RS-28 Sarmat (РС-28 Сармат)
TypeSuperheavy Intercontinental ballistic missile
Place of originRussia
Service history
In service2023
Used byStrategic Rocket Forces
Production history
DesignerMakeyev Rocket Design Bureau
ManufacturerKrasMash, Zlatoust MZ, NPO Energomash, NPO Mashinostroyeniya, KBKhA
Mass208.1 tonnes[1]
Length35.5 m[2]
Diameter3 m[2]
  • Avangard Hypersonic Glide Vehicles[3]
  • Up to 16 warheads of various types

Inertial guidance, GLONASS, Astro-inertial

The RS-28 Sarmat (Russian: РС-28 Сармат,[7] named after the Sarmatians;[8] NATO reporting name: SS-X-29[9] or SS-X-30[10]), often colloquially referred to as Satan II by media outlets, is a three-stage Russian silo-based, liquid-fueled, HGV-capable and FOBS-capable super-heavy intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) produced by the Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau.[7][11][12][13] It is intended to replace the Soviet R-36M ICBM in Russia's arsenal.[14]

The Sarmat is one of six new Russian strategic weapons unveiled by Russian president Vladimir Putin on 1 March 2018.[15] The RS-28 Sarmat made its first test flight on 20 April 2022.[16] On 16 August 2022, a state contract was signed for the manufacture and supply of the Sarmat strategic missile system.[17] The missile officially entered combat service in September 2023, as the world's longest range and most powerful extant ICBM system.[18][19]


In February 2014, a Russian military official announced the Sarmat was expected to be ready for deployment around 2020.[20] In May 2014 another official source suggested that the program was being accelerated, and that it would, in his opinion, constitute up to 100 percent of Russia's fixed land-based nuclear arsenal by 2021.[21][22]

In late June 2015, it was reported that the production schedule for the first prototype of the Sarmat was slipping.[23] The RS-28 Sarmat was expected to become operational in 2016.[24]

On 10 August 2016, Russia successfully tested the RS-28's first-stage engine named PDU-99.[25]

In early 2017, prototype missiles had been reportedly built and delivered to Plesetsk Cosmodrome for trials, but the test program was delayed to re-check key hardware components before initial launch.[26] According to the commander of the Russian Strategic Forces Col. Gen. Sergei Karakayev, the RS-28 Sarmat would be deployed with the 13th Red Banner Rocket Division of the 31st Missile Army at Dombarovsky Air Base, Orenburg Oblast, and with the 62nd Red Banner Rocket Division of the 33rd Guards Rocket Army at Uzhur, Krasnoyarsk Krai, replacing the previous R-36M ICBMs currently located there.[citation needed]

In late December 2017, the first successful launch test of the missile was carried out at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Arkhangelsk Oblast. According to the report, the missile flew several dozen kilometers and fell within the test range.[27][28]

On 1 March 2018, Russian president Vladimir Putin, in his annual address to the Federal Assembly, said that "the active phase of tests" of the missile had begun.[29] Shortly after, an anonymous military source was cited as saying that the 2007 information about the Sarmat missile had been leaked to the West deliberately.[30] On 30 March 2018, the Russian Defence Ministry published a video showing the Sarmat performing its second successful test-launch at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome.[31]

On 24 December 2019, during the exhibition of the modern weapon systems at the National Defense Management Center, it was reported that Sarmat is capable of a "35,000 km sub-orbital flight". The trials of the "missile complex" were expected to be completed in 2021, and, during the 2020–2027 period, "twenty missile regiments are planned to be rearmed with the RS-28".[32] On 20 April 2022, according to the Russian Defense Ministry:

"At 15:12 Moscow time at the Plesetsk state test cosmodrome in the Arkhangelsk region, a Sarmat fixed-based [sic] intercontinental ballistic missile was successfully launched from a silo launcher."

— Russian Defense Ministry[33]

After the test, on 22 May, Roscosmos head Dmitri Rogozin warned that 50 new RS-28 Sarmat/SS-X-30 intercontinental nuclear missiles will soon be combat ready.[34]

On 18 February 2023, a test of the RS-28 missile was conducted by the Russian Federation; the US claimed that this test was unsuccessful, but this has not been confirmed or denied by the Russian government.[35]

On 1 September 2023, Roscosmos Director General Yuri Borisov said the weapon system had been placed on official combat duty.[18][36]


The Sarmat is a three-stage, liquid-fueled missile with a range of 18,000 km and a launch weight of 208.1 metric tons. The missile is 35.3 meters long and 3 meters in diameter. Designated a “heavy” ICBM, the Sarmat can load a wide variety of warhead options. According to Russian media, Sarmat is capable of carrying 10 tonnes of payload,[37] of ten 750 kiloton,[38] 15 or 16 lighter MIRV warheads,[39] and 3 Avangard hypersonic glide vehicles (HGVs)[40] or a combination of warheads and several countermeasures against anti-ballistic missile systems.[41] The Russian Ministry of Defense said that the missile is Russia's response to the U.S. Prompt Global Strike system.[21]

The RS-28 is reportedly housed in a modified 15P718M silo launching system.

According to Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, Sarmat has a short boost phase, which shortens the interval when it can be tracked by satellites with infrared sensors, such as the U.S. Space-Based Infrared System, allegedly making it more difficult to intercept.[42][43][44] [dubious ] Sarmat provides Russia with a Fractional Orbital Bombardment (FOBS) capability that can fly a trajectory over the South Pole to targets in the United States, which has the advantage of being able to avoid missile defense systems in the northern United States.[43]

According to various sources, RS-28's launch sites are to be equipped with the "Mozyr"[citation needed] active protection system, designed to negate a potential adversary's first strike advantage by discharging a cloud of metal arrows or balls kinetically destroying incoming bombs, cruise missiles and ICBM warheads at altitudes of up to 6 km.[45][46][47][48][49]

See also


  1. ^ "RS-28 Sarmat". Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Russia Upgrades Facility to Produce RS-28 Sarmat ICBM". Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  3. ^ "RS-28 Sarmat".
  4. ^ "Army 2019: Russian army discloses RS-28 Sarmat ICBM characteristics". Army Recognition. 2 July 2019.
  5. ^ "Trials of next generation Russian ICBM RS-28 Sarmat would be completed in 2021". 3 January 2020.
  6. ^ "Sarmatian ICBM & FOBS Reintroduction". GlobalSecurity.
  7. ^ a b Новую тяжелую ракету "Сармат" будут делать в Красноярске [New heavy rocket "Sarmat" will be made in Krasnoyarsk]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 2 February 2015.
  8. ^ "ODIN - OE Data Integration Network". Retrieved 4 May 2024.
  9. ^ Kristensen, Hans M.; Korda, Matt (4 March 2019). "Russian nuclear forces, 2019". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 75 (2): 73–84. Bibcode:2019BuAtS..75b..73K. doi:10.1080/00963402.2019.1580891.
  10. ^ "Russia's Nuclear Weapons: Doctrine, Forces, and Modernization" (PDF). 2 January 2020. p. 14. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  11. ^ "Перспективная тяжелая МБР РС-28 / ОКР Сармат, ракета 15А28 – SS-X-30 (проект) – MilitaryRussia.Ru — отечественная военная техника (после 1945г.)" [Promising heavy ICBM RS-28 / ROC Sarmat, missile 15A28 – SS-X-30 (project) – MilitaryRussia.Ru – domestic military equipment (after 1945)]. Archived from the original on 15 September 2013.
  12. ^ "RS-28 "Sarmat" ICBM - why Russia needs such doomsday weapons". infobrics.
  13. ^ "Bombs in orbit? Verification and violation under the Outer Space Treaty". The Space Review.
  14. ^ В обойме – «Сармат», «Кинжал», «Авангард»... [In the (weapon) magazine – "Sarmat", "Kinzhal", "Avangard"...]. 12 March 2018. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018.
  15. ^ "Here's The Six Super Weapons Putin Unveiled During Fiery Address". The War Zone. 1 March 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  16. ^ Mike Wall (22 April 2022). "Russia conducts 1st full flight test of new 'Sarmat' intercontinental ballistic missile". Retrieved 4 May 2024.
  17. ^ "Putin announced an imminent mass production of Sarmat ICBM". 5 October 2023. Retrieved 4 May 2024.
  18. ^ a b Missile complex "Sarmat" put on combat duty Borisov: Sarmat strategic missile system put on combat duty (Google Translate) 09/01/2023
  19. ^ "Russia puts advanced Sarmat nuclear missile system on 'combat duty'". Aljazeera. September 2023.
  20. ^ Podvig, Pavel (25 February 2014). "Sarmat ICBM to be ready by 2020". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  21. ^ a b "Минобороны рассказало о тяжелой баллистической ракете – неуязвимом для ПРО ответе США" [The Ministry of Defense spoke about a heavy ballistic missile – a US response invulnerable to missile defense]. 31 May 2014.
  22. ^ "Russia Fast Tracking "Unique" Missile". The Moscow Times. 1 June 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  23. ^ "Russian Program to Build World's Biggest Intercontinental Missile Delayed". The Moscow Times. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  24. ^ Ракета "Сармат" взлетит в 2016 году [Rocket "Sarmat" will take off in 2016]. 16 September 2015.
  25. ^ "Испытания тяжелой стратегической ракеты "Сармат" начнутся в ближайшее время" [Tests of the heavy strategic missile "Sarmat" will begin in the near future]. 10 August 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  26. ^ "Russia's Deadliest Nuke Program Faces Delays". The Diplomat. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  27. ^ "В России успешно прошло первое бросковое испытание прототипа ракеты "Сармат"" [Russia has successfully passed the first launch test of the prototype of the missile "Sarmat"]. Moskovskij Komsomolets. 27 December 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  28. ^ Podvig, Pavel (29 December 2017). "Sarmat ejection test, at last". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  29. ^ Roth, Andrew (1 March 2018). "Putin threatens US arms race with new missiles declaration". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 May 2024.
  30. ^ Источник сообщил об утечке по ракетам "Сармат" специально для США RIA Novosti, 3 March 2018.
  31. ^ "Russia releases 'Satan 2' missile test footage". CNN. 30 March 2018.
  32. ^ "Испытания комплекса "Сармат" планируется завершить в 2021 году – Национальный центр управления обороной РФ" [Testing of the Sarmat complex (system?) is planned to be completed in 2021 – National Defense Control Center of the Russian Federation] (in Russian). Interfax. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  33. ^ Meitav, Roman (20 April 2022). "Russia completes first launch of new nuclear-capable ICBM". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  34. ^ "Russia warns it will soon have 50 brand new 'Satan-2' nuclear missiles". New York Post. 25 May 2022. Retrieved 23 December 2022.
  35. ^ "Russian test launch of "Satan II" missile failed, U.S. says, as Putin suspends role in nuclear treaty". CBS News. 22 February 2023. Retrieved 3 July 2023.
  36. ^ Srishti Singh Sisodia, WION, Sep 01, 2023, 06:05 PM IST
  37. ^ "Missile Defense Project, RS-28 Sarmat Intercontinental ballistic missile". Missile Threat. Center for Strategic and International Studies. 17 May 2017. Archived from the original on 3 May 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  38. ^ "RS-28 Intercontinental ballistic missile". Military Today.
  39. ^ Litovkin, Nikolai (2 March 2018). "Which new weapons has Putin given Russia?".
  40. ^ "RS-28 Sarmat".
  41. ^ "Russia plans new ICBM to replace Cold War 'Satan' missile". Reuters. 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  42. ^ Majumdar, Dave (12 March 2018). "Russia's Most Lethal Nuclear Missile Ever Will "Enter Duty in the Near Future"". The National Interest.
  43. ^ a b Majumdar, Dave (1 March 2018). "Russia's Nuclear Weapons Buildup Is Aimed at Beating U.S. Missile Defenses". The National Interest.
  44. ^ Trevithick, Joseph (26 December 2017). "Russia Fires Topol Ballistic Missile to Test New Tech to Defeat Missile Defense Systems".
  45. ^ "New Russian Sarmat and Rubezh ICBM missiles able to defeat all deployed anti-missile systems". 25 February 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
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  48. ^ "Защита шахтных пусковых установок МБР от высокоточного оружия" [Protecting silo launchers of ICBMs from high-precision weapons] (in Russian). 27 April 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  49. ^ "Министерство обороны возобновляет испытания комплекса активной защиты от ракет и высокоточного оружия с перспективными поражающими элементами" [The Ministry of Defense resumes testing of the complex (system?) of active protection against missiles and high-precision weapons with advanced submunitions] (in Russian). 11 December 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2019.