400s and together were planned to mostly replace the S-300 missile systems.[16] The first units are planned to be deployed around the Moscow oblast and the country's central area in 2025.[6] A naval version is the likely armament for the new Lider-class destroyer, which was to enter service after 2020 but was not operational as of 2022.[17]

CEO of Rostec Corporation Sergey Chemezov declared the beginning of S-500 production on 30 June 2019. Despite that, serial production of the first 10 systems (ordered in late 2020) only began in 2021.[18][19] In summer 2020 Sergei Surovikin, the commander of the Aerospace Forces, seemed to confirm that the S-500 system can be used to kill satellites.[20]

A new contract was signed in August 2022.[21] In October 2023, Defense News claimed that production of S-500 remained behind, being negatively affected by the sanctions against Russia and labor shortages.[1]

The cost for one S-500 system was estimated be around $700-$800 million dollars in 2020, and up to $2.5 billion in 2023.[1]

Testing

In May 2018, Russia conducted the longest range surface-to-air missile test to date with the S-500. According to reports citing unnamed sources familiar with U.S. intelligence on the program, the S-500 was able to hit a target 482 km (300 mi) away, which is 80 km further than the previous record.[22]

On 4 June 2019, the Russian Ministry of Defense posted a video showing the successful launch of a new anti ballistic missile system in the form of a long range surface to air missile. Though the nature of the air defense system which was being tested was not mentioned it has been widely speculated to have been a test of the S-500 Prometheus long range surface to air missile system.[23]

In July 2021, the Russian MOD released the first public footage of a live-fire test of the new S-500 anti-ballistic missile system at Kapustin Yar.[24]

Operational history

The first S-500 prototype went on combat duty in Moscow on 13 October 2021.[13] However, it did not yet meet the full set of requirements specified by its operator, the 1st Special Purpose Air and Missile Defense Army.[1]

Design

The S-500 is designed for intercepting and destroying intercontinental ballistic missiles, as well as hypersonic cruise missiles and aircraft.[25] With a planned range of 600 km (370 mi) for anti-ballistic missile (ABM) and 500 km (310 mi) for air defense,[26] the S-500 was envisaged to be able to detect and simultaneously engage up to 10 ballistic hypersonic targets flying at up to a maximum of 7 km/s (4.3 mi/s).[27] The altitude of a target engaged is claimed to be as high as 180–200 km (110–120 mi).[28] However, as of 2023, the S-500's ability to intercept hypersonic missiles had not yet been tested.[1] Other targets it has been announced to defend against include unmanned aerial vehicles, low Earth orbit satellites, space weapons launched from hypersonic aircraft, and hypersonic orbital platforms.[29] It is to have a response time of less than 4 seconds (compared to the S-400's of less than 10).[30]

Components

The S-500 consists of:[31]

The missiles used by the system are:[32][33]

Export

In September 2021, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Yury Borisov said that India could be a prospective, and probably the first, S-500 customer.[34][35][36][37][38]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Starchak, Maxim (5 October 2023). "Where is Russia's S-500 air defense system?". Defense News. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  2. ^ "S-500 enters service in Moscow region".
  3. ^ "Russian Defence Minister announces transfer of S-500 air defence missile systems to Russian troops". Pravda.
  4. ^ Starchak, Maxim (5 October 2023). "Where is Russia's S-500 air defense system?". Defense News. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  5. ^ "S-500/S-1000 (Russian Federation), Defensive weapons". Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems. 10 February 2009. Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2009.
  6. ^ a b "Russia to upgrade Moscow's missile defenses by year's end". DefenseNews.
  7. ^ "Armed forces plan to get first S-500 systems in 2021. (In Russian)". Ria Novosti. 8 May 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  8. ^ "First batch of Russian-made S-500 system enters service — Deputy PM". TASS. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  9. ^ "Russia Puts Its 'F-22 Killer' S-500 Missile Defense System into Mass Production as Tensions Boil over Ukraine". 25 April 2022.
  10. ^ Starchak, Maxim (5 October 2023). "Where is Russia's S-500 air defense system?". Defense News. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  11. ^ "The Russian Armed Forces tested the S-500 for its ability to shoot down hypersonic targets". Izvestia.
  12. ^ Starchak, Maxim (5 October 2023). "Where is Russia's S-500 air defense system?". Defense News. Retrieved 25 January 2024. There is currently no evidence Russia has developed the S-550.
  13. ^ a b Starchak, Maxim. "Russia to upgrade Moscow's missile defenses by year's end". Defense News. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  14. ^ "Russian Defence Minister announces transfer of S-500 air defence missile systems to Russian troops". Pravda.
  15. ^ "Valeriy Ivanov on VKO, S-500, S-400 | Russian Defense Policy". russiandefpolicy.wordpress.com. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  16. ^ "Russian Army Will Be Equipped with S-500 New Surface-to-Air Missile Defense System for 2020". Army Recognition. 28 November 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  17. ^ "New-generation missile destroyer under development in Russia". ITAR-TASS. 21 October 2014. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  18. ^ "Armed forces plan to get first S-500 systems in 2021. (In Russian)". Ria Novosti. 23 February 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  19. ^ "Russian Defense Ministry signs contract on first 10 S-500 air defense systems — source".
  20. ^ Hendrickx, Bart (2 November 2020). "Russia gears up for electronic warfare in space (part 2)". The Space Review.
  21. ^ "Defense firm signs contract on delivery of S-500 air defense systems to Russian troops".
  22. ^ "Russia's S-500 Air Defense System Reportedly Hits Target Nearly 300 Miles Away". The Warzone. JOSEPH TREVITHICK. 24 May 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  23. ^ "S-500 or A-235? Russia Tests Advanced New Missile Defence System With Extreme Range". Military Watch. 5 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  24. ^ "Serial production of missiles for S-500 air defense systems begins in Russia — source". TASS. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  25. ^ Garamone, Jim (28 July 2020). "Missile Defense Becomes Part of Great Power Competition". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  26. ^ Ptichkin, Sergei (8 July 2014). Отстрелялись антиракетой — Идут испытания С-500 — новейшей системы ПВО-ПРО [Shot by anti-missile – Testing underway of C-500 – the modern air and missile defence system] (in Russian). rg.ru. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  27. ^ Россия откроет производство комплексов С-500 в 2015 году [Russia will open production complexes for S-500 in 2015] (in Russian). Lenta.ru. 10 April 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  28. ^ Vranic, Miko (27 April 2022). "Russia begins series production of S-500 air-defence system". Janes. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  29. ^ First regiment of S-500 new air defense missile system will protect Moscow and center of Russia. Armyrecognition.com, 21 August 2014.
  30. ^ "S-500 Prometheus". Missile Threat. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  31. ^ Kopp, Carlo (15 June 2011). "Almaz-Antey S-500 Triumfator M Self Propelled Air / Missile Defence System / SA-X-NN / Самоходный Комплекс Противоракетной / Противосамолетной Обороны С-500 "Триумфатор-М"". ausairpower.net. p. 1. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  32. ^ https://www.defensenews.com/industry/2023/10/05/where-is-russias-s-500-air-defense-system/
  33. ^ https://lenta.ru/articles/2012/04/10/future/
  34. ^ "Russia exploring market for S550 missile system; all eyes on India". The Economic Times. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  35. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: India Likely To Be The First Customer Of S-500 Missile Defense System – Russian Deputy PM". Latest Asian, Middle-East, EurAsian, Indian News. 17 September 2021. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  36. ^ "First batch of Russian-made S-500 system enters service — Deputy PM". TASS. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  37. ^ "Government speculation: India may buy S-500 missile system". 17 September 2021. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  38. ^ "India Could Potentially Become 1st Buyer Of Russias S-500 Missile System - Borissov". UrduPoint. Retrieved 7 December 2021.

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