M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS)
M270A1 Multiple Launch Rocket System South Dakota ANG.jpg
TypeMultiple rocket launcher
Place of originUnited States
Service history
In service1983–present
Used bySee Operators
Wars
Production history
DesignerVought Corporation
Designed1977
Manufacturer
Produced1980–2003
VariantsM270A1 and M270B1
Specifications
Mass25,000 kg (55,100 lb)
Length6.85 m (22 ft 6 in)
Width2.97 m (9 ft 9 in)
Height2.59 m (8 ft 6 in)
Crew3

Caliber227 mm (8.9 in)
Rate of fire
  • c. 18 rds/min (rockets)
  • c. 2 rds/min (missiles)
Effective firing range
  • M26: 32 km (19.9 mi)
  • M26A1/A2: 45 km (28.0 mi)
  • M30/31: 92 km (57.2 mi)
[1]
Maximum firing range
  • ATACMS: 165 or 300 km (103 or 186 mi)

Main
armament
M269 Launcher Loader Module
EngineCummins diesel engine
500 hp (373 kW)
Operational
range
480 km (298 mi)
Maximum speed 64 km/h (39.8 mph)

The M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (M270 MLRS) is an American armored, self-propelled, multiple rocket launcher.

The first M270s were delivered to the U.S. Army in 1983. The MLRS has since been adopted by several NATO countries. Some 1,300 M270 systems have been manufactured in the United States and in Western Europe,[vague] along with more than 700,000 rockets. Production of the M270 ended in 2003, when a last batch was delivered to the Egyptian Army.

Description

Background

In the early 1970s, the Soviet Union had a clear advantage over U.S. and NATO forces in terms of rocket artillery. Soviet tactics of bombardment by large numbers of truck-mounted multiple rocket launchers (MRLs), such as the BM-21, would saturate a target area with thousands of rockets, ensuring some would hit specific targets while delivering a psychological impact. By contrast, U.S. artillerists favored cannon artillery for its relative accuracy and ammunition conservation over "area fire" rockets, and as a result were left with only a small amount of World War II vintage rocket artillery.[2]

This mindset began to change following the 1973 Yom Kippur War, which saw high loss rates, especially from rear-area weapons like surface-to-air missiles (SAMs), as well as the effective Israeli tactic of hitting such sites with MRLs. This combined with the realization that such an experience would happen on a larger scale in the event of war in Europe, in March 1974 the U.S. Army wrote a requirement for a new rocket launcher called General Support Rocket System (GSRS). It would be used to engage enemy air defenses and for counterbattery fire, freeing cannon units to provide close support for ground forces. NATO allies, including the United Kingdom, France and West Germany, were consulted on the project, and since they had already been looking to create a similar system independently, their name for it was adopted, changing GSRS to MLRS.[2]

Development began in September 1977 by Boeing and Vought Aerospace, and first production models were delivered in August 1982. The first operational M270 battery was formed in March 1983, and the first unit was sent to West Germany that September. Originally, a battery consisted of three platoons with three launchers each for nine launchers per battery; by 1987, 25 MLRS batteries were in service. In the 1990s, a battery was reduced to six launchers.[2]

Overview

MLRS was developed in 1977–80s jointly by the United Kingdom, United States, West Germany, France and Italy, developed from the older General Support Rocket System (GSRS), and initially fielded in the late 1980s. The M270 MLRS weapons system is collectively known as the M270 MLRS Self-Propelled Loader/Launcher (SPLL). The SPLL is composed of three primary subsystems: the M269 Loader Launcher Module (LLM), which also houses the electronic Fire Control System, is mated to the M993 Carrier Vehicle. The M993 is a derivative of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle chassis.[3][4]

Cold War doctrine for the M270 was for the vehicles to spread out individually and hide until needed, then move to a firing position and launch their rockets, immediately move away to a reloading point, then move to a completely new hiding position near a different firing point. These shoot-and-scoot tactics were planned to avoid susceptibility to Soviet counterbattery fire. One M270 firing 12 M26 rockets would drop 7,728 bomblets, and one MLRS battery of nine launchers firing 108 rockets had the equivalent firepower of 33 battalions of cannon artillery.[2]

The system can fire rockets or MGM-140 ATACMS missiles, which are contained in interchangeable pods. Each pod contains six standard rockets or one guided ATACMS missile; the two types cannot be mixed. The LLM can hold two pods at a time, which are hand-loaded using an integrated winch system. All twelve rockets or two ATACMS missiles can be fired in under a minute. One launcher firing twelve rockets can completely blanket one square kilometer with submunitions. A typical MLRS cluster salvo consisted of three M270 vehicles each firing all 12 rockets. With each rocket containing 644 M77 grenades, the entire salvo would drop 23,184 grenades in the target area. However, with a two percent dud rate, that would leave approximately 400 undetonated bombs scattered over the area, which could endanger friendly troops and civilians.[5]

In 2006, MLRS was upgraded to fire guided rounds. Phase I testing of a guided unitary round (XM31) was completed on an accelerated schedule in March 2006. Due to an Urgent Need Statement, the guided unitary round was quickly fielded and used in action in Iraq.[6] Lockheed Martin also received a contract to convert existing M30 Dual-Purpose Improved Conventional Munition (DPICM) GMLRS rockets to the XM31 unitary variant.[7]

The M31 GMLRS Unitary rocket transformed the M270 into a point target artillery system for the first time. Due to GPS guidance and a single 200 lb (91 kg) high-explosive warhead, the M31 could hit targets accurately with less chance of collateral damage while needing fewer rockets to be fired, reducing logistical requirements. The unitary warhead also made the MLRS able to be used in urban environments. The M31 had a dual-mode fuse with point detonation and delay options to defeat soft targets and lightly fortified bunkers respectively, with the upgraded M31A1 equipped with a multi-mode fuse adding a proximity airburst mode for use against personnel in the open; proximity mode can be set for 3 or 10 meters (9.8 or 32.8 ft) Height Of Burst (HOB). The GMLRS has a minimum engagement range of 15 km (9.3 mi) and can hit a target out to 70 km (43 mi), impacting at a speed of Mach 2.5.[8][9]

A German developmental artillery system, called the Artillery Gun Module, has used the MLRS chassis on its developmental vehicles.[10]

In 2012, a contract was issued to improve the armor of the M270s and improve the fire control to the standards of the High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS).[11] In June 2015, the M270A1 conducted tests of firing rockets after upgrades from the Improved Armored Cab project, which provides the vehicle with an enhanced armored cab and windows.[12]

In early March 2021, Lockheed announced they had successfully fired an extended-range version of the GMLRS out to 80 km (50 mi), part of an effort to increase the rocket's range to 150 km (93 mi).[13] Later in March the ER-GMLRS was fired out to 135 km (84 mi).[14]

Service history

The M270 MLRS conducts a rocket launch.
The M270 MLRS conducts a rocket launch.

When first deployed with the U.S. Army, the MLRS was used in a composite battalion consisting of two batteries of traditional artillery (howitzers) and one battery of MLRS SPLLs (self-propelled loader/launchers). The first operational Battery was C Battery, 3rd Battalion, 6th Field Artillery, 1st Infantry Division (Ft. Riley, Kansas) in 1982. The first operational organic or "all MLRS" unit was 6th Battalion, 27th Field Artillery.[15]

The 6th Battalion, 27th Field Artillery was reactivated as the Army's first Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) battalion on 1 October 1984, and became known as the "Rocket Busters". In March 1990, the unit deployed to White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico to conduct the Initial Operational Test and Evaluation of the Army Tactical Missile System. The success of the test provided the Army with a highly accurate, long range fire support asset.

Gulf War

On 2 September 1990, the 6th Battalion, 27th Field Artillery deployed to Saudi Arabia in support of Operation Desert Shield. Assigned to the XVIII Airborne Corps Artillery, the unit played a critical role in the early defense of Saudi Arabia. As Desert Shield turned into Desert Storm, the Battalion was the first U.S. Field Artillery unit to fire into Iraq. Over the course of the war, the 6th Battalion, 27th Field Artillery provided timely and accurate rocket and missile fires for both U.S. corps in the theater, the 82nd Airborne Division, the 6th French Light Armored Division, the 1st Armored, 1st Infantry Division, the 101st Airborne Division, and the 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized).

A Battery 92nd Field Artillery (MLRS) was deployed to the Gulf War in 1990 from Ft. Hood Texas. 3/27th FA (MLRS) out of Fort Bragg deployed in support of Operation Desert Shield in August 1990. A/21st Field Artillery (MLRS) – 1st Cavalry Division Artillery deployed in support of Operation Desert Shield in September 1990. In December 1990, A-40th Field Artillery (MLRS) – 3rd Armored Division Artillery (Hanau), 1/27th FA (MLRS) part of the 41st Field Artillery Brigade (Babenhausen) and 4/27th FA (MLRS) (Wertheim) deployed in support of Operation Desert Shield from their bases in Germany and 1/158th Field Artillery from the Oklahoma Army National Guard deployed in January 1991.

MLRS-System with launch vehicle, loader and a command center inside an M577 command vehicle.
MLRS-System with launch vehicle, loader and a command center inside an M577 command vehicle.

89 MLRS launchers were deployed during Operation Desert Storm. Its first use was on 18 January 1991, when Battery A of the 6th Battalion, 27th Field Artillery fired eight ATACMS missiles at Iraqi SAM sites. In one engagement, three MLRS batteries fired 287 rockets at 24 separate targets in less than five minutes, an amount that would have taken a cannon battalion over an hour to fire.[2] In early February 1991, 4-27 FA launched the biggest MLRS night fire mission in history,[16] firing 312 rockets in a single mission.[17] When ground operations began on 24 February 1991, 414 rockets were fired as the U.S. VII Corps advanced. Out of the 57,000 artillery rounds fired by the end of the war, 6,000 were MLRS rockets plus 32 ATACMS.[2]

Middle East

The MLRS has since been used in numerous military engagements, including the 2003 invasion of Iraq. In March 2007, the British Ministry of Defence decided to send a troop of MLRS to support ongoing operations in Afghanistan's southern province of Helmand; they would use newly developed guided munitions.

The first use of the GMLRS was in September 2005 in Iraq, when two rockets were fired in Tal Afar over 50 kilometres (31 mi) and hit insurgent strongholds, killing 48 Iraqi fighters.[2]

In April 2011, the first modernized MLRS II and M31 GMLRS rocket were handed over to the German Army's Artillery School in Idar Oberstein. The German Army operates the M31 rocket up to a range of 90 kilometres (56 mi).[18]

Ukraine

During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, the United States considered sending the MLRS as part of military aid to Ukraine. Concerns were raised that this system could be used to hit targets inside Russia.[19] US President Joe Biden initially declined to send it to Ukraine,[20] but on May 31 he announced that the M142 HIMARS, another vehicle capable of firing GMLRS rockets, would be supplied.[21]

On 7 June 2022, British defence secretary Ben Wallace announced that the UK would send three MLRS to aid Ukrainian forces.[22] On 15 June, Germany's Scholz cabinet also announced it would send three of its MARS vehicles from German Army stocks.[23] Ukraine announced they had received the first M270s on 15 July.[24] The German defence secretary Christine Lambrecht announced the arrival of the vehicles they contributed on 26 July 2022.[25]

Variants

A British M270 MLRS in 2008 in Camp Bastion, Afghanistan (right vehicle)
A British M270 MLRS in 2008 in Camp Bastion, Afghanistan (right vehicle)
British M270 firing at Otterburn Training Area in 2015
British M270 firing at Otterburn Training Area in 2015
A MARS (MLRS) of the German Army
A MARS (MLRS) of the German Army

Rockets and missiles

"Steel Rain" – M77 DPICM submunition of type used by the M26 rocket. The M77 was developed from the M483A1 that was developed for artillery shells.
"Steel Rain" – M77 DPICM submunition of type used by the M26 rocket. The M77 was developed from the M483A1 that was developed for artillery shells.

The M270 system can fire MLRS Family Of Munition (MFOM) rockets and artillery missiles, which are manufactured and used by a number of platforms and countries. These include:

MLRS

M26 and M28 rocket production began in 1980. Until 2005 they were the only rockets available for the M270 system. When production of the M26 series ceased in 2001 a total of 506,718 rockets had been produced.[30] Each rocket pod contains 6 identical rockets. M26 rockets and its derivatives were removed from the US Army's active inventory in June 2009, due to their submunitions not satisfying a July 2008 Department of Defense policy directive on cluster munitions issued under President George W. Bush that US cluster munitions that result in a rate of more than a 1% of unexploded ordnance must be destroyed by the end of 2018.[31] (The United States is not a party to the Convention on Cluster Munitions which prohibits them). In November 2017, the Trump administration replaced the July 2008 policy directive on cluster munitions with a new policy directive, which abandons the requirement to destroy cluster munitions by the end of 2018 and gave Unified Combatant Command commanders the authority to approve employing cluster munitions. The last use of M26 rockets occurred during Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003.[31]

GMLRS

Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System (GMLRS) rockets have an extended range and add GPS-aided guidance to their Inertial Navigation System. Flight control is accomplished by four forward-mounted canards driven by electromechanical actuators. GMLRS rockets were introduced in 2005 and can be fired from the M270A1 and M270A2, the European M270A1 variants (British Army M270B1, German Army MARS II, French Army Lance Roquette Unitaire (LRU), Italian Army MLRS Improved (MLRS-I), Finnish Army M270D1), and the lighter M142. M30 and M31 rockets are, except for their warheads, identical.[39] By December 2021, 50,000 GMLRS rockets had been produced,[40] with yearly production then exceeding 9,000 rockets. Each rocket pod contains 6 identical rockets.

ATACMS

Main article: ATACMS

The Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) is a series of 610 mm surface-to-surface missile (SSM) with a range of up to 300 kilometres (190 mi). Each rocket pod contains one ATACMS missile. As of 2022 only the M48, M57, and M57E1 remain in the US military's active inventory.

PrSM

Main article: Precision Strike Missile

The Precision Strike Missile (PrSM) is a new series of GPS-guided missiles, which will begin to replace ATACMS missiles from 2024. PrSM caries a newly designed area-effects warhead and has a range of 60–499 kilometres (37–310 mi). PrSM missiles can be launched from the M270A2 and the M142, with rockets pods containing 2 missiles. As of 2022 the PrSM is in low rate initial production with 110 missiles being delivered to the US military over the year. PrSM will enter operational service in 2023.[54][39][55]

Reverse engineering

Turkey, in order to obtain M26 supplies without the agreement of the U.S. and because the U.S. was reluctant to share technologies, started reverse-engineering M26 rockets under the SAGE 227 project in order to have its own supply of rockets.[citation needed] During the SAGE-227 project A/B/C/D medium-range composite-fuel artillery rocket and SAGE-227 F experimental guided rocket were developed.

Israeli rockets

Israel developed its own rockets to be used in the "Menatetz", an upgraded version of the M270 MLRS. The rockets are developed and manufactured by IMI Systems.[citation needed]

Alternative Warhead Program

In April 2012, Lockheed Martin received a $79.4 million contract to develop a GMLRS incorporating an Alliant Techsystems-designed alternative warhead to replace DPICM cluster warheads. The AW version is designed as a drop-in replacement with little modification needed to existing rockets. An Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) program was to last 36 months, with the alternative warhead GMLRS expected to enter service in late 2016.[57] The AW warhead is a large airburst fragmentation warhead that explodes 30 ft (9.1 m) over a target area to disperse penetrating projectiles. Considerable damage is caused to a large area while leaving behind only solid metal penetrators and inert rocket fragments[58] from a 90 kilograms (200 lb) warhead containing approximately 182,000 preformed tungsten fragments.[59] The unitary GMLRS also has an airburst option, but while it produces a large blast and pieces of shrapnel, the AW round's small pellets cover a larger area.[60]

On 22 May 2013, Lockheed and ATK test fired a GMLRS rocket with a new cluster munition warhead developed under the Alternative Warhead Program (AWP), aimed at producing a drop-in replacement for DPICM bomblets in M30 guided rockets. It was fired by an M142 HIMARS and traveled 35 km (22 mi) before detonating. The AWP warhead will have equal or greater effect against materiel and personnel targets, while leaving no unexploded ordnance behind.[61]

On 23 October 2013, Lockheed conducted the third and final engineering development test flight of the GMLRS alternative warhead. Three rockets were fired from 17 kilometers (11 mi) away and destroyed their ground targets. The Alternative Warhead Program then moved to production qualification testing.[62] The fifth and final Production Qualification Test (PQT) for the AW GMLRS was conducted in April 2014, firing four rockets from a HIMARS at targets 65 kilometers (40 mi) away.[63]

On 28 July 2014, Lockheed successfully completed all Developmental Test/Operational Test (DT/OT) flight tests for the AW GMLRS. They were the first tests conducted with soldiers operating the fire control system, firing rockets at mid and long-range from a HIMARS. The Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E) exercise was to be conducted in fall 2014.[64]

On 15 September 2015, Lockheed received a contract for Lot 10 production of the GMLRS unitary rocket, which includes the first order for AW production.[65]

M993 launcher specifications

"Menatetz" (מנתץ), an Israeli upgraded version of the M270 MLRS used by the Israel Defense Forces Artillery Corps
"Menatetz" (מנתץ), an Israeli upgraded version of the M270 MLRS used by the Israel Defense Forces Artillery Corps

Operators

Map of M270 operators in blue with former operators in red
Map of M270 operators in blue with former operators in red
Israel Defense Forces M270 MLRS "Menatetz" on display
Israel Defense Forces M270 MLRS "Menatetz" on display
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force M270

Current operators

M270

M270A1

M270A2

Former operators

M270

Nicknames

U.S. military operators refer to the M270 as "the commander's personal shotgun".[citation needed] It is also commonly referred to as the "gypsy wagon", because crews store additional equipment, such as camouflage netting, cots, coolers, and personal items, on top of the vehicle, as the launcher itself lacks adequate storage space for the crew. Within the British military, a common nickname is "Grid Square Removal System", a play on the initialism GSRS (from its previous provisional name of General Support Rocket System). With the adoption of the new M30 GPS guided rocket, it is now being referred to as the "70-kilometer sniper rifle".[86]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Lockheed Tests Improved GMLRS Rocket". Army technology. 8 November 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g The Multiple Launch Rocket System Archived 2018-10-31 at the Wayback Machine. Warfare History Network. 30 October 2018.
  3. ^ a b John Pike. "M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System – MLRS". Global security. Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  4. ^ "M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System – MLRS". FAS. Archived from the original on 2013-11-11. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  5. ^ After Cluster Bombs: Raining Nails Archived 2017-02-11 at the Wayback Machine, Wired, 30 May 2008
  6. ^ "Guided MLRS Unitary Rocket Successfully Tested" Archived 2006-11-15 at the Wayback Machine, Microwave Journal, Vol. 49, No. 3 (March 2006), p. 39.
  7. ^ "Lockheed Gets $16.6M to Convert MLRS Rockets, Asked to Speed Up GMLRS Production (updated)". Defense Industry Daily. August 2, 2006. Archived from the original on March 24, 2007. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  8. ^ M31 GMLRS Unitary Archived 2015-06-27 at the Wayback Machine, Global security.
  9. ^ Precision Fires Rocket & Missile Systems Archived 2015-06-27 at the Wayback Machine, MSL Army.
  10. ^ "Krauss Maffei Wegmann 155 mm 52 calibre Artillery Gun Module AGM Germany". Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis IHS. Jane’s. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  11. ^ "USA Moves to Update Its M270 Rocket Launchers". Defense industry daily. 2012-07-01. Archived from the original on 2013-12-22. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  12. ^ Improved Multiple Launch Rocket System tested at White Sands Missile Range Archived 2016-04-16 at the Wayback Machine, Army, 31 July 2015
  13. ^ US Army's extended-range guided rocket sees successful 80-kilometer test shot. Defense News. 5 March 2021.
  14. ^ Lockheed scores $1.1B contract to build US Army's guided rocket on heels of extended-range test. Defense News. 31 March 2021.
  15. ^ "History for 6th Battalion, 27th Field Artillery (1960s to Present)". Military.com. Archived from the original on 2013-09-05. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  16. ^ "C-1/27th FA MLRS". YouTube. 2009-11-26. Archived from the original on 2014-06-29. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  17. ^ Pike, John. "4th Battalion, 27th Field Artillery Regiment". Archived from the original on 2017-10-09. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
  18. ^ "Rollout MARS II und GMLRS Unitary" (in German). Bwb.org. 2012-07-26. Archived from the original on 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
  19. ^ a b "US preparing to approve advanced long-range rocket system for Ukraine". 26 May 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  20. ^ "Biden will not supply Ukraine with long-range rockets that can hit Russia". The Guardian. 2022-05-31.
  21. ^ Saptarshi Basak (Jun 2, 2022). "What Is the M142 Himars That the US Is Supplying to Ukraine To Fight Russia?". The Quint.
  22. ^ "Ukraine war: UK to send Ukraine M270 multiple-launch rocket systems". BBC News. 6 June 2022.
  23. ^ Germany to provide Ukraine with three MARS German M270 rocket launcher systems. Army Recognition. 19 June 2022.
  24. ^ Ukraine Gets First M270 Multiple Launch Rocket Systems. The Drive/The War Zone. 15 July 2022.
  25. ^ tagesschau.de 26 July 2022: Mehrfachraketenwerfer in Ukraine eingetroffen
  26. ^ "Bahrain orders 176m$ M270 Multiple Launch Rocket Systems (MLRS) Upgrade". Defense Week. 29 March 2022. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  27. ^ "Lockheed Martin Awarded $32 Million UK Contract for M270A2 MLRS Recapitalization". Militaryleak. 20 June 2022. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  28. ^ a b c "Lockheed Martin Receives $45.3 Million Contract to Upgrade Finland's Precision Fires Capability". PR Newswire. Lockheed Martin. 18 May 2011. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  29. ^ "Lockheed Martin Receives $362 Million Contract For Multiple Launch Rocket System Launcher (M270A2) Recapitalization". Lockheed Martin. 23 April 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Colonel Joe Russo, CO 14 Marines (May 2018). "Long-Range Precision Fires" (PDF). Marine Corps Gazette: 40. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  31. ^ a b c "United States Cluster Munition Ban Policy". Landmine and Cluster Munitions Monitor. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  32. ^ "Weapon System Handbook" (PDF). Program Executive Office Missiles and Space. pp. 105–106. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  33. ^ a b Burdell, Clester. "ANMC opens new rocket recycling facility". US Army. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  34. ^ D'Ambrosio, Palma. "Destroying Cluster Munitions Stockpiles: the Italian Experience" (PDF). Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  35. ^ "Small Arms Survey 2013" (PDF). p. 195. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  36. ^ "Letzte Streubomben der Bundeswehr vernichtet". Bundeswehr Journal. 26 November 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  37. ^ "Streubomben der Bundeswehr werden in der Uckermark zerstört". Lausitzer Rundschau. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  38. ^ "Weapon System Handbook" (PDF). Program Executive Office Missiles and Space. pp. 107–108. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i Engineering Director & Chief Engineer, Paul E. Turner. "Precision Fires Rocket and Missile Systems" (PDF). US Army Precision Fires Rocket & Missile Systems Project Office. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  40. ^ Lindstrom, Kinsey. "Army celebrates production of 50,000th GMLRS rocket and its continued evolution". Program Executive Office Missiles and Space. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  41. ^ "Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System – Alternate Warhead (GMLRS-AW)" (PDF). The Office of the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  42. ^ "Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System/Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System Alternative Warhead (GMLRS/GMLRS AW)" (PDF). Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval. p. 7. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  43. ^ "GMLRS Unitary Warhead". General Dynamics. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  44. ^ "Weapon System Handbook" (PDF). Program Executive Office Missiles and Space. pp. 111–112. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  45. ^ Army Building 1,000-Mile Supergun. Archived 2018-10-15 at the Wayback Machine. Breaking Defense. 11 October 2018.
  46. ^ Judson, Jen (13 October 2020). "Army, Lockheed prep for first extended-range guided rocket test firing". Defense News. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  47. ^ "Mission Success: Lockheed Martin's Extended-Range Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System Soars In Flight Test". Lockheed Martin. Retrieved 25 June 2022.
  48. ^ Judson, Jen (30 March 2021). "Lockheed scores $1.1B contract to build US Army's guided rocket on heels of extended-range test". Defense News.
  49. ^ "Finland becomes first extended range GMLRS rocket customer". Defense Brief. 12 February 2022. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  50. ^ a b c "Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) Modification (MOD)" (PDF). The Office of the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  51. ^ a b Keller, John. "Lockheed Martin to upgrade weapons payloads and navigation and guidance on ATACMS battlefield munitions". Military+Aerospace Electronics. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  52. ^ "Weapon System Handbook" (PDF). Program Executive Office Missiles and Space. pp. 115–116. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  53. ^ "Weapon System Handbook" (PDF). Program Executive Office Missiles and Space. pp. 117–118. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  54. ^ "Precision-Guided Munitions: Background and Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. p. 22. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  55. ^ "Precision Strike Missile (PrSM)". Lockheed Martin. 22 December 2021. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  56. ^ "Israel's new guided missiles system Romah will soon be operational". Archived 2016-01-17 at the Wayback Machine. Army Recognition, 15 January 2016
  57. ^ GMLRS to Get a New Warhead Archived 2014-05-02 at the Wayback Machine - Defense-Update.com, 24 April 2012
  58. ^ Army tests safer warhead Archived 2014-09-12 at the Wayback Machine - Armytechnology.Armylive.DoDlive.mil, 2 September 2014
  59. ^ Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System (GMLRS) Alternative Warhead (GMLRS-AW) M30A1 Archived 2017-09-11 at the Wayback Machine - Office of the Director, Operational Test & Evaluation. 2015
  60. ^ The new M30A1 GMLRS Alternate Warhead to replace cluster bombs for US Army Central. Army Recognition. 16 January 2017.
  61. ^ "US Army searches for cluster munitions alternatives". Dmilt.com. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  62. ^ Alternative GMLRS Warhead Completes Third Successful Fight Test Archived 2013-10-29 at the Wayback Machine - Deagel.com, 23 October 2013
  63. ^ Lockheed Martin GMLRS Alternative Warhead Logs Successful Flight-Test Series, Shifts To Next Testing Phase Archived 2014-04-19 at the Wayback Machine - Lockheed news release, 16 April 2014
  64. ^ Lockheed Martin Completes Successful Operational Flight Tests of GMLRS Alternative Warhead Archived 2014-07-29 at the Wayback Machine - Deagel.com, 28 July 2014
  65. ^ Lockheed Martin GMLRS Alternative Warhead Gets First Order Archived 2015-11-19 at the Wayback Machine - Marketwatch.com, 15 September 2015
  66. ^ "SPECIFICATIONS - MLRS MULTIPLE LAUNCH ROCKET SYSTEM, USA". army-technology.com. Archived from the original on March 9, 2008.[unreliable source?]
  67. ^ "227mm Multiple Launched Rocket System (MLRS)". British Army. Archived from the original on August 23, 2004.
  68. ^ a b c d e f "ATACMS". Deagel. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  69. ^ "Report". UNROCA (United Nations Register of Conventional Arms). 2014.
  70. ^ "M270 (MLRS)". Army vehicles DK. 2014. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  71. ^ a b "La DGA commande 13 Lance-roquettes unitaires (LRU)". Défense. Direction générale de l'armement. 7 Oct 2011. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  72. ^ a b "Sagem's Sigma 30 navigation and pointing system chosen to modernize M270 Multiple Launch Rocket Systems for three European armies". Safran. Sagem. 18 Jan 2012. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  73. ^ a b "MLRS Improved". Krauss-Maffei Wegmann. Archived from the original on 23 April 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  74. ^ "MARS II / MLRS-E - KMW" (in German). Krauss-Maffei Wegmann. Retrieved 2022-07-25.
  75. ^ "Trade Registers". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  76. ^ "GMLRS" (PDF). Lockheed Martin. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 July 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  77. ^ "M270 MLRS Report between 1993 and 2014". Deagel. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  78. ^ "MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System), United States of America". Army technology. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  79. ^ a b c "MLRS® M270 Series Launchers" (PDF). Lockheed Martin. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  80. ^ "[image] Deutschland will angeblich Mehrfachraketenwerfer in die Ukraine Liefern" [Germany reportedly wants to supply multiple rocket launchers to Ukraine] (in German). Der Spiegel – via postimg.[better source needed]
  81. ^ "Великобритания вслед за Штатами объявила о поставках реактивных систем в Украину". The Uk.
  82. ^ "Minister of Defence of Ukraine". Twitter. Retrieved 2022-07-15.
  83. ^ Magnolia Reporter, Camden AR, (9 Jul 2022) U.S. Army will receive first of upgraded missile launchers Tuesday in Camden
  84. ^ "Hærens storslegge i hvilestilling". NRK (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  85. ^ "Norway and the United Kingdom donate long range rocket artillery to Ukraine". Regjeringen. Norwegian Government. 29 June 2022.
  86. ^ "GMLRS: The 70 Kilometer Sniper Rifle". Perfunction. Type pad. 2008. Archived from the original on December 23, 2009.[unreliable source?]