|Type||Medium-range air-to-air missile|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||Soviet Air Forces|
|Manufacturer||Kaliningrad Series Production Plant|
|Mass||292 kg (644 lb)|
|Length||4.3 m (14 ft)|
|Diameter||280 mm (11 in)|
|Warhead weight||40 kg (88 lb)|
|23 kilometres (14 mi)|
|Maximum speed||Mach 2|
|Semi-active radar homing (R-98MR)|
Infrared homing (R-98MT)
|Su-11, Su-15, Yak-28P|
The Kaliningrad K-8 (R-8) (NATO reporting name AA-3 'Anab') was a medium-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union for interceptor aircraft use.
The missile[clarification needed] was developed by OKB-339/NII-339 (currently Phazotron NIIR). The infrared seeker was developed by TsKB-589 GKOT (currently TsKB Geofizika), who also developed the seeker for 9M31 missile of 9K31 Strela-1.
The K-8's development began in 1955, known as R-8 in service. Like most Soviet air-to-air missiles, it was made with a choice of semi-active radar homing or infrared seeker heads. The original missile was compatible with the Uragan-5B radar used on the Sukhoi Su-11 and several developmental aircraft from Mikoyan-Gurevich.
It was upgraded to R-8M (better known as R-98) standard in 1961, giving the SARH weapon the capability for head-on intercepts. In 1963 it was further upgraded to the R-8M1, making it compatible with the RP-11 Oriol-D radar of the Sukhoi Su-15 and Yakovlev Yak-28P.
Subsequent development led in 1965 to R-8M2, more commonly called R-98, with longer range and improved seekers, compatible with the upgraded RP-11 Oryol-M ("Eagle") radar. The final variant, introduced from 1973, was the R-98M1 (NATO 'Advanced Anab') with better countermeasures resistance and longer range, matched to the Taifun-M radar of the Su-15TM and Yak-28PM interceptors.
The R-98M1 remained in service through the 1980s, being withdrawn with the last Su-15 'Flagon' interceptors.
A variant using the seeker heads of the K-13, giving better dogfight capability, was developed in 1960 as the K-88, but it did not enter service.
An inert training version was also developed, designated UR-8M.
The R-98 brought down Korean Air Lines Flight 007 on September 1, 1983.