|Type||Medium-range, air-to-air BVR missile; anti-radiation missile|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
|Mass||253 kg (558 lb)|
|Length||4.08 m (13.4 ft)|
|Diameter||230 mm (9.1 in)|
|Wingspan||772 mm (30.4 in)|
|Warhead||blast/fragmentation, or continuous rod|
|Warhead weight||39 kg (86 lb)|
|radar-proximity and impact fuzes|
|Engine||High performance, w. directed-rocket motor|
Solid-fuel rocket motor
|R-27T: up to 40 km (25 mi)|
R-27T1: up to 80 km (50 mi)
R-27ET: up to 120 km (75 mi)
R-27ET1: up to 80 km (50 mi)
R-27R: up to 73 km (45 mi)
R-27R1: up to 75 km (47 mi)
R-27ER: up to 130 km (81 mi)
R-27ER1: up to 100 km (62 mi)
R-27P: up to 80 km (50 mi)
R-27EP: up to 130 km (81 mi)
R-27EA: up to 130 km (81 mi)
R-27EM: up to 170 km (110 mi)
|Maximum speed||Mach 4.5|
|semi-active radar homing (R-27R/ER), active-radar-homing (R-27EA), infrared homing (R-27T/ET), passive radiation homing (R-27P/EP)|
|Su-27, Su-30, Su-33, Su-34, Su-35, Su-37, F-14 (done by Iran), MiG-23, MiG-29, Yak-141, Su-57, local conversion as a surface-to-air missile in Yemen|
The Vympel R-27 (NATO reporting name AA-10 Alamo) is a family of air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union. It remains in service with the Russian Aerospace Forces, air forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States and air forces of many other countries as standard medium range air-to-air missile even though they have the more advanced R-77.
The R-27 is manufactured in infrared-homing (R-27T, R-27ET), semi-active-radar-homing (R-27R, R-27ER), and active-radar-homing (R-27EA) versions. R-27 family missiles are produced by both Russian and Ukrainian manufacturers. The R-27 missile is carried by the Mikoyan MiG-29 and Sukhoi Su-27 family fighters. The R-27 missile is also license-produced in China, though the production license was bought from Ukraine instead of Russia.
R-27R and ER variants can be used in any meteorological conditions. Launch can made at less than 5 g overload and less than 50 deg/s roll rate. It is allowed to redesignate targets during flight, and can share target illumination with other aircraft.
R-27T and ET variants can be used out of cloudiness, at least 15 degrees away from the bearing of sun, and 4 degrees away from the bearing of moon and ground-based heat-contrasting conditions. In cases of maximum head-on range launches where lock-command cannot be utilized, missile can not be fired. Seeker must acquire target before launch. On the combat operations section of the Su-27 manual, this is especially recommended for head-on usage for passive attacks at targets with 0 degrees approach angle (i.e. another fighter moving to intercept), leaving target unalerted to the incoming missile. Launch can be made at 0 to 7 g, but limited to 6 g if roll induced slip is more than 2× diameter of the ball.
In the 1999 Eritrean-Ethiopian War, Eritrean MiG-29s fought Ethiopian Su-27s both piloted by Russian mercenaries. Only one R-27 fired by an Ethiopian Su-27 at an Eritrean MiG-29 proximity-fuzed near enough the MiG that the damaged aircraft eventually crashed on landing.
During the war in Donbas, the Ukrainian Air Force claimed that one of its Su-25 was shot down by a Russian Aerospace Forces MiG-29 using a R-27T on 16 July 2014. Russian officials denied any involvement.
The R-27 was used by both sides during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.
During the Yemeni Civil War (2015–present) Houthis have used R-27T missiles modified to serve as surface to air missiles. A video released on January 7, 2018, also shows a modified R-27T hitting a Saudi led coalition fighter on a Forward looking infrared camera. Houthi sources claim to have downed a F-15. Rebels later released footage showing an aircraft wreck, however serial numbers on the wreckage suggested that the downed aircraft was a Panavia Tornado, also operated by Saudi forces. On January 8, the Saudi Press Agency admitted the loss of an aircraft over Yemen, though it did not clarify whether it was a Tornado or an F-15, blaming the crash to 'a technical issue' and reporting that the pilots ejected and were recovered by friendly forces.
On 21 March 2018, Houthi rebels released a video where they hit and possibly shot down a Saudi F-15 in Saada province. In the video a R-27T air to air missile adapted for surface to air use was launched, appearing to have successfully hit a jet. As in the video of the previous similar hit recorded on 8 January, the target, while clearly hit, did not appear to be downed. Saudi forces confirmed the hit, while saying the jet safely landed at a Saudi base. Saudi official sources confirmed the incident reporting that it happened at 3:48 pm local time after a surface-to-air defense missile was launched at the fighter jet from inside Saada airport.