TypeTactical air-to-surface missile
Place of originRussia
Service history
In service2012 (Kh-38ME) - 2019 (Kh-36)
Used byRussia
Production history
DesignerTactical Missiles Corporation JSC
Designed2007 (Kh-38ME) - 2015 (Kh-36)
ManufacturerTactical Missiles Corporation JSC
Produced2015 (Kh-38M) - 2019 (Kh-36)
Mass520 kg (1,150 lb)
Length4.2 m (13 ft 9 in)[3]
Diameter0.31 m (12.2 in)[3]
Wingspan1.14 m (44.9 in)
WarheadHE fragmentation, cluster warhead, armor-piercing
Warhead weightup to 250 kg (551 lb)[3]
Contact fuse

EngineTwo-stage solid rocket motor[3]
up to 40 km (21.6 nmi)[3]
Flight altitude200-12000 m
Maximum speed Mach 2.2[3]
Laser, active radar, IR, satellite, depending on variant
Kh-38: Su-34, Su-57, Ka-52K
Kh-36: Su-57, MiG-35

The Kh-38/Kh-38M (Russian: Х-38) is a family of air-to-surface missiles meant to succeed the Kh-25 and Kh-29 missile families.

Design and development

The basic configuration of the Kh-38M was revealed at the 2007 Moscow Air Show (MAKS). The first prototypes of the missile had initially folding wings and tail fins for internal carriage, and would have a variety of seeker heads for different variants.[4] Different warheads (fragmentation, cluster munitions, penetrating) can also be fitted. The Kh-38M is meant to succeed the Kh-25 and Kh-29 missile families. It can be used by combat aircraft such as the Sukhoi Su-34 and Sukhoi Su-57, and it is planned to be integrated on the Kamov Ka-52K helicopter. The first test firing took place in 2010 from a Su-34, and production was ordered to start in 2015.[3]

In a successive version, unveiled at MAKS 2017, both control surfaces were replaced by longer and narrower fixed ones, a solution similar to the one used in the Selenia Aspide missile.[5][needs update]

Operational history

The Kh-38M was first used in combat during the Russian military intervention in the Syrian civil war.[3] It was also used during the 2022 invasion of Ukraine.[6]


Both versions of the Grom are of 600 kg weight, with various guidance mechanisms, and both are created on the basis of the Kh-38M short-range tactical missile and also have modular structures, warheads and seekers. This weapon was first seen at MAKS 2015, and intended to equip all types of fighters, including the MiG-35 and Su-57.[9]

See also


  1. ^ "Russia to test new missiles in Syria later this year". 14 September 2016.
  2. ^ "Russian MiG-29Ks will employ Kh-38 in Syria – Alert 5".
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "[Actu] La bombe guidée 9A-7759 Grom". Red Samovar. 26 June 2018.
  4. ^ Barrie, Douglas and Komarov, Alexey. "War on Two Fronts for Russia's Missile Builders ". Aviation Week, 10 September 2007. Retrieved: 25 May 2014.
  5. ^ "MAKS: Tactical Missiles Corporation shows Kh-38 changes - Russian aviation news". 20 July 2017.
  6. ^ Newdick, Thomas (14 May 2024). "Our Best Look At Russia's Kh-38 Missile Now Being Used In Ukraine". The War Zone. Retrieved 19 May 2024.
  7. ^ "Airborne guided missile "GROM-E1"". Archived from the original on 26 July 2022.
  8. ^ "Airborne guided gliding bomb "GROM-E2"". 20 July 2021. Archived from the original on 20 July 2021.
  9. ^ "Производитель раскрыл характеристики новейших авиационных средств поражения "Гром"".