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BTR-40
BTR-40 at a public exhibit in Poland, 2008
TypeWheeled Armoured Personnel Carrier
Reconnaissance vehicle
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1950–1980s
Used bySee Operators
Production history
DesignerV. A. Dedkov
Designed1947–1950
ManufacturerGorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod
unknown Chinese manufacturer
Unit costUS$30,000 (export price to Libya, 1970-1973)[1]
Produced1950–1960 (BTR-40ZhD produced until 1969)
No. built8,500 [2]
VariantsSee Variants
Specifications
Mass5.3 tonnes
Length5 m[citation needed]
Width1.9 m
Height2.2 m (1.83 m without armament)
Crew2 + 8 passengers (BTR-40 and BTR-40V)
2 + 6 passengers (BTR-40B)

Armor6-8 mm
Main
armament
7.62 SGMB medium machine gun (1,250 rounds (total)) (optional)
Secondary
armament
2×7.62 SGMB medium machine gun (1,250 rounds (total)) (optional)
Engine6-cylinder GAZ-40
80 hp (60 kW) at 3,400 rpm
Power/weight15.1 hp/tonne (11.3 kW/tonne)
Suspension4x4 wheel, leaf spring
Ground clearance400 mm
Fuel capacity122 l
Operational
range
430 km (road)
385 km (cross country)
Maximum speed 80 km/h

The BTR-40 (БТР, from Бронетранспортёр, or Bronetransporter, literally "armoured transporter".) is a Soviet open-topped, wheeled armoured personnel carrier and reconnaissance vehicle.[3] It is often referred to as the Sorokovka in Soviet service.[4] It was eventually replaced in the APC role by the BTR-152 and in the scout car role by the BRDM-1.

Development history

The BTR-40's development began in early 1947 at the design bureau of the Gorky Automobile Factory under the leadership of V. A. Dedkov. The concept was a successor to the BA-64B armoured car which went out of production in 1946. The design team also included L. W. Kostikin and P.I. Muziukin. Two prototypes designated BTR-141 were completed in 1947. The first was armed with two coaxial 14.5 mm KPVT heavy machine guns on a rotatable mount which was protected by armour plate at the front and sides. The second had no fixed armament. Neither one was accepted for service. In 1950 two new prototypes were produced. Those had a different shape of armour including an upright rear armour. Again one prototype had no fixed armament and the second was armed with two coaxial 14.5 mm KPVT heavy machine guns. These were accepted into service as BTR-40 and BTR-40A respectively.[citation needed]

The vehicle's drawbacks, such as its poor cross-country performance and problems with crossing water obstacles, compelled the design team to produce, in late 1954, what was planned to be an amphibious variant of the BTR-40. It received the designation BTR-40P (with the 'P' standing for plavayushchiy – "floating"). During the design process, the vehicle moved away from the APC concept and became an amphibious armoured scout car. It received a new designation, BRDM.

Description

Overview

The BTR-40's design was based on the GAZ-63 four wheel drive truck which went into production in 1946. The design featured a self-bearing body which was a new feature in Soviet vehicles. The hull has two side doors for the commander and driver and a back door. The vehicle can transport up to eight fully equipped soldiers or 1 tonne of cargo.

Protection

The BTR-40's armour is from 6 mm to 8 mm thick which gives it protection from small arms fire and the shell splinters of its time, but does not protect it against modern artillery fragments and .50-calibre machine gun fire. The BTR-40-series tyres are not protected by armour. They are particularly vulnerable to puncture from fire of all kinds. The vehicle has no roof and is normally covered with a tarpaulin to protect the crew, transported cargo or troops from rain and snow. However this makes it unable to mount any of the SGMB machine guns.

Armament

The APC variant has no permanent armament but it has pintle mounts for three 7.62 mm SGMB medium machine guns, one at the front of the troop compartment and the other two at the sides. The vehicle also has two firing ports on both sides of the hull which allow up to four soldiers to use their weapons while being protected by the APC's armour.

Maneuverability

Like the GAZ-63 truck on which it is based on, the BTR-40 has a four-wheel drive. The chassis, however, is shorter compared to the GAZ-63. The only other thing that distinguishes the chassis of the BTR-40 from that of the GAZ-63 are additional shock absorbers. The BTR-40 also has a more powerful engine. The turning angle is 7.5 m.

Equipment

The vehicle has the 10RT-12 receiving and airing radio which has a range of 20–25 km and a winch at the front, with a maximum capacity of 4.5 tonnes and 70 m of cable. It has no protection against nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) weapons. It also has no night vision equipment.

Service history

Soviet Union

A Soviet BTR-40 in Budapest during the Hungarian Uprising of 1956

The BTR-40 was produced at the Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (Gorkovsky Automobile Factory) from 1950 to 1960. It was first shown publicly at the military parade in Moscow in 1950. It was issued to the Red Army in 1950 and was used in the APC, reconnaissance and command post roles. After several years of service,[5] it became apparent that it did not fit the modern battlefield. It was replaced by the BTR-152.

Ex-Egyptian BTR-40 captured by the royalist guerrillas during the North Yemen Civil War

Foreign service

The BTR-40 began to enter service with two other Warsaw Pact members in late 1949, namely East Germany and Poland, where it was used as a standard APC until more advanced vehicles like the BTR-152 were available. The last BTR-40s were withdrawn from Warsaw Pact countries in the early 1970s. The vehicle was also sold to many Arab and African nations in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

The People's Republic of China (PRC), had developed a copy of the BTR-40 called the Type 55. It is unknown how many of these vehicles entered service with the PLA. The vehicle was also exported to North Korea, probably as part of a military assistance programme during the Korean War, where it saw combat for the first time. It was later used by the North Vietnamese Army during the Vietnam War.[6]

BTR-40 also saw combat service during the North Yemen Civil War during which at least one was captured from the Egyptians by the royalist guerrillas.

List of conflicts

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Variants

Soviet Union

BTR-40B
BTR-40 as road–rail vehicle.

People's Republic of China

Cuba

East Germany

Indonesia

Israel

Operators

Map of BTR-40 operators in blue with former operators in red
Modernized BTR-40 of the Indonesian security forces.

Current operators

Former operators

See also

References

  1. ^ Efrat, Moshe (1983). "The Economics of Soviet Arms Transfers to the Third World. A Case Study: Egypt". Soviet Studies. 35 (4): 437–456. doi:10.1080/09668138308411496. ISSN 0038-5859. JSTOR 151253.
  2. ^ Jane's Armour and Artillery 2005–2006.
  3. ^ a b c d Christopher F. Foss (16 May 2000). Jane's Tanks and Combat Vehicles Recognition Guide (2000 ed.). Harper Collins Publishers. p. 290. ISBN 978-0-00-472452-2.
  4. ^ ibid.
  5. ^ Tanks and armored fighting vehicles : visual encyclopedia. New York, N.Y.: Chartwell Books. 2012. p. 244. ISBN 9780785829263. OCLC 785874088.
  6. ^ "North Vietnamese Armor"
  7. ^ "Sejarah Hari Ini: Mengenal BTR-40, Ranpur APC Peninggalan Operasi Trikora yang Lahir Kembali". 11 January 2023.
  8. ^ a b "BTR-40 : Panser Yang Nyaris Jadi Besi Tua". IndoMiliter. Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Trade Registers". Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  10. ^ a b John Pike. "People's Liberation Army". Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  11. ^ Bronetransporter BTR-40. "SPW-40 East German Experimental mounting ATGM Maljutka". Retrieved 15 May 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ The Military Balance 2021, p. 453.
  13. ^ a b United States Army War College (August 1993). The Challenge of Chinese Arms Proliferation: U.S. Policy for the 1990s (PDF). Strategic Studies Institute (Report). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 December 2022.
  14. ^ "Yemen" (PDF). Tel-Aviv: Institute For National Security Studies. 6 October 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  15. ^ "Handbook of Major Foreign Weapons Systems Exported to the Third World: 1981-86" (PDF). Langley: Central Intelligence Agency. November 1987. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  16. ^ Cordesman, Anthony (October 2016). After The Storm: The Changing Military Balance in the Middle East. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 241. ISBN 978-1-4742-9256-6.
  17. ^ Keegan, John (1983). World Armies (Second ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. p. 408. ISBN 978-0333340790.