Pantsir
Панцирь
A Pantsir-S2 missile launcher on a KAMAZ-6560 8×8 truck TLAR
TypeSelf-propelled anti-aircraft weapon
Place of originSoviet Union / Russia
Service history
In service2012–present
Used bySee list of operators
WarsSyrian Civil War
Russo-Ukrainian War
Libyan Civil War (2014–2020)
Production history
DesignerKBP Instrument Design Bureau
Designed1990
ManufacturerUlyanovsk Mechanical Plant
Unit costUS$ 13.15 million[1]–14.67[2] million (export)
Produced2008–present
No. built200+[3]
VariantsPantsir-S (prototype), Pantsir-S1, Pantsir-S1-O (or Pantsir-S1E), Pantsir-S2
Specifications (Pantsir-S1)
Crew3

Main
armament
95Ya6 series (basic domestic missile), 95YA6-2/M domestic series missile-targets, 23Ya6 missile (Domestic) 57E6 (Export), 57E6-E (Export Enhanced)
Secondary
armament
Two dual 2A38M 30 mm (1.2 in) autocannon guns

The Pantsir (Russian: Панцирь, lit.'English:"Carapace"') missile system is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery systems. Three types of vehicles make up one system: a missile launcher, a radar truck and a command post. Starting with the Pantsir-S1 (Russian: Панцирь-С1, NATO reporting name SA-22 Greyhound) as the first version, it is produced by KBP Instrument Design Bureau of Tula, Russia, and is the successor to the Tunguska M1.

The Pantsir-S1 was designed to provide point air defence of military, industrial and administrative installations against aircraft, helicopters, precision munitions, cruise missiles and UAVs; and to provide additional protection to air defence units against enemy air attacks employing precision munitions, especially at low to extremely low altitudes.[4][5]

Design

Command post for Pantsir system

The first finished version was completed in 1995 with the 1L36 radar, later another was designed.[6] It is a short to medium range ground-based air defence system, wheeled, tracked or stationary with two to three operators. Its air defense consists of automatic anti-aircraft guns and surface-to-air missiles with radar or optical target-tracking and radio-command guidance.

Its purpose is the protection of civil and military point and area targets, for motorised or mechanised troops up to regimental size or as defensive asset of higher ranking air defence systems like S-300/S-400. The system has capability for anti-munitions missions. It can hit targets on the waterline/above-water.[7] It can operate in a fully automatic mode.[8] It has the ability to work in a completely passive mode. The probability of hitting a target for one missile is not less than 0.7 with a reaction time of 4–6 seconds. It can fire missiles and gun armament while in motion.[9]

The Pantsir-S1 Weapon System. In the centre is the EHF phased-array tracking radar. Two twin-barrel 2A38M automatic anti-aircraft guns and 12 ready to launch missile-containers each containing one 57E6-E command guided surface-to-air missile.

For its main radar station, early detection in height may be between 0–60° or 26–82° depending on the mode.[10] The system is claimed to have significant advantages over other systems, such as Crotale NG (France), Roland-3 (France + Germany), Rapier 2000 (UK), SeaRAM (Germany + USA). This is not confirmed by comparative testing, but clearly follows from the declared limit of possibilities of systems (2010).[11][12] In 2013, there was a variant with two radar stations for early detection, standing back to back.[13] The system has a modular structure which enables a fast and easy replacement of any part.[citation needed]

After receiving target coordinates (from any source) it may engage the target (using all the radar except the early detection radar) within a range from −5 to +85 (82[14]) degrees (vertical).[15] The interval between missile launches is 1–1.5 seconds (a world record for analogous systems).[16]

The S-400 Triumf and Pantsir missile system can be integrated into a two-layer defense system.[17][18]

Development

An alternative mounting of anti-aircraft complex Pantsir-S1 on a tracked GM-352 chassis

Originally Soviet strategic missile systems had been placed in fixed, hardened sites. Newer systems such as the S-300PS/PM (SA-10/20) were much more mobile, which reduced vulnerabilities to attack. However, once the S-300 unit was found by enemy forces it was still very vulnerable. One of the roles for the Pantsir-S is to provide air defence to the S-300 missile systems.[19]

It was decided that a wheeled chassis would be better than a tracked chassis for the Pantsir-S, as wheeled vehicles are faster, less prone to breakdowns, easier to maintain, and cheaper to produce.[19]

Development as the Pantsir-S started in 1990 as a planned successor to the Tunguska M1. A prototype was completed in 1994 and displayed at the MAKS-1995. The program soon ran into difficulties which resulted in a halt in funding, but KBP continued development of the program using its own funds. Both the turret and radar systems were redesigned, and all older Tunguska equipment was removed.[19]

The system has two new radars with increased range, capable of tracking more air targets, and also land targets. It has an integrated identification friend or foe (IFF) system. Within the cabin two LCD multi-function displays have replaced the multiple CRT display. A new central computer system greatly decreased the reaction time. A single person can operate the system if necessary. The use of newer technologies allow the overall volume of the weapon station to be reduced by a third, and the overall weight by half. The system has enhanced missiles (from type 57E6 to type 57E6-E; probably interchangeable) and guns (from type 2A72 to type 2A38M).

Live firing tests took place in June 2006 at the Kapustin Yar firing range, Astrakhan region, Russia. Final test series prior to delivery in May 2007 at Kapustin Yar included forced travel of 250 km (160 mi) to an unprepared launch position, simulating a typical air-defence mission.

The Pantsir-S1 air-defence missile-gun system was adopted for service with the Russian Ground Forces in November 2012.[20] The modernized Pantsir-S2 entered service in 2015.[21]

Variants

Radar truck for the Pantsir system

In early 2024 Russia was completing tests of a maneuverable track-based Pantsir-SM-SV system for service in the near future with Russian Ground Forces and Airborne Forces.[22]

Pantsir-S1

This is the first and most numerously produced variant, being produced from 2008 to 2013, with more planned in 2019.

Pantsir-S1M

New upgraded variant of the Pantsir-S1 first unveiled in February 2019 as some of the planned models. Experience from deploying the system in Syria was applied during the development of the new modification.[23] It has an upgraded L-band search radar with ability to track up to 40 targets at once and new multifunctional EHF fire-control radar that can engage four targets simultaneously, both fitted with phased antenna arrays. The system uses a new 57E6M-E surface-to-air missile with an increased ceiling from 15 to 18 km (9.3 to 11.2 mi), an engagement range from 20 to 30 km (12 to 19 mi) and a speed of 1,300 to 1,700 m/s (4,700 to 6,100 km/h; 2,900 to 3,800 mph). It has a 25 kg fragmentation warhead, compared to the 20 kg warhead of the standard 57E6-E missile.[24] The first export contract was signed in August 2021.[25]

Pantsir-M/EM

Main article: Pantsir-M

A naval variant of the land-based Pantsir-S1 was unveiled in July 2015. The system uses two GSh-6-30K/AO-18KD 30 mm (1.2 in) six-barrel rotary cannons, as found on the Kashtan/Kortik CIWS, eight missiles instead 12 and an additional radar separate from the one fitted on top of the turret itself.[26] The Pantsir-M can simultaneously engage four targets with four missiles in an altitude from 2 to 15 km and at a range of 20 km.[27] The system has an ammunition supply of 32 missiles.[28]

It has several combat modules, including an ammunition supply module in the storage and a reloading system under the deck. It may by fitted with surface-to-air missiles from both Pantsir-S and Hermes-K air defence systems with maximum firing range of the later of up to 100 km (62 mi).[28] In the future it will replace the Kashtan/Kortik CIWS on all Russian Navy's warships, starting by Karakurt-class corvettes in 2018.[29] Trials of the Pantsir-M/ME began in December 2017.[30] The system entered service in February 2019.[31]

Pantsir-S2/S2E

A modernized system for the Russian Armed Forces and for export. Incorporates new tracking radar, two faced radars with enhanced features and range. It is in service with Russia, Syria and Algeria.[32]

Pantsir-SM

The Pantsir-SM variant incorporates a multi-functional targeting station, increasing target detection range from 40 to 75 km (25 to 47 mi) and engagement range from 20 to 40 km (12 to 25 mi).[citation needed] The system uses a new high-speed extended range missile. Existing Pantsir systems can be upgraded to SM standard.[citation needed] It is fitted to a new 8×8 Kamaz truck chassis with an armored cab. Development was completed in 2019.[33] It is reportedly deployed in Ukraine as of December 2023.[34]

Pantsir-SA

Pantsir-SA

After testing Pantsir in the Arctic, it was decided to design a new variant specifically for the Arctic, to use at temperatures below −50 °C (−58 °F) called the Pantsir-SA.[35][36] This variant has no 30 mm auto-cannon mounted and it is based on an articulated tracked Vityaz vehicle. It is in service with the Russian Northern Fleet as of August 2020.[37]

Operations

The specific feature of the Pantsir-S1 system is the combination of a multiple-band target acquisition and tracking system in conjunction with a combined missile and gun armament creating a continuous target engagement zone from 5 m (16 ft) height and 200 m (660 ft) range up to 15 km (9.3 mi) height and 20 km (12 mi) range, even without any external support. [38]

Modes

Using a digital data link system up to six Pantsir-S1 combat vehicle can operate in various modes.

Prototypes

Armament

Missiles

57E6
TypeSurface-to-air missile
Place of originRussia
Service history
In service2012–present
Used bySee list of operators
Production history
DesignerKBP Instrument Design Bureau
Designed1994
Produced2008
Variants57E6, 57E6-E, 57E6-YE[citation needed]
Specifications (57E6-E)
Mass94 kg (207 lb) w/ sealed container
76 kg (168 lb) launch weight[citation needed]
Length3,160 mm (10.37 ft)
Diameter90 mm (3.5 in) booster
76 mm (3.0 in) sustainer[citation needed]
Warheadmultiple continuous rod[citation needed]
Warhead weight20 kg (44 lb) containing 5 kg (11 lb) of explosive
Detonation
mechanism
Contact and adaptive radar proximity

PropellantSolid-fuel rocket
Operational
range
18 km (11 mi)
Flight altitude15 km (49,000 ft)
Boost time1.5 seconds
Maximum speed 1,300 m/s (Mach 3.8) at booster separation
780 m/s (Mach 2.3) at 18 km (11 mi) distance[citation needed]
Guidance
system
radio/optical command guidance

The Pantsir-S1 carries up to twelve 57E6 (export designation) 57E6-E (export enhanced designation) two-stage solid fuel radio/optical command-guided surface-to-air missiles in sealed ready-to-launch container tubes. Missiles are arranged into two six-tube groups on the turret. The missile has a bicalibre body, consisting of two stages in a tandem configuration. The first stage is a booster, providing rapid acceleration within the first 2 seconds of flight, after which it is separated from the sustainer-stage.

The sustainer is highly agile and contains the high explosive multiple continuous-rod/fragmentation warhead, as well as the contact and proximity fuses, guidance flare and radio transponder. The missile is not fitted with a seeker to keep target engagement costs low. Target and missile tracking is instead provided via the system's multiband sensor system. Guidance data is submitted via radio link for up to four missiles in flight.

The system is capable of tracking and guiding four missiles fired at four distinct targets. Operationally, however, two missile salvos are typically fired at each target. The 57E6 missile is believed to have a kill probability of 70–90%. They have a 15-year storage lifetime in its sealed launch container. Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles can fire missiles on the move.

Additional missiles, one specifically designed to engage unmanned aerial vehicles, and another one hypersonic, developing speeds of more than Mach 5, have been developed for the Pantsir system.[17][18][39][40]

Autocannon

Two dual 2A38M 30 mm (1.2 in) autocannon guns are fitted with 700 rounds in a variety of ammunition—HE (High Explosive) fragmentation, fragmentation tracer, and armour-piercing with tracer. Ammunition type can be selected by the crew depending on the nature of the target. The maximum rate of fire is 2,500 rounds per minute per gun. Range is up to 4 km (2.5 mi). The combined gun-missile system has an extremely low altitude engagement capability (targets as low as 0 m AGL can be engaged by this system).

Wheeled combat vehicles have to be jacked up to keep the machine in the horizontal position and be able to fire the gun with full accuracy. The KAMAZ-6560 has four oil hydraulic jacks for this purpose.

Gun:

Fire control

Anti-aircraft gunners from the Baltic Fleet firing Pantsir-S1 systems as part of a tactical exercise for air defense units in 2017.

The Pantsir-S1 fire control system includes a target acquisition radar and dual waveband tracking radar (designation 1RS2-1E for export models), which operates in the UHF and EHF waveband. Its detection range is 32–36 kilometres (20–22 mi). Its tracking range is 24–28 kilometres (15–17 mi) for a target with a 2 m2 (22 sq ft) RCS.[41] Can also reliably achieve more, to 45 km (28 mi).[10] This radar tracks both targets and the surface-to-air missile while in flight. Minimum target size 2–3 square centimetres (0.31–0.47 sq in) (0.0004 square metres (0.0043 sq ft))[42]

As well as radar, the fire control system has an electro-optic channel with a long-wave thermal imager and an infrared direction finder, including digital signal processing and automatic target tracking. A simplified, lower-cost version of the Pantsir-S1 is being developed for export, with only the electro-optic fire control system fitted.

The two independent guidance channels—radar and electro-optic—allow two targets to be engaged simultaneously. And four[43] for more recent options (2012). The maximum engagement rate is up to 10–12[9] targets per minute.

Types of purposes. Aircraft, UAVs, helicopters, anti-radar missiles (detection range of AGM-88 HARM missile 13–15 kilometres (8.1–9.3 mi)), air-launched cruise missiles.[44]

Support vehicles

In order to increase high operational readiness KBP has designed several vehicles to support the Pantsir-S1 in the field.[45]
Command Posts (CP)

Tasks accomplished by the regimental CP during warfare

CP Capabilities

Transporting-loading Vehicle (TLV)

Mechanic Maintenance Vehicle

Electronic Maintenance Vehicle (Launcher)

Electronic Maintenance Vehicle (Command Post)

Adjustment Vehicle

Mechanic Maintenance Vehicle (CP)

Spare Parts Vehicle

Mobile Trainer

Multi-sensor system

Target acquisition radar:

Target tracking radar:

  • Type: Passive electronically scanned array
  • Coverage: cone +/−45°
  • Maximum tracking range: at least 24 km (15 mi), up to 28 km (17 mi)
  • Maximum number of targets can be tracked simultaneously: 20
  • Maximum number of targets can be engaged simultaneously: 3
  • Maximum number of missiles can be radio-controlled simultaneously: 4
  • Band: EHF
  • IFF: Separate or integrated upon customer's request

Autonomous Optoelectronic System:

  • Type: Detection, automatic acquisition and tracking of air and ground targets
  • Target tracking band: Infrared 3–5 µm
  • Missile localisation band: Infra Red 0.8–0.9 µm
  • Maximum number of targets can be tracked simultaneously: 1
  • Maximum number of targets can be engaged simultaneously: 1
  • Maximum number of missiles can be localised simultaneously: 1
  • Limits for minimal height of 5 meters[46]

System:

  • Number of targets that can be simultaneously engaged: 4 (three by radar, one by EO)
  • Maximum number of targets engagement rate: 10 per minute
  • Crew: 1–2 operators for the air defense system and 1 driver
  • Reaction time: 4–6 seconds (including target acquisition and firing first missile), 1–2 seconds for autocannon engagement

Operational history

Libya

In June 2019, United Arab Emirates deployed several of its Pantsir-S1 air defence systems to Libya, to support the Libyan National Army (LNA) in their advance towards Tripoli.[47] The Libyan Interior Minister of the Government of National Accord (GNA), Fathi Bashagha claimed one of the systems was reportedly destroyed by a GNA Libyan Air Force strike on 13 November 2019.[48]

On 15 May 2020, Turkish media showed a Pantsir system belonging to the LNA targeted in a GNA drone strike near the Al-Watiya Air Base, southwest of Tripoli. Reportedly, the system was supplied by the United Arab Emirates. The airstrike came as a part of an operation to cut supplies to the LNA.[49][50] Turkish media showed imagery of the airstrike.[51][52] The LNA denied the claim made by the GNA.[53] On 18 May, the Turkish-backed GNA captured the al-Watiya Air Base including a Pantsir-S1 TLAR belonging to the LNA.[54][55] Later, it was reported that the captured Pantsir battery was the same targeted three days before and it was transferred by the United States to Ramstein Air Base in Germany in June 2020.[56][57]

On 20 May 2020, Mohammed Gununu, a GNA spokesman claimed their forces had destroyed 7 Pantsir TLARs in Al-Watiya airbase, Tarhouna and Al-Wishka.[58] Media sources reported the destruction of at least five defenses in the GNA offensive,[59] in turn an LNA official denied the destruction of Pantsirs.[60] On 8 June 2020, video footage was first leaked showing a Pantsir operated by UAE personnel.[61]

Post-conflict analysis showed that Pantsir was (at least temporarily) suppressed by combined efforts from electronic warfare systems on one side[62] and long range artillery (or airstrikes) on the other side.[63] Pantsir's positions were allegedly detected by long-range electronic warfare systems.[63] Electronic warfare systems allegedly were at times able to jam Pantsir's radar and then forwarded the information to drone operators. In situations where jamming was not achieved strikes on Pantsir's positions were carried out with long range artillery.[63] Pantsir operators compensated by switching off the radar and focused on the electro-optical sensors instead of the radar (i.e. thermal imager and infrared direction finder), in order to acquire targets[64][verify] and this reportedly improved both Pantsir's survivability and effectiveness.[63]

On 22 August 2022, a US MQ-9 Reaper UAV was shot down over Libya by a Pantsir.[65]

Syria

A Pantsir-S1 unit of the Syrian Air Defense Force reportedly scored the first combat kill of the type by downing a Turkish Air Force RF-4E carrying out a reconnaissance flight over the Syrian coast near Latakia on 22 June 2012.[66][67] The system has also been deployed on the territory of Syria by the Russian Armed Forces as part of Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War since 2015.

A Russian poster displayed at the International Military Technical Forum «ARMY-2017», from March to July 2017, claimed that the Russia's Pantsir-S systems deployed in Syria destroyed 12 flying objects, including the UAVs Heron, Bayraktar, RQ-21A, and also various missiles and an aerostat. At the beginning of October 2017, it was reported that the Pantsir destroyed two MLRS "Grad" missiles launched by ISIL.[68][69]

On 27 December 2017, militants fired several missiles from the Bdama inhabited community at Latakia International Airport and the Russian Aerospace Forces deployment site in the Khmeimim Air Base. Two missiles were intercepted by the Pantsir air defense system.[70]

In the night of 5–6 January 2018, the Khmeimim Air Base was attacked by 13 aircraft-type unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Seven drones were eliminated by the Pantsir air defence systems, six landed at assigned coordinates with the use of electronic warfare hardware.[71]

On 14 April 2018, American, British, and French forces launched a barrage of 103 air-to-surface and cruise missiles targeting eight sites in Syria. According to Russian officials, twenty-five Pantsir-S1 missiles launched in response destroyed twenty-three incoming missiles,[72] The American Department of Defense stated no allied missiles were shot down.[73]

A Pantsir-S1 system belonging to the Syrian Air Defense Force was damaged by the Israel Defense Forces during the May 2018 Israel-Syria clashes.[74][75][76] Images of the damaged system show it was effectively out of ammunition and the radar was disabled at the time of the strike.[77] According to Chief Designer for Air Defense Systems at KBP Instrument Design Bureau (KBP) Valery Slugin, Israeli intelligence managed to track the position of the system after one of its operators called for re-supply and left his mobile phone in the cabin.[78]

On 21 January 2019, Israeli military reported it has destroyed two Pantsir-S1 systems near Damascus.[79]

Russia's Pantsir and Tor-M1 air defense systems shot down 27 rockets the militants had fired at the Khmeimim Air Base on 6 May 2019.[80]

In January 2020, Chief Designer for Air Defense Systems at KBP Valery Slugin reported Pantsir air defence systems intercepted about 100 drones during their combat operations all over the world, most of which took place in Syria.[81] Pantsirs were also successfully used against various ground targets, such as terrorist's jihad mobiles, during their Syrian deployment.[82]

A Syrian Pantsir-S1 system was claimed to be destroyed by the Turkish Armed Forces during strikes on Syria in the night of 27–28 February 2020.[83] Russian media alleged that the video analysis of footage released by Turkish media indicated visible design differences between the system claimed to be destroyed by Turkey and the variant operated by the Syrian Air Defense Force, and claimed that the footage might not come from Syria at all.[84][85][86] Russian media claimed that the footage was CGI saying that the traces of missing video fragments and debris having the same size and shape after the explosion.[87][88] On 10 March 2020, the Russian Defence Ministry confirmed two Pantsir-S1 systems were damaged during the recent Turkey-Syria clashes, adding that repair works were nearing completion.[89][90][91]

On July 19, 2021, four F-16 fighter jets of the Israeli Air Force entered Syria's airspace via the US-controlled al-Tanf zone and fired eight guided missiles at an area southeast of Syria's Aleppo. Vadim Kulit, deputy chief of the Russian Center for Reconciliation of the Opposing Parties in Syria, claimed that seven missiles were downed by the Russian-made Pantsir-S and Buk-M2 systems of the Syrian Air Defense Forces.[92] In the evening of July 27, a drone was launched by militants from the Kafer-Khattar community in the Idlib Province. The militant drone was downed over the Hama Province by the Syrian air defense who used a Russia-produced Pantsir-S missile system, Kulit claimed the next day.[93] Syrian air defense forces shot down 22 missiles fired by Israel into Syria using Russian-made Buk-M2E and Pantsir-S systems, Rear Adm. Vadim Kulit said on 20 August 2021. Syrian air defense forces shot down twenty-one out of twenty-four missiles fired by Israel into Syria using Russian-made Buk-M2E and Pantsir-S systems, Rear Adm. Vadim Kulit said on September 3, 2021.[94] Syrian air defense forces shot down 8 out of 12 missiles fired by Israel in Syria using Russian-made Pantsir-S systems, Rear Adm. Vadim Kulit said on 08.10.2021.[95] Syrian air defense forces shot down ten out of twelve missiles fired by Israel into Syria using Russian-made Buk-M2E and Pantsir-S systems, Rear Adm. Vadim Kulit said on November 24, 2021.[96]

On 13 May 2022, the Israeli Air Force launched attacks on SAA positions on Masyaf killing 5 people including one civilian,[97] the attack destroyed one Pantsir-C1 system.[98] On 25 August and 17 September 2022, new attacks were reportedly partly repelled by Syrian Pantsir-S1, Buk-M2E and S-75 systems.[99][100] On 27 November 2022 a Russian operated Pantsir-S1 fired on an American MQ-9 Reaper without effect.[101]

Ukraine

Captured Russian Pantsir-S1M in Ukraine in March 2022

Various independent experts believe that Pantsir-S1 systems were operated by Russian-backed forces during the Russo-Ukrainian War. Remnants of the main armament of the Pantsir-S1 were reported to have been observed in Ukraine in November 2014.[102] It was also reportedly filmed in Luhansk and photographed in Makiivka in the rebel-held territories during early 2015.[103][104][105][106]

On 1 March 2022, during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, a Pantsir-S1 system got stuck in the mud in Kherson, Ukraine, and was later destroyed by the Ukrainian Army.[107][108] On 4 March, another system was found abandoned in Mykolaiv region.[109]

One system was reportedly destroyed during the Battle of Snake Island in late June or early July 2022.[110]

Ukrainian's army claimed it used a trophy Pantsir-S1 to shoot down an aerial target.[108][111]

According to the OSINT website Oryxspioenkop, as of 11 September 2023 at least 19 Pantsir-S1 had been lost by Russia in the war.[112]

On 19 January 2023, pictures posted online show that a Pantsir air defence system has been placed on the Russian Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Education in Moscow. Such a deployment of point defence systems is not unheard of—the US government uses NASAMS and Avenger systems to protect Washington D.C.—but this is the first time they have been deployed in Moscow. This system is specifically designed to shoot down drones. While no official explanation has been given, Ukraine has conducted strikes inside Russia such as at the Engels-2 (air base) a number of times in 2022. Engels is south of Moscow and some 300 miles from the Russian-Ukraine border.[113][114]

In early and mid 2023, it was reported by Russian state media that the Pantsir system had received new software to improve dealing with missiles fired by the US-made HIMARS system and British Storm Shadow cruise missiles, respectively.[115][116]

Usage in Russia

In January 2023 several Pantsir systems were spotted on top of Moscow buildings such as the Kremlin and the Ministry of Defence.[117] Another system was set up near President Putin’s Sochi residence in April 2023.[118]

There were explosions over the Kremlin Senate which Russia blamed on two Ukrainian drones. Pantsir missile systems, along with electronic jamming equipment, protected the building.[119] On 30 May the Mayor of Moscow, Sergei Sobyanin, claimed that eight Ukrainian drones struck Moscow wounding two and causing light damage.[120] Mr Sobyanin said: "Three of them (drones) were suppressed by electronic warfare, lost control and deviated from their intended targets. Another five drones were shot down by the Pantsir-S surface-to-air missile system in the Moscow region,"[121]

Wagner group used Pantsir-S1s to provide AA cover during the 2023 Wagner Group rebellion.[122]

Operators

Pantsir-S1 operators highlighted in blue
 Algeria[123]
 Ethiopia
 Equatorial Guinea
 Iran
 Iraq
 Libya
 Myanmar
 Oman
 Russia
 Serbia
 Syria
 United Arab Emirates

Potential operators

 Argentina
 Ukraine
 Vietnam
 Hezbollah

Failed bids

 Brazil
 Jordan

Royal Jordanian Army - Jordan - In 2007, on the one hand, evaluation tests were conducted on the national territory and Jordan planned to procure 50 to 70 systems. Negotiations were suspended.

Gallery

See also

References

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Further reading