| Kh-59 Ovod|
(NATO reporting name: AS-13 'Kingbolt')
Kh-59M Ovod-M (AS-18 'Kazoo')
Air-launched cruise missile
|Place of origin||Soviet Union/Russia|
|Used by||Russia, China, India, Algeria|
|Wars||First Chechen War|
Second Chechen War
|Manufacturer||Tactical Missiles Corporation|
|Mass||930 kg (2,050 lb)|
|Length||570 cm (220 in)|
|Diameter||38.0 cm (15.0 in)|
|Wingspan||130 cm (51.2 in)|
|Warhead||Cluster or shaped-charge fragmentation|
|Warhead weight||320 kg (705 lb)|
|Engine||Kh-59: two-stage rocket|
Kh-59ME: rocket then R95TP-300 turbojet/turbofan
|Kh-59ME (export): 115 km (62 nmi)|
Kh-59ME: 200 km (110 nmi)
Kh-59MK: 285 km (150 nmi)
Kh-59MK2: 290 km (160 nmi)
|Maximum speed||Mach 0.72 – Mach 0.88 (882–1,080 km/h; 548–670 mph)|
|Inertial guidance (then TV guidance), millimeter wave active radar seeker (Kh-59MK, Kh-59MK2 land attack version)|
Kh-59: Su-24M, MiG-27, Su-17M3/22M4, HAL Tejas, Su-30 MKI Su-25 and Su-30
The Kh-59 Ovod (Russian: Х-59 Овод 'Gadfly'; AS-13 'Kingbolt') is a Russian TV-guided cruise missile with a two-stage solid-fuel propulsion system and 200 km range. The Kh-59M Ovod-M (AS-18 'Kazoo') is a variant with a bigger warhead and turbojet engine. It is primarily a land-attack missile but the Kh-59MK variant targets ships.
The initial design was based on the Raduga Kh-58 (AS-11 'Kilter'), but it had to be abandoned because the missile speed was too high for visual target acquisition.
Raduga OKB developed the Kh-59 in the 1970s as a longer ranged version of the Kh-25 (AS-10 'Karen'), as a precision stand-off weapon for the Su-24M and late-model MiG-27's. The electro-optical sensors for this and other weapons such as the Kh-29 (AS-14 'Kedge') and KAB-500KR bombs were developed by S. A. Zverev NPO in Krasnogorsk.
It is believed that development of the Kh-59M started in the 1980s. Details of the Kh-59M were first revealed in the early 1990s.
The original Kh-59 is propelled by a solid fuel engine, and incorporates a solid fuel accelerator in the tail. The folding stabilizers are located in the front of the missile, with wings and rudder in the rear. The Kh-59 cruises at an altitude of about 7 metres above water or 100–1,000 metres (330–3,280 ft) above ground with the help of a radar altimeter. It can be launched at speeds of 600 to 1,000 km/h (370 to 620 mph) at altitudes of 0.2 to 11 kilometres (660 to 36,090 ft) and has a CEP of 2 to 3 metres. It is carried on an AKU-58-1 launch pylon.
The Kh-59ME has an external turbofan engine below the body just forward of the rear wings, but retains the powder-fuel accelerator. It also has a dual guidance system consisting of an inertial guidance system to guide it into the target area and a television system to guide it to the target itself.
The 36MT turbofan engine developed for the Kh-59M class of missiles is manufactured by NPO Saturn of Russia.
Target coordinates are fed into the missile before launch, and the initial flight phase is conducted under inertial guidance. At a distance of 10 km (6.2 mi) from the target the television guidance system is activated. An operator aboard the aircraft visually identifies the target and locks the missile onto it.
Although the original Kh-59 could be carried by the MiG-27, Su-17M3, Su-22M4, Su-24M, Su-25 and Su-30 family if they carried an APK-9 datalink pod, it was only fielded on the Su-24M in Russian service. From 2008–2015, Russia delivered some 200 Kh-59 missiles to China for use on the Su-30MK2; deliveries may have included both Kh-59MK and Kh-59MK2 versions. The Kh-59MK2 has been test-fired by a Su-57 stealth fighter, during its 2018 Syrian deployment.
On 4 April 2022, during the Russian invasion of Ukraine, photographic evidence was published on Telegram channels that a Kh-59M missile was launched by the Russian Aerospace Forces at a grain silo near Mykolaiv, Ukraine. The missile was captured on CCTV as it was traveling to the target area.
On 16 August 2022, the Ukrainian Air Force confirmed over Social Media that Kh-59 missiles were used to strike an airbase in the Zhytomyr Oblast, the missiles being fired from towards the Belarusian border from what was believed to be Su-34 jets.
Proposed development options for the Kh-59M/ME have included alternative payloads (including cluster munitions) but their current development status is unclear.
Also known as the Kh-59M Ovod-M, the AS-18 is 'modernized version of AS-13 Kingbolt.['] [...] The warhead can be either a 705-lb high explosive or 617-lb cluster submunitions.