9M120 Ataka
AT-9 Spiral-2
9M120 missile with tandem HEAT warhead
TypeAnti-tank guided missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1985–present
Used bySee Operators
Production history
DesignerKBM[1]
Designed1980
ManufacturerDegtyarev plant[2]
Produced1980s–present
VariantsSee Variants
Specifications (9M120 Ataka[3])
Mass49.5 kg (109 lb)
Length1,830 mm (72 in)
Diameter130 mm (5.1 in)
Wingspan360 mm (14 in)
WarheadHEAT tandem warhead
Warhead weight7.4 kg (16 lb)
Detonation
mechanism
Impact

Operational
range
0.4–6 km (0.25–3.73 mi)
Flight ceiling0–4,000 m (2.5 mi)
Maximum speed 550 m/s (1,800 ft/s; Mach 1.6), maximum
400 m/s (1,300 ft/s; Mach 1.2), average
Guidance
system
Radio command link SACLOS
Accuracy0.65–0.9 hit probability against an MBT from a distance of 4 km.[3]
Launch
platform
Armored fighting vehicles and helicopters

The 9M120 Ataka (Russian: Атака; Attack) is an anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) originating from the Soviet Union.[3] The NATO reporting name of the 9M120 missile is the AT-9 Spiral-2. It is the next major generation in the 9K114 Shturm (AT-6 Spiral) family. The missile has radio command guidance and is also a beam riding SACLOS. This missile's primary variant was designed to defeat tanks with composite armour and explosive reactive armor. The 9M120 Ataka system is often confused with the 9K121 Vikhr system, despite being different weapons systems developed by different companies. The former was designed by the KBM machine-building design bureau and manufactured by the Degtyarev plant. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Russia exported the Ataka ATGM to Iran, Kazakhstan, and Slovenia.[4]

Development

The 9M120 missile was developed by the Kolomna engineering design bureau, located in Kolomna.[1] This company already designed previous ATGMs, such as the 9M14 Malyutka and 9M114 Kokon missiles. The design work began in the mid 1980s. The Ataka ATGM was designed as a successor model to and a further development of the 9K114 Shturm, which was introduced in the late 1970s. Compared to its predecessor, the AT-9 is more resistant to electronic countermeasures, and has a greater hit accuracy and longer reach. The newly developed warhead allows for increased penetration power and effectiveness against explosive reactive armor. The first units were delivered in 1985 to the Soviet armed forces.[5]

The missile has often been confused in the West with the 9A4172 Vikhr dual-purpose laser beam riding missile used on the Kamov helicopters and Sukhoi attack aircraft (as well as some Ukrainian Mi-24/35 upgrades). These systems are completely unrelated in their design and are in fierce competition. New light multifunctional guided missiles with increased range – up to 25 kilometers – have been developed and received for Russian attack helicopters on the outcomes of the military operation in Syria.[6][7]

Description

The primary armaments of the BMPT include four Ataka-T missiles with two mounted on each side.[8]

The Ataka missile is stored in a glass reinforced plastic tube, which also acts as its launcher. The missile is reported to be considerably faster than the 9K114 Shturm, with longer range than the original version. It still uses radio command guidance, but the system has been improved when compared to the earlier 9K114 Shturm.

The system is carried by the multiple kinds of helicopters including the Mi-28 and Mi-35. It is also offered for ground vehicles like the BMPT and the 9P149.

There are three main missiles that are compatible with the launch system. The first is a two-stage anti-armour weapon that features a tandem warhead for dealing with add-on armor. The second variant of the missile – designated as 9M120F – has a thermobaric warhead for use against infantry positions and bunkers. The third variant of the 9M120 Ataka is the 9M220, which features a proximity fused expanding rod warhead, providing the missile with Surface-to-Air capability against low- and slow-flying aircraft.

Variants

The 9P149 combat vehicle carries 12 Ataka missiles.[2]

General specifications

The Mi-28 attack helicopter carries 16 Ataka missiles for anti-tank missions.[2]
Designation Description Length Diameter Wingspan Launch weight Warhead Armor penetration, RHA Range Speed
9M120 Original variant 1,830 mm (72 in) 130 mm (5.1 in) 360 mm (14 in) 49.5 kg (109 lb) 7.4 kg (16 lb) tandem HEAT 800 mm (31 in) after ERA 0.4–6 km (0.25–3.73 mi) 550 m/s (1,800 ft/s; Mach 1.6), top speed
400 m/s (1,300 ft/s; Mach 1.2), average
9M120F Anti-personnel variant Thermobaric warhead with 9.5 kg (21 lb) TNT equivalent 1–5.8 km (0.62–3.60 mi)
9M220O Anti-air variant Proximity Fuse 0.4–7 km (0.25–4.35 mi)
9M120M Modernized anti-tank variant 7.4 kg (16 lb) tandem HEAT 950 mm (37 in) after ERA 0.8–8 km (0.50–4.97 mi)

Operators

M9M120 operators:
  Current
  Former

Current operators

 Algeria
 Azerbaijan
 Belarus
 Egypt
 India
 Indonesia
 Iran[4]
 Kazakhstan[4]
 Russia
 Serbia
 Slovenia[4]
 Syria
 Venezuela

Possible operators

 Democratic People's Republic of Korea[19]
 Mali[20]

Former operators

 Soviet Union – Passed on to successor states.
 Brazil

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Protivotankovyye raketnyye kompleksy". KBM Design Bureau of Machine Building (in Russian). Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  2. ^ a b c "V.A. Degtyarev Plant: 9M120 (9M120F) Ataka Missile". Open Joint Stock Company V.A. Degtyarev Plant. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d "9M120 ATAKA-B". airwar.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d "SIPRI Arms Transfers Database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  5. ^ Hull, A.W.; Markov, D.R.; Zaloga, S.J. (1999). Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design Practices 1945 to Present. Darlington Production. ISBN 1-892848-01-5.
  6. ^ "Russia's modernized Mi-28NM attack helicopter to get new guided missile".
  7. ^ "Russia mass-produces cutting-edge missile for combat helicopters, says defense firm".
  8. ^ "UralVagonZavod – Boyevaya mashina ognevoy podderzhki Terminator". UralVagonZavod (in Russian). Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  9. ^ "ATAKA-T guided weapon system | JOINT STOCK COMPANY RESEARCH AND PRODUCTION CORPORATION KONSTRUKTORSKOYE BYURO MASHYNOSTROYENIYA".
  10. ^ "BMP-3M with Ataka 9m120-1 anti-tank guided missile Army-2017 12508172 | Army-2017 Show Daily News Coverage Report | Defence security military exhibition 2017 daily news category".
  11. ^ "Army 2018: Russian Helicopters pitches new Mi-24 upgrade | Jane's 360".
  12. ^ "Des hélicoptères russes pour l'Algérie".
  13. ^ Akramov (17 May 2018). "Une upgrade du Mi171 en format tueur de char pour l'Algérie". MENADEFENSE (in French). Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  14. ^ "Mi-28 Havoc - REDSTARS". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
  15. ^ Mitzer, Stijn; Oliemans, Joost (17 October 2021). "Azerbaijan's Emerging Arsenal Of Deterrent". Oryx.
  16. ^ "Analysis: Belarus receives two first Su-30SM fighters".
  17. ^ "ЦАМТО / / В Вооруженные Силы Беларуси поступила первая партия управляемых ракет 9М120 «Атака"".
  18. ^ "Janes | Latest defence and security news".
  19. ^ "Ataka Anti-Tank Guided Missile | Military-Today.com".
  20. ^ Oryx. "Russia's African Offensive: Russia Builds Up Malian Air Force". Oryx. Retrieved 21 December 2022.