An AGM-88 loaded on an F-4 Phantom
TypeAir-to-surface anti-radiation missile
Place of originUnited States
Service history
In service1985–present
Used bySee list of operators
WarsGulf War
Kosovo War
Iraq War
2011 military intervention in Libya
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Production history
DesignerTexas Instruments
ManufacturerTexas Instruments, then Raytheon Corporation (AGM-88A/B/C/D/F)
Orbital ATK and Northrop Grumman (AGM-88E/G)
Unit costUS$284,000
US$870,000 for AGM-88E[1]
Mass796 lb (361 kg)
Length13 ft 8 in (4.17 m)
  • 10 in (254 mm)
  • AGM-88G - 12 in (300 mm)
Wingspan3 ft 8 in (1.13 m)

WarheadWAU‐7/B blast‐fragmentation warhead
Warhead weight150 lb (68 kg)

EngineThiokol SR113-TC-1 dual-thrust rocket engine
PropellantTwo stage, solid propellant
  • Low-level — 13 nmi (25 km)
  • Medium-level — 43 nmi (80 km)
  • Standoff — 80 nmi (148 km)
  • AGM-88G — 160 nmi (300 km)
Maximum speed Mach 2.9 (987 m/s; 3238 ft/s)
Passive radar homing with home-on-jam, additional GPS/INS and millimeter-wave active radar homing in the E and G variants
F-4G, EA-6B, F-15E, F-16, F/A-18A/B/C/D/E/F, EA-18G, Tornado IDS/ECR, Eurofighter Typhoon, F-35 (Not internally except for the G variant), MiG-29, Su-27 (integration by Ukraine during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine)
Potential: P-8 Poseidon

The AGM-88 HARM (High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile) is a tactical, air-to-surface anti-radiation missile designed to home in on electronic transmissions coming from surface-to-air radar systems. It was originally developed by Texas Instruments as a replacement for the AGM-45 Shrike and AGM-78 Standard ARM system. Production was later taken over by Raytheon Corporation when it purchased the defense production business of Texas Instruments.


The AGM-88 can detect, attack and destroy a radar antenna or transmitter with minimal aircrew input. The proportional guidance system that homes in on enemy radar emissions has a fixed antenna and seeker head in the missile's nose. A smokeless, solid-propellant, booster-sustainer rocket motor propels the missile at speeds over Mach 2.0. The HARM was a missile program led by the U.S. Navy, and it was first carried by the A-6E, A-7, and F/A-18A/B aircraft, and then it equipped the EA-6B and EA-18G dedicated electronic attack aircraft. RDT&E for use on the F-14 aircraft was begun, but not completed. The U.S. Air Force (USAF) put the HARM onto the F-4G Wild Weasel aircraft, and later on specialized F-16s equipped with the HARM Targeting System (HTS). The missile has three operational modes: Pre-Briefed (PB), Target Of Opportunity (TOO) and Self-Protect (SP).[4] The HTS pod, used by the USAF only, allows F-16s to detect and automatically target radar systems with HARMs instead of relying on the missile's sensors alone.



United States

The HARM missile was approved for full production in March 1983, obtained initial operating capability (IOC) on the A-7E Corsair II in late 1983 and then deployed in late 1985 with VA-46 aboard the aircraft carrier USS America. In 1986, the first successful firing of the HARM from an EA-6B was performed by VAQ-131. It was soon used in combat—in March 1986 against a Libyan S-200 surface to air missiles site in the Gulf of Sidra, and then during Operation Eldorado Canyon in April.

HARM was used extensively by the Navy, Marine Corps, and the Air Force in Operation Desert Storm during the Persian Gulf War of 1991. During the Gulf War, the HARM was involved in a friendly fire incident when the pilot of an F-4G Wild Weasel escorting a B-52G bomber mistook the latter's tail gun radar for an Iraqi AAA site — this was after the tail gunner of the B-52 had targeted the F-4G, mistaking it for an Iraqi MiG. The F-4 pilot launched the missile and then saw that the target was the B-52, which was hit. It survived with shrapnel damage to the tail and no casualties. The B-52 (serial number 58-0248) was subsequently renamed In HARM's Way.[5]

"Magnum" is spoken over the radio to announce the launch of an AGM-88.[6] During the Gulf War, if an aircraft was illuminated by enemy radar a bogus "Magnum" call on the radio was often enough to convince the operators to power down.[7] This technique would also be employed in Yugoslavia during air operations in 1999. On 28 April 1999, during this campaign, an early variant of the AGM-88, after being fired in self defense mode by a NATO jet, lost its radio frequency track as the Serbian air defense radar was turned off, hitting a house in the Gorna Banya district of the Bulgarian capital, Sofia, causing damages, but no casualties.[8][9]

During the 1990s and early 2000s and during the initial weeks of the operation Iraqi Freedom, the HARM was used to enforce the Iraqi No-Fly-Zones, degrading the Iraqi air defenses trying to engage US and allied patrolling aircraft.[10] During the opening days of Operation Iraqi Freedom, deconflicting US Army Patriot batteries and allied aircraft routes turned out being more difficult than expected, resulting in three major friendly fire incidents:[11] in one of them, on March 24, 2003, a USAF F-16CJ Fighting Falcon fired an AGM-88 HARM at a Patriot missile battery after the Patriot's radar had locked onto and prepared to fire at the aircraft, causing the pilot to mistake it for an Iraqi surface-to-air missile system because the aircraft was in air combat operations and was on its way to a mission near Baghdad. The HARM damaged the Patriot's radar system with no casualties.[12][13]

Starting in March 2011, during Operation Unified Protector against Libya, US Navy EA-18Gs had their combat debut using HARMs against Libyan air defenses together with USAF F-16CJs and Italian Tornadoes.[14][15]


In 2013, US President Obama offered the AGM-88 to Israel for the first time.[16]


Starting in March 2011, during Operation Unified Protector, Italian Tornadoes employed AGM-88 HARMs against Libyan air defenses.[17][18]


In mid-2022, during the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the US supplied AGM-88 HARM missiles to Ukraine. It was only disclosed after Russian forces showed footage of a tail fin from one of these missiles in early August 2022.[19] U.S. Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Colin Kahl said in recent aid packages they had included a number of anti-radiation missiles that can be fired by Ukrainian aircraft.[20] As built, Soviet-era aircraft do not have the computer architecture to accept NATO standard weapons. Indeed, none of the former Warsaw Pact countries, even those that have had their Soviet-era aircraft updated, were enabled to fire a HARM before.[21] The interface seemed difficult unless using a "crude modification", such as integrating it with an added e-tablet into the cockpit, building a nearly totally independent subsystem within the carrying aircraft.[22] As suggested by Domenic Nicholis, defense correspondent for the Telegraph in the UK, the HARM missile is possibly operating in one of its three modes that enables it to find its target once flying after being released towards a possible enemy air defense and electronic emission area. Pre mission or during flight, NATO signals intelligence aircraft or different intelligence would be providing the overall electromagnetic emissions battlefield to locate the Russian radars where the Ukrainian jets, armed with HARMs would be directed to fire them. This allows the missile to achieve a very long range attack profile, even if it's possible that the missile does not find a target while flying, going wasted.[23] A second possible use of the HARM is operating it in a mode called “HARM as sensor”. Similar to the described mode before, the missile acts as both sensor and weapon, not requiring a sensor pod. A simple interface would show that the missile has a target and the pilot can launch it. In this way the range is shorter, and the jet could be under threat already, but would maximize the possibility to hit the emitter.[24]

In August 2022, a senior U.S. defense official confirmed that the Ukrainians have successfully integrated the AGM-88 HARM missile onto their "MiG aircraft", hinting the MiG-29 was the chosen fighter jet[25] with video evidence of AGM-88 missiles fired by upgraded Ukrainian MiG-29s released by the Ukrainian Air Force a few days later.[26]

Speaking on 19 September, US Air Force General James B. Hecker said the effort to integrate AGM-88 HARM missiles into the Ukrainian Su-27s and MiG-29s took "some months" to achieve. This does not give the Ukrainian air force the same "capabilities that it would on an F-16.” However he said: “Even though you don’t get a kinetic kill … you can get local air superiority for a period of time where you can do what you need to do.”[27]

During early September 2022, a Ukrainian Su-27S was spotted with an AGM-88 HARM fitted on the wing pylons. This is the first case of an Su-27 being spotted with an AGM-88 fitted. The missile has been directly fitted to the APU-470 missile launchers, the same launcher used by MiG-29 and Su-27 to fire missiles like the R-27 (air-to-air missile). This suggests that mounting the missile on Soviet aircraft is much easier than experts initially believed. Being as simple as "requiring just an interface for the different wirings and the hanging points of the missile". The earlier footage of a Ukrainian MiG-29 using an AGM-88 indicated that the display recognized the missile as a R-27EP, which is designed to lock onto airborne radars. This suggests that the aircraft are using their own avionics to fire the missile, without the need for additional modifications.[28]

In December, Ukrainian Air Force released a video showing a MiG-29 firing two HARM missiles in a volley. Russia has made the first claim of the war that they have shot down four HARM missiles. [29][30]



AGM-88E Advanced Antiradiation Guided Missile (AARGM)

A newer upgrade, the AGM-88E Advanced Antiradiation Guided Missile (AARGM), features the latest software, enhanced capabilities intended to counter enemy radar shutdown, and passive radar using an additional active millimeter-wave seeker. It was released in November 2010, and it is a joint venture by the US Department of Defense and the Italian Ministry of Defense, produced by Orbital ATK.[citation needed]

In November 2005, the Italian Ministry of Defense and the U.S. Department of Defense signed a Memorandum of Agreement on the joint development of the AGM-88E AARGM missile. Italy was providing $20 million of developmental funding as well as several million dollars worth of material, equipment, and related services. The Italian Air Force was expected to buy up to 250 missiles for its Tornado ECR aircraft. A flight test program was set to integrate the AARGM onto Tornado ECR's weapon system.[citation needed]

The U.S. Navy demonstrated the AARGM's capability during Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E) in spring 2012 with live firing of 12 missiles. Aircrew and maintenance training with live missiles was completed in June.[31]

The Navy authorized Full-Rate Production (FRP) of the AARGM in August 2012, with 72 missiles for the Navy and nine for the Italian Air Force to be delivered in 2013. A U.S. Marine Corps F/A-18 Hornet squadron will be the first forward-deployed unit with the AGM-88E.[32]

In September 2013, ATK delivered the 100th AARGM to the U.S. Navy. The AGM-88E program is on schedule and on budget, with Full Operational Capability (FOC) planned for September 2014.[33] The AGM-88E was designed to improve the effectiveness of legacy HARM variants against fixed and relocatable radar and communications sites, particularly those that would shut down to throw off anti-radiation missiles, by attaching a new seeker to the existing Mach 2-capable rocket motor and warhead section, adding a passive anti-radiation homing receiver, satellite and inertial navigation system, a millimeter-wave radar for terminal guidance, and the ability to beam up images of the target via a satellite link just seconds before impact.[34]

This model of the HARM will be integrated onto the F/A-18C/D/E/F, EA-18G, Tornado ECR aircraft, and later on the F-35 (externally).[35][36]

In September 2015, the AGM-88E successfully hit a mobile ship target in a live-fire test, demonstrating the missile's ability to use antiradiation homing and millimeter-wave radar to detect, identify, locate, and engage moving targets.[37]

In December 2019, the German Air Force ordered the AARGM.[38] On August 4, 2020, Northrop Grumman's Alliant Techsystems Operations division, based in Northridge, California, was awarded a $12,190,753 IDIQ contract for AARGM depot sustainment support, guidance section and control section repair, and equipment box test and inspection.[39] On August 31, 2020, the same Northrop Grumman division was allocated roughly $80.9 million to develop new technology for the AARGM.[40]


Although the US Navy/Marine Corps chose the Orbital ATK-produced AGM-88E AARGM,[41] Raytheon developed its own update of the HARM called the AGM-88F HARM Control Section Modification (HCSM), tested in conjunction with and ultimately for the US Air Force. It incorporates similar upgrade features as the AARGM. [42] The Republic of China (Taiwan), Bahrain, and Qatar have purchased AGM-88Bs which were then retrofitted with the HCSM upgrade.[43]


The Navy's FY 2016 budget included funding for an extended range AARGM-ER that uses the existing guidance system and warhead of the AGM-88E with a solid integrated rocket-ramjet to double the range.[44] In September 2016, Orbital ATK unveiled its extended-range AARGM-ER, which incorporates a redesigned control section and 11.5 in diameter (290 mm) rocket motor for twice the range and internal carriage on the Lockheed Martin F-35A and F-35C Lightning II with integration on P-8 Poseidon, F-16 Fighting Falcon and Eurofighter Typhoon planned afterwards;[45][46] internal carriage on the F-35B is not possible due to internal space limitations. The new missile utilizes the AARGM's warhead and guidance systems in a new airframe that replaces the mid-body wings with aerodynamic strakes along the sides with control surfaces relocated to low-drag tail surfaces and a more powerful propulsion system for greater speed and double the range of its predecessor.[47][48]

The U.S. Navy awarded Orbital ATK a contract for AARGM-ER development in January 2018.[49] The USAF later joined the AARGM-ER program, involved in internal F-35A/C integration work.[47] The AARGM-ER received Milestone-C approval in August 2021,[50] and the first low-rate initial production contract was awarded the next month; initial operational capability is planned for 2023.[51] The AARGM-ER completed its first, second, third, fourth and fifth flight tests at the Point Mugu Sea Range in July 2021, January 2022, July 2022, December 2022 and May 2023 respectively.[52][53][54][55][56]

In February 2023, the U.S. Navy began exploring the feasibility of launching the AARGM-ER from ground-based launchers and the P-8 Poseidon.[57]

On February 27, 2023, Australia has requested to purchase up to 63 AGM-88G AARGM-ERs.[58]

On June 5, 2023, The Netherlands announced the acquisition of the AARGM-ER for the use on their F-35A fleet.[59]

Stand-in Attack Weapon

In May 2022, the USAF awarded contracts to L3Harris Technologies, Lockheed Martin, and Northrop Grumman to begin the first phase of development for the Stand-in Attack Weapon (SiAW), which will be the successor to the AARGM-ER. While previous HARMs were meant to attack air defense radars, the SiAW will have a broader target set including theater ballistic missile launchers, cruise and anti-ship missile launchers, GPS jamming platforms, and anti-satellite systems. It will have a shorter range than standoff weapons, being fired by an aircraft after penetrating enemy airspace. The SiAW will fit inside the F-22's internal weapon bays. The Air Force plans to have an operational weapon by 2026.[60][61]



Map with AGM-88 operators in blue.
F-16 carrying an AIM-120 AMRAAM (top), AIM-9 Sidewinder (middle) and AGM-88 HARM.
A Ukrainian MiG-29 launching a HARM missile

Current operators











 Saudi Arabia

 South Korea





 United Arab Emirates

 United States:

Future operators

 The Netherlands

See also


  1. ^ "AGM-88E AARGM". Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
  2. ^ Janes (26 August 2022), "AGM‐88 High‐speed Anti‐Radiation Missile (HARM)", Janes Weapons: Naval, Coulsdon, Surrey: Jane's Group UK Limited., retrieved 1 October 2022
  3. ^ Janes (22 July 2022), "AGM‐88E Advanced Anti‐Radiation Guided Missile (AARGM)", Janes Weapons: Air Launched, Coulsdon, Surrey: Jane's Group UK Limited., retrieved 1 October 2022
  4. ^ "Raytheon AGM-88 HARM".
  5. ^ Lake, Jon (2004). B-52 Stratofortress Units in Operation Desert Storm (1st ed.). Oxford: Osprey. pp. 47–48. ISBN 1-84176-751-4.
  6. ^ "Attachment I: Glossary: Operational Brevity Words and Terminology". MCM 3-1. Vol. 1. Federation of American Scientists. 1 December 1991. Archived from the original on 14 March 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2010.
  7. ^ Lambeth, Benjamin (2000). The Transformation of American Air Power. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-8014-3816-5.
  8. ^ "Rogue missile hits suburb of Bulgarian capital". 30 April 1999.
  9. ^ "BBC News | Europe | Sofia hit by Nato missile".
  10. ^ Tirpak, John A. "Legacy of the Air Blockades" (PDF). Air & Space Forces Magazine. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  11. ^ "Blue-On-Blue! The story of the U.S. Navy F/A-18 that was shot down by a U.S. Army PAC-3 Patriot missile battery during OIF". 7 March 2018.
  12. ^ "F-16 vs Patriot friendly fire incident on 24 March 2003 in Iraq | Key Aero". Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  13. ^ AXE, DAVID (11 July 2016). "That Time an Air Force F-16 and an Army Missile Battery Fought Each Other". War Is Boring. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  14. ^ "EA-18G Growler Airborne Electronic Attack Aircraft".
  15. ^ Palmas, Francesco. "PASSATO E PRESENTE DELLE OPERAZIONI SEAD" (PDF). (in Italian). Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  16. ^ "Israel seeks $5B in U.S. loans to buy arms". United Press International. 1 July 2013. Archived from the original on 7 July 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  17. ^ "LIBYA: Italian Eurofighters, Harriers fly first combat air patrol missions".
  18. ^ "Contributo Aeronautica Militare all'Operazione Nato 'Unified Protector' -".
  19. ^ Liebermann, Oren (8 August 2022). "Pentagon acknowledges sending previously undisclosed anti-radar missiles to Ukraine". CNN. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  20. ^ Trevithick, Joseph (8 August 2022). "Anti-Radiation Missiles Sent To Ukraine, U.S. Confirms". The War Zone. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  21. ^ Danylov, Oleg (8 August 2022). "Anti-Radiation Missiles Sent To Ukraine, U.S. Confirms". Mezha.Media. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  22. ^ Rogoway, Tyler (7 August 2022). "Anti-Radiation Missiles Sent To Ukraine, U.S. Confirms". The War Zone. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  23. ^ "The mood in the EU, US military aid & why Zelenksy wants Europe to stop giving visas to Russians". The Telegraph (Podcast). 8 August 2022. Event occurs at 4:02-42. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  24. ^ Axe, David (11 August 2022). "Ukrainian Jets Are Firing American Anti-Radar Missiles". Forbes. Retrieved 12 August 2022.
  25. ^ Trevithick, Joseph (19 August 2022). "Ukrainian MiG-29s Are Firing AGM-88 Anti-Radiation Missiles". The War Zone. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  26. ^ a b "First Footage of Ukrainian MiG-29 Firing US-delivered Anti-Radiation Missiles Emerges". 30 August 2022.
  27. ^ Valerie Insinna (19 September 2022). "It took 'couple of months' to put US anti-radiation missiles on Ukrainian fighters, USAF reveals". breaking defense. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  28. ^ Stefano D'Urso (9 September 2022). "Ukrainian Su-27s Are Now Using AGM-88 HARM Missiles Too". The Aviationist.
  29. ^ Ashish Dangwal (17 December 2022). "'Double HARM': Ukrainian MiG-29 Fires Two AGM-88 Missiles Simultaneously Presumably At Russian Positions". EurAsian Times.
  30. ^ "Russia 'Shoots Down' 4 AGM-88 Anti-Radiation Missiles (HARM) Over Belgorod Region, MoD Says". EurAsian Times. 19 December 2022.
  31. ^ "Navy approves full rate production for new anti-radiation missile". Naval Air Systems Command, United States Navy (Press release). 29 August 2012. Archived from the original on 7 July 2018. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  32. ^ "Navy Approves Full Rate Production for New Anti-Radiation Missile". Briganti et Associés. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  33. ^ "ATK Delivers 100th Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile (AARGM) to U.S. Navy". PR Newswire. 17 September 2013. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014.
  34. ^ Drew, James (25 March 2016). "US Navy extends Orbital ATK AGM-88E production". FlightGlobal. DVV Media. Archived from the original on 7 April 2016.
  35. ^ "ATK Awarded $55 Million Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile Low Rate Initial Production Contract by the United States Navy" (Press release). ATK. 21 January 2009. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2011 – via Reuters.
  36. ^ "U.S. Navy Wants Internal AARGM For F-35". Aviation Week. Informa. 8 April 2015.
  37. ^ Tomkins, Richard (23 September 2015). "U.S. Navy tests upgraded missile". United Press International. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
  38. ^ Heiming, Gerhard (20 December 2019). "Bundeswehr erhält AGM-88E AARGM Antiradar-Lenkflugkörper" [Bundeswehr receives AGM-88E AARGM anti-radar guided missile]. Europäische Sicherheit und Technik (in German). Mittler Report Verlag GmbH.
  39. ^ "Contracts for August 4, 2020". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  40. ^ "Contracts for August 31, 2020". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  41. ^ "Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile (AARGM) - Standard and Extended Range". Northrop-Grumman. Archived from the original on 16 September 2018.
  42. ^ Drew, James (26 October 2015). "Raytheon's HCSM anti-radiation missile upgrade completes key test". FlightGlobal. DVV Media. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016.
  43. ^ "Contracts For May 23, 2019". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 17 August 2023.
  44. ^ Sweetman, Bill (3 February 2015). "F-35Cs Cut Back As U.S. Navy Invests in Standoff Weapons". Aviation Week. Informa. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015.
  45. ^ "AARGM-ER Datasheet" (PDF). Northrop Grumman. 2023. Retrieved 22 May 2023.
  46. ^ Drew, James (20 September 2016). "Orbital ATK Reveals New 'Double-Range' AARGM". Aviation Week. Informa. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  47. ^ a b Trevithick, Joseph (7 May 2019). "USAF F-35As Will Get Navy's New Air Defense Busting Missile Amid Talk of Anti-Ship Variants". The War Zone. The Drive Media, Inc.
  48. ^ Donald, David (5 June 2020). "New Anti-Radiation Missile Flies in Navy Anti-Radar Revamp". Aviation International News.
  49. ^ "Orbital ATK gets U.S. Navy Contract to Develop AARGM-ER". Navy Recognition. 24 January 2018. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018.
  50. ^ "US Navy Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile - Extended Range to enter production". Air Recognition. 26 August 2021.
  51. ^ Quigley, Aidan (15 September 2021). "Navy issues Northrop Grumman $41 million AARGM-ER contract". Inside Defense.
  52. ^ Tingley, Brett (2 August 2021). "First Live-Fire Test Of The Navy's New Long-Range Anti-Radiation Missile Was A Success". The War Zone. The Drive Media, Inc. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
  53. ^ "Northrop Grumman awarded second low-rate initial production contract" (Press release). Northrop Grumman Newsroom. 7 February 2022. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  54. ^ "Third Successful Missile Live Fire Test for Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile Extended Range" (Press release). Northrop Grumman Newsroom. 21 July 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  55. ^ "Northrop Grumman's Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile Extended Range Completes Fourth Successful Missile Live Fire" (Press release). Northrop Grumman Newsroom. 8 December 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  56. ^ "Northrop Grumman's Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile Extended Range Completes Fifth Consecutive Successful Test" (Press release). Northrop Grumman Newsroom. 8 May 2023. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  57. ^ Trevithick, Joseph (17 February 2023). "Navy To Test Ground-Launched Version Of New Radar-Busting Missile". The War Zone. The Drive Media, Inc. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  58. ^ "Australia – Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missiles- Extended Range (AARGM-ERs) | Defense Security Cooperation Agency".
  59. ^ "Nieuwe munitie F-35's vergroot slagkracht - Nieuwsbericht -". 5 June 2023.
  60. ^ Losey, Stephen (9 June 2022). "US Air Force awards contracts to start designing F-35 weapon". Defense News. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  61. ^ Tirpak, John A. (15 June 2022). "New SiAW Seen as Modular, Pathfinder Weapon". Air & Space Forces Magazine. Retrieved 20 August 2023.
  62. ^ Lambeth, Benjamin (1 June 2002), NATO's Air War for Kosovo: A Strategic and Operational Assessment., Santa Monica, CA: RAND, pp. 106–118, doi:10.7249/MR1365, ISBN 0-8330-3050-7
  63. ^ Lyon, Charles (2000), Operation Allied Force: A Lesson on Strategy, Risk, and Tactical Execution, Washington D.C.: National War College, pp. 13–23
  64. ^ "AGM-88E AARGM Missile: No Place To Hide Down There". Defense Industry Daily. 31 July 2019. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  65. ^ "US approves sale of anti-radiation missiles for RAAF Growler". Australian Aviation. 1 May 2017. Archived from the original on 1 May 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
  66. ^ "Weapons to Support F-16 Block 70/F-16V Aircraft Fleet". Defense Security Cooperation Agency. 3 May 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  67. ^ a b c "Contracts for May 23, 2019". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  68. ^ "Al Quwwat al Jawwiya Ilmisriya/Egyptian Air Force". Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  69. ^ a b "Spain buying HARMs for use on EF-18". Defense Daily. 25 May 1990. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015 – via HighBeam Research.
  70. ^ "HAF acquires advanced AGM-88E AARGM anti-radar missiles and AGM-84L Harpoon II anti-ship missiles for F-16V". DefenceHub. 28 June 2022.
  71. ^ "Morocco – Weapons and Related Support for F-16 Aircraft" (Press release). US Defense Security Cooperation Agency. 11 July 2008. Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018 – via
  72. ^ "Trade Registers". Retrieved 26 June 2023.
  73. ^ "Han-guk Kong Goon/Republic of Korea Air Force". Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  74. ^ "Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (Tecro) in the United States - AGM-88B High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missiles (HARM)" (Press release). US Defense Security Cooperation Agency. 19 June 2017.
  75. ^ "Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States – F-16 Munitions | Defense Security Cooperation Agency". Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  76. ^ "Turk Hava Kuvvetleri/Turkish Air Force". Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  77. ^ "US-made AGM-88 missiles started striking Russian air defense positions in Ukraine". Ukrainian Military Center. 7 August 2022. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  78. ^ "Al Imarat al Arabiyah al Muttahidah/United Arab Emirates Air Force". Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  79. ^ "AGM-88 HARM". Harpoon Databases. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  80. ^ "Netherlands selects AARGM-ER missiles for its F-35 fleet". 5 June 2023.
  81. ^ "Netherlands buys H225M helos for special operations, AARGM-ER for F-35".

Media related to AGM-88 HARM at Wikimedia Commons