TypeTactical air-to-surface missile
Place of originRussia
Service history
In service2012 (Kh-38ME) - 2019 (Kh-36)
Used byRussia
WarsSyrian Civil War[1][2]
Production history
DesignerTactical Missiles Corporation JSC
Designed2007 (Kh-38ME) - 2015 (Kh-36)
ManufacturerTactical Missiles Corporation JSC
Produced2015 (Kh-38M) - 2019 (Kh-36)
Mass520 kg (1,150 lb)
Length4.2 m (13 ft 9 in)[3]
Diameter0.31 m (12.2 in)[3]
Wingspan1.14 m (44.9 in)
WarheadHE fragmentation, cluster warhead, armor-piercing
Warhead weightup to 250 kg (551 lb)[3]
Contact fuse

EngineTwo-stage solid rocket motor[3]
up to 40 km (21.6 nmi)[3]
Flight altitude200-12000 m
Maximum speed Mach 2.2[3]
Laser, active radar, IR, satellite, depending on variant
Kh-38: Su-34, Su-57, Ka-52K
Kh-36: Su-57, MiG-35

The Kh-38/Kh-38M (Russian: Х-38) is a family of air-to-surface missiles meant to succeed the Kh-25 and Kh-29 missile families.

Design and development

The basic configuration of the Kh-38M was revealed at the 2007 Moscow Air Show (MAKS). The first prototypes of the missile had initially folding wings and tail fins for internal carriage, and would have a variety of seeker heads for different variants.[4] Different warheads (fragmentation, cluster munitions, penetrating) can also be fitted. The Kh-38M is meant to succeed the Kh-25 and Kh-29 missile families. It can be used by combat aircraft such as the Sukhoi Su-34 and Sukhoi Su-57, and it is planned to be integrated on the Kamov Ka-52K helicopter. The first test firing took place in 2010 from a Su-34, and production was ordered to start in 2015.[3]

In a successive version, unveiled at MAKS 2017, both control surfaces were replaced by longer and narrower fixed ones, a solution similar to the one used in the Selenia Aspide missile.[5][needs update]

Operational history

The Kh-38M was first used in combat during the Russian military intervention in the Syrian civil war.[3] It was also used during the 2022 invasion of Ukraine.


Both versions of the Grom are of 600 kg weight, with various guidance mechanisms, and both are created on the basis of the Kh-38M short-range tactical missile and also have modular structures, warheads and seekers. This weapon was first seen at MAKS 2015, and intended to equip all types of fighters, including the MiG-35 and Su-57.[8]

See also


  1. ^ "Russia to test new missiles in Syria later this year". 14 September 2016.
  2. ^ "Russian MiG-29Ks will employ Kh-38 in Syria – Alert 5".
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "[Actu] La bombe guidée 9A-7759 Grom". Red Samovar. 26 June 2018.
  4. ^ Barrie, Douglas and Komarov, Alexey. "War on Two Fronts for Russia's Missile Builders ". Aviation Week, 10 September 2007. Retrieved: 25 May 2014.
  5. ^ "MAKS: Tactical Missiles Corporation shows Kh-38 changes - Russian aviation news". 20 July 2017.
  6. ^ "Airborne guided missile "GROM-E1"". Archived from the original on 26 July 2022.
  7. ^ "Airborne guided gliding bomb "GROM-E2"". 20 July 2021. Archived from the original on 20 July 2021.
  8. ^ "Производитель раскрыл характеристики новейших авиационных средств поражения "Гром"".