| OTR-21 Tochka |
|Type||Tactical ballistic missile|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||1976–present (Scarab A) |
1989–present (Scarab B)
|Used by||See Operators|
|Wars||Yemeni Civil War (1994)|
First Chechen War
Second Chechen War
Syrian Civil War
War in Donbass
Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
|Unit cost||$300,000 |
|Mass||2,000 kg (4,400 lb) Scarab A |
2,010 kg (4,430 lb) Scarab B
|Length||6,400 mm (250 in)|
|Diameter||650 mm (26 in)|
|Maximum firing range||70 km (43 mi) Scarab A |
120 km (75 mi) Scarab B
|Warhead||Chemical, 100 kt nuclear warhead, EMP, or fragmentation filling|
|Engine||Single-stage solid-propellant rocket|
|Maximum speed||1.8 km/s (1.1 mi/s; Mach 5.3)|
|Inertial guidance, Tochka-R added passive radar against radar installations|
|Accuracy||150 m (Tochka) |
95 m (Tochka-U)
|BAZ-5921 Mobile TEL|
OTR-21 Tochka (Russian: оперативно-тактический ракетный комплекс (ОТР) «Точка» ("point"); English: Tactical Operational Missile Complex "Tochka") is a Soviet tactical ballistic missile. Its GRAU designation is 9K79; its NATO reporting name is SS-21 Scarab. One missile is transported per 9P129 vehicle and raised prior to launch. It uses an inertial guidance system.
The OTR-21 forward deployment to East Germany began in 1981, replacing the earlier Luna-M series of unguided artillery rockets. The system was scheduled to be decommissioned by the Russian Armed Forces in 2020 in favour of the 9K720 Iskander, but despite this it is claimed that they are maintained in service.
The OTR-21 is a mobile missile launch system, designed to be deployed along with other land combat units on the battlefield. While the 9K52 Luna-M is large and relatively inaccurate, the OTR-21 is much smaller. The missile itself can be used for precise strikes on enemy tactical targets, such as control posts, bridges, storage facilities, troop concentrations and airfields. The fragmentation warhead can be replaced with a nuclear, biological or chemical warhead. The solid propellant makes the missile easy to maintain and deploy.
OTR-21 units are usually managed in a brigade structure.[where?] There are 18 launchers in a brigade; each launcher is provided with two or three missiles.
The vehicle is completely amphibious, with a maximum road speed of 60 km/h (37 mph) and 8 km/h (5.0 mph) in water. The vehicle is NBC-protected. The system began development in 1968. Three variants were developed.
The initial version, Tochka (NATO reporting name Scarab A) entered service with the Soviet Army in 1975. It carried one of four types of warhead:
The minimum range was about 15 km (9.3 mi), maximum range was 70 km (43 mi); its circular error probable (CEP) is estimated to be about 150 m (490 ft).
The improved Tochka-U (NATO reporting name Scarab B) passed state tests from 1986 to 1988 and was introduced in 1989.
A new motor propellant increased the range to 120 km (75 mi). CEP significantly improved, to 95 m (312 ft). Six warhead options have been reported, a unitary high explosive warhead, an anti-personnel submunition dispenser, an anti-radar warhead, an EMP warhead and two nuclear warheads.
An unconfirmed third variant, designated Scarab C by NATO, may have been developed in the 1990s, but was likely never operational. Again, range increased to 185 km (115 mi), and CEP decreased to less than 70 m (229 ft). Scarab C weighs 1,800 kg (4,000 lb).
Educational means:
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In a burned field south of Ilovaisk, on what was the frontline of combat a few days ago, we found a large green tube amid bushes and trees. Military experts have identified it as the rocket motor section of a Russian-made SS-21 "Scarab" ballistic missile. But both the Ukrainian and Russian militaries have the SS-21.
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200 SS-21 Scarab (Tochka)
Russian and DNR sources claimed both that the strike did not occur and that Ukrainian forces launched the strike as a false flag, ludicrously claiming that Russian forces do not use the Tochka-U missile—despite the fact Russia designed the Tochka, has demonstrably used it in previous strikes, and confirmed reports that Russia's 8th Combined Arms Army (operating in Donbas) is equipped with the missile..