AA-3 Anab
TypeMedium-range air-to-air missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1960-1992
Used bySoviet Air Defense Forces
Production history
DesignerMatus Bisnovat
ManufacturerKaliningrad Series Production Plant
Specifications (R-98MR)
Mass292 kg (644 lb)
Length4.3 m (14 ft)
Diameter280 mm (11 in)
WarheadBlast fragmentation
Warhead weight40 kg (88 lb)

EngineSolid-fuel rocket
23 kilometres (14 mi)
Maximum speed Mach 2
Semi-active radar homing (R-98MR)
Infrared homing (R-98MT)
Su-11, Su-15, Yak-28P

The Kaliningrad K-8 (R-8) (NATO reporting name AA-3 'Anab') was a medium-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union for interceptor aircraft use.[1]

The K-8 was developed by OKB-339/NII-339 (currently Phazotron NIIR). The infrared seeker was developed by TsKB-589 GKOT (currently TsKB Geofizika), who also developed the seeker for 9M31 missile of 9K31 Strela-1.[1]


The K-8's development began in 1955, known as R-8 in service. Like most Soviet air-to-air missiles, it was made with a choice of semi-active radar homing or infrared seeker heads. The original missile was compatible with the Uragan-5B radar used on the Sukhoi Su-11 and several developmental aircraft from Mikoyan-Gurevich.[1]

It was upgraded to R-8M (better known as R-98) standard in 1961, giving the SARH weapon the capability for head-on intercepts. In 1963 it was further upgraded to the R-8M1, making it compatible with the RP-11 Oryol-D radar of the Sukhoi Su-15 and Yakovlev Yak-28P.[1]

Subsequent development led in 1965 to R-8M2, more commonly called R-98, with longer range and improved seekers, compatible with the upgraded RP-11 Oryol-M ("Eagle") radar. The final variant, introduced from 1973, was the R-98M1 (NATO 'Advanced Anab') with better countermeasures resistance and longer range, matched to the Taifun-M radar of the Su-15TM and Yak-28PM interceptors.[1]

The R-98M1 remained in service through the 1980s, being withdrawn with the last Su-15 'Flagon' interceptors.[1]

A variant using the seeker heads of the K-13, giving better dogfight capability, was developed in 1960 as the K-88, but it did not enter service.[1]

An inert training version was also developed, designated UR-8M.[1]

The R-98 brought down Korean Air Lines Flight 007 on September 1, 1983.


 Soviet Union
Soviet Air Defence Forces

Specifications (R-98MT / R-98MR)

Kaliningrad R-8


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Gordon, Yefim. Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons. Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-188-1
  • Gordon, Yefim (2004). Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons Since World War Two. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-188-1.