This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article contains content that is written like an advertisement. Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external links, and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view. (May 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Airbus Defence and Space" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (September 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Airbus Defence and Space
Company type Division
Industry
PredecessorAirbus Military, Astrium, Cassidian [de]
FoundedJanuary 2014; 10 years ago (January 2014)
Headquarters,
Germany
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Michael Schoellhorn (CEO)[1]
ProductsMilitary aircraft, launch vehicles, spacecraft
ServicesCyber security, Military intelligence
RevenueIncrease €11.2 billion[2] (2022)
  • Decrease EU-€118 million (2022)
  • EU€568 million (2021)
[3]
Total assetsIncrease €111.13 billion[4] (2016)
Number of employees
40,000[5]
ParentAirbus
SubsidiariesCRISA, Spot Image, Tesat-Spacecom

Airbus Defence and Space is the division of Airbus SE responsible for the development and manufacturing of the corporation's defense and space products and providing related services. The division was formed in January 2014 during the corporate restructuring of European Aeronautic Defense and Space (EADS) into Airbus SE, and comprises the former Airbus Military, Astrium, and Cassidian [de] divisions.[6] It is the world's third-largest space company after SpaceX and Boeing, and one of the top ten defense and space companies in the world.[7]

Airbus Defence and Space has its main office in Taufkirchen, Germany[8] and is led by chief executive officer Michael Schoellhorn.[1] The company consists of three program lines: Military Air Systems (MiAS), Connected Intelligence (CI) and Space Systems.

With an operational presence in 35 countries, the division employed 134,000 people from 86 nationalities as of 2023[9] and contributed to 21% of Airbus revenues as of 2016.[10]

History

Formation of EADS and expansion (1997–2008)

Main article: Airbus

As early as 1995 the German aerospace and defence company DaimlerChrysler Aerospace (DASA) and its British counterpart British Aerospace were said to be eager to create a transnational aerospace and defense company.[11] The two companies envisaged including the French corporation Aérospatiale, the other major European aerospace company, in the project, but only after its privatization, as it was owned by the French state.[12] However, the merger faltered, and British Aerospace abandoned the DASA merger in favour of purchasing its domestic rival, Marconi Electronic Systems, the electronics division of General Electric Company.[13] The merger of British Aerospace and MES to form BAE Systems was announced on 19 January 1999 and completed on 30 November.[14][15]

DASA and the Spanish aircraft company CASA agreed to merge on 11 June 1999.[16] On 14 October 1999 DASA agreed to merge with Aérospatiale (which had itself merged with the French conglomerate Matra to become Aérospatiale-Matra earlier that year) to create the European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company.[17] 10 July 2000 was "Day One" for the new company which became the world's second-largest aerospace company after Boeing and the second-largest European arms manufacturer after BAE Systems.[18] In January 2001 Airbus Industrie was transformed from an inherently dysfunctional consortium structure to a formal joint stock company, with legal and tax procedures being finalized on 11 July.[19][20]

On 16 June 2003 EADS acquired BAE's 25 % share in Astrium, the satellite and space system manufacturer, to become the sole owner. EADS paid £84 million, however due to the loss-making status of the company BAE, invested an equal amount for "restructuring".[21] It was subsequently renamed Astrium, and had the divisions Astrium Satellites, Astrium Space Transportation and Astrium Services.

On 1 July 2003 EADS Defense & Security Systems was founded with the merger of the activities of missile systems (LFK), defense electronics, military aircraft and telecommunications of the EADS Group. Tom Enders became the first CEO of the new division.

Airbus Military

Main article: Airbus Military

The predecessor company was established in January 1999 as the Airbus Military Company SAS to manage the Airbus A400M project, taking over from the Euroflag consortium. In May 2003, the company was restructured as Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada (AMSL) prior to the execution of the production contract. The Military Transport Aircraft Division (MTAD) was a division of EADS which designs, manufactures and commercializes EADS-CASA light and medium transport aircraft, headquartered in Madrid, Spain.[22] In 1999, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) in the EADS Group (European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company) was incorporated. In Spain, it is still referred to as EADS-CASA. The EADS-CASA division Military Transport Aircraft Division (MTA division) was also responsible for the development, production and sales of the leichten- and medium Transport and utility aircraft within the EADS Group. On 16 December 2008, EADS announced that the Military Transport Aircraft Division (MTA division) and Airbus Military SL (AMSL) as a new business unit in the Airbus SAS integrated. Airbus Military was formally created in April 2009 by the integration of the former Military Transport Aircraft Division (MTAD) and Airbus Military Sociedad Limitada (AMSL) into Airbus. The division manufactured tanker, transport, and mission aircraft, including Airbus A330 MRTT, Airbus A400M, CASA C-212 Aviocar, CASA/IPTN CN-235 and EADS CASA C-295. After the merger, it also acquired the production of Eurofighter Typhoon, which was earlier under Cassidian. Eurocopter, which was previously under Airbus Military, was reorganized as Airbus Helicopters.

Astrium

Main article: Astrium

Astrium was formed in 2000 by the merger of Matra Marconi Space (itself formed from French and British companies) with the space division of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG and Computadores Redes e Ingeniería SA. Henceforth Astrium was a joint venture between EADS and BAE Systems. On 16 June 2003 the minority shareholder, BAE Systems, sold its 25% share to EADS, making EADS the sole shareholder. Astrium became EADS Astrium Satellites and in a wider restructuring became the major constituent of EADS Astrium, which also included EADS Astrium Space Transportation and EADS Astrium Services. In this restructuring the former Astrium Space Infrastructure division merged with EADS Launchers & Vehicles division to form EADS SPACE Transportation, which became later EADS Astrium Space Transportation. Also, Paradigm Secure Communications, initially created by Astrium in the frame of the Skynet 5 contract for the UK Ministry of Defense became the major constituent of EADS SPACE Services. CASA Espacio became part of EADS Astrium on 1 January 2004. EADS Astrium was the sole shareholder of Infoterra Ltd. On 1 July 2006, the French subsidiary of EADS Astrium, EADS Astrium SAS, merged with other French subsidiaries of EADS Space (especially EADS Space Transportation).

Cassidian

EADS Defence & Security Systems was founded on 1 July 2003. In it, the activities of missile systems (LFK-Lenkflugkörpersysteme GmbH), defense electronics, military aircraft and telecommunications of the EADS Group were merged. On 17 September 2010 the company name was changed to Cassidian, an amalgamation of the Latin words Cassida (helmet) and meridian. It focused on worldwide protection and security. Cassidian was further subdivided into Missiles (missile systems), Defense Electronics (defense electronics, such as sensors, electronics and mission avionics), Cassidian Air Systems (production and maintenance of military aircraft) Defence & Communication Systems (Defense and Communications Systems) and Services (military service). In 2012 a new division was incorporated as Cassidian Cybersecurity GmbH, headquartered in Ottobrunn.

Post merger (2013–present)

Airbus Defence and Space was formed in 2013 as a result of the merger of Astrium, Cassidian, and the Airbus Military divisions of European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) which was itself reorganized as Airbus.[23] On 1 January 2014, the parent company EADS was restructured as Airbus, comprising three subsidiary companies that include Airbus Defence and Space, Airbus, and Airbus Helicopters.[24]

On 16 September 2014, after a detailed and comprehensive portfolio assessment, Airbus Defence and Space defined Space (Launchers & Satellites), Military Aircraft, Missiles and related Systems and Services as its future core businesses. Some business areas were identified as divestment candidates as they did not fit the strategic goals for the company. Under this plan, the commercial and para-public communication business (including Professional Mobile Radio and commercial satellite communications services activities) was divested. Subsidiaries and J.V. including Fairchild Communications, Rostock System-Technik, AVdef, ESG and Atlas Electronik were divested.[25] On 18 March 2016 the company decided to sell its defense electronics business (Defence Electronics) based in Ulm to Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, a global investment firm with a wide-ranging portfolio including Hospital Corporation of America, NXP Semiconductors, TDC A/S, and Dollar General.[26] From January 1, 2017. the group reorganized under the brand name of "Airbus". The subsidiaries Airbus, Airbus Helicopters and Airbus Defence and Space became operating divisions of the same company.[27]

In April 2022, Airbus Defence and Space acquired the German-based cryptography and communication systems company, DSI Datensicherheit GmbH.[28]

Dec 1970 Jan 1992 July 2000 Sep 2000 Jan 2001 Dec 2006 Apr 2009 Sep 2010 Jan 2014 May 2015 Jan 2017 Apr 2017
    European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV Airbus Group NV Airbus Group SE Airbus SE   
Airbus Industrie GIE Airbus SAS     
  Airbus Military SAS Airbus Defence and Space SAS   
    EADS Defence and Security Cassidian SAS
    Astrium SAS EADS Astrium SAS
  Eurocopter SA Eurocopter SAS Airbus Helicopters SAS   
                       

Organization

Airbus Defense and Space is structured into four business lines:[citation needed][29]

Aircraft

Tankers and transport aircraft

Airbus A330 MRTT

The Airbus A330 Multi Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) is an aerial refueling tanker aircraft based on the civilian Airbus A330.[30] The A330 MRTT has been ordered by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), Royal Air Force (RAF), United Arab Emirates Air Force, Royal Saudi Air Force and Republic of Singapore Air Force. The EADS/Northrop Grumman KC-45 was a version of the A330 MRTT proposed for the United States Air Force.

Airbus A400M Atlas

The Airbus A400M Atlas[31][32] is a multi-national, four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft. It was designed by Airbus Military (now Airbus Defence and Space) as a tactical airlifter with strategic capabilities to replace older transport aircraft, such as the Transall C-160 and the Lockheed C-130 Hercules.[33] The A400M is positioned, in terms of size, between the C-130 and the C-17; it can carry heavier loads than the C-130, while able to use rough landing strips. Along with the transport role, the A400M can perform aerial refueling and medical evacuation when fitted with appropriate equipment.

The CASA C-212 Aviocar is a turboprop-powered STOL medium transport aircraft designed and built by CASA in Spain for civil and military use. C-212s are also produced under license in Indonesia by Indonesian Aerospace (IAe), formerly called IPTN. The design was initially marketed under the name of Aviocar, but EADS-CASA no longer uses that name in referring to the C-212.

CN-235M-100

The CASA/IPTN CN-235 is a medium-range twin-engine transport aircraft that was jointly developed by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain and Indonesian manufacturer IPTN, as a regional airliner and military transport. Its primary military roles include maritime patrol, surveillance, and air transport. Its largest user is Turkey which has 59 aircraft.

C-295M

The EADS CASA C-295 is a twin-turboprop tactical military transport aircraft, and is currently manufactured by Airbus Defence and Space in Spain.

Fighter and attack aircraft

Eurofighter Typhoon

The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole fighter.[34][35] The Typhoon was designed and is manufactured by a consortium of Alenia Aermacchi, Airbus and BAE Systems that conducts the majority of the project through a joint holding company, Eurofighter Jagdflugzeug GmbH formed in 1986. NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency manages the project and is the prime customer.[36]

Unmanned aerial vehicles

Euro Hawk

Experimental aircraft

Ballistic missiles

In May 2016, Airbus and Safran agreed that their joint venture would work on upgrading the M51 submarine-launched ballistic missile to the M51.3 standard for the French Navy.[44]

Space systems

Launchers

Ariane 4
Ariane 5

International Space Station

ATV
Columbus ISS Module

Space transportation

Orion service module

Astronomy and cosmology missions

Gaia (spacecraft)

Solar observation missions

Planetary science missions

Venus Express
Rosetta

Earth observation satellites

Airbus Defence and Space is the world's largest supplier of Earth observation systems with more than fifty satellites launched and 18 more under construction.[68][69]

Some of the major satellite systems built are: Envisat (the world's largest civilian Earth observation satellite.[70]), Earth Explorers such as GOCE, GRACE, Swarm, EarthCARE, Sentinel Missions, MetOp and MetOp-SG.

Telecommunication satellites

Airbus Defence and Space has manufactured over a hundred communications satellites.[71]

Some of the major telecommunication satellites built are: Alphabus, the Eutelsat series, the Astra series, the Hispasat series, the Inmarsat series, and the UK military Skynet series.

Airbus Defence and Space Spaceplane prototype

Spaceplane

Airbus Defence and Space Spaceplane was a suborbital spaceplane concept for carrying space tourists, proposed by Airbus Defence and Space. A full-size mockup was officially unveiled in Paris, France, on 13 June 2007,[73] and is now on display in the Concorde hall of the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace.[citation needed] The project was the first space tourism entry by a major aerospace contractor.

Rocket engines

Airbus Defence and Space also produces commercial versions of its proprietary rocket engines such as HM7B, Aestus, Vinci, Vulcain[74]

One Atlas

Airbus Defence and Space launched One Atlas in October 2016, a new satellite image basemap which covers the earth landmasses with imagery.[75][76] The images available via Google Drive can be accessed around the clock and are refreshed within a 12-month period. One Atlas was developed for defense or security missions and operations, for example assisting the mapping, reporting and updating of positions, movements or risk areas, but also providing intelligence when selecting transportation routes and access points.

Starlab joint venture

On 9 January 2024 Airbus Defence and Space announced the formation of Starlab Space LLC, a joint venture with Voyager Space to design, construct and operate the Starlab commercial space station.[77]

Sites

Major European Airbus Defence and Space sites are located in the following places:[78]

In September 2022, it was announced that Airbus Defence and Space would be setting up a research facility at Lot Fourteen, Adelaide, South Australia, in October, which would be responsible for developing new satellites for the Australian Defence Force.[79]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Executive and operational committees", Airbus
  2. ^ Airbus reports Full-Year (FY) 2022 results (PDF). Airbus. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  3. ^ Airbus reports Full-Year (FY) 2022 results (PDF). Airbus. Retrieved 16 April 2023.
  4. ^ Airbus Group SE Financial Statements 2016 (PDF). Airbus. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  5. ^ Overview, Airbus DS. "About Airbus Defence and Space". Airbus Defence and Space. Archived from the original on 7 August 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  6. ^ Parker, Andrew (2 January 2014). "EADS changes name to Airbus". FT.com. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  7. ^ "Airbus Defence and Space-built PeruSAT-1 delivers first images". Space Daily. 12 October 2016.
  8. ^ "Airbus Defence and Space GmbH - Bayern International – Exportförderung für bayerische Unternehmen". www.bayern-international.de (in German). Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  9. ^ "Airbus Defence and Space Global presence". ADS. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  10. ^ "Investors & Shareholders". airbusgroup.com. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  11. ^ Jones, Adam (20 January 1999). "Europe cries foul as New BAe emerges". The Times.
  12. ^ Sparaco, Pierre; Morrocco, John D. (30 June 1997). "French Government Grapples With Aerospace Strategy". Aviation Week and Space Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies.
  13. ^ "BBC News - The Company File - Defence merger on the radar". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  14. ^ BAE Systems Annual Report 1999 22. BAE Systems plc (2000). Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  15. ^ Turpin, Andrew (4 March 2000). "BAE eyes US targets after profit rockets". The Scotsman. p. 26.
  16. ^ White, David; Nicoll, Alexander (12 June 1999). "DaimlerChrysler wins fight for Spain's Casa: Deal boosts aerospace industry consolidation in Europe". Financial Times.
  17. ^ Nicoll, Alexander; Skapiner, Michael (15 October 1999). "Flying in formation: The merger of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and Aérospatiale-Matra may pave the way for a larger European grouping or the first transatlantic defence tie-up, argue Alexander Nicoll and Michael Skapinker". Financial Times.
  18. ^ "History of EADS". EADS. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
  19. ^ "EADS and BAE SYSTEMS complete Airbus integration – Airbus SAS formally established" (Press release). BAE Systems plc. 12 July 2001. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
  20. ^ Sparaco, Pierre (19 March 2001). "Climate conducive for Airbus consolidation". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
  21. ^ Odell, Mark (1 February 2003). "BAE agrees new deal for Astrium". Financial Times. p. 15.
  22. ^ Being Part of aMuch Bigger World Archived 2014-01-09 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "EADS Announces Name Change, Restructuring | Defense News". Defensenews.com. 31 July 2013. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  24. ^ "What we do". Airbus. 2015. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
  25. ^ DS, Airbus. "Airbus Defence and Space continues transformation with portfolio optimisation". Airbus Defence and Space. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  26. ^ DS, Airbus. "Airbus Group To Sell Defence Electronics To KKR for € 1.1bn". Airbus Defence and Space. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  27. ^ "Airbus Plans Internal Merger in Latest Corporate Shake-Up". Fortune. Reuters. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  28. ^ Jordan, Josh. "Airbus to acquire DSI Datensicherheit, a leading European provider of Cryptography systems for space applications". Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  29. ^ Flores, Myrna; Ordóñez, María E.; Flores, Karina; Tucci, Christopher; Navarro, Jesús; Pascual, Silvia; Muñoz, David (22 October 2023). "Airbus Defense & Space" (PDF). Lean Analytics Association. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 October 2023. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  30. ^ Hardiman, Jake; Karuwa, Tatenda (29 November 2020). "A Look At The Airbus A330 MRTT: The Military Version Of The A330-200". Simple Flying. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  31. ^ "A400M naming ceremony at RIAT." Archived 2013-12-17 at the Wayback Machine Airbus Military, 6 July 2012. Retrieved: 6 July 2012.
  32. ^ Hoyle, Craig. "RIAT: A400M reborn as 'Atlas'." Flightglobal 6 July 2012. Retrieved: 6 July 2012.
  33. ^ "RAF – A400m." Archived 2009-04-30 at the Wayback Machine RAF, MOD. Retrieved: 15 May 2010.
  34. ^ "Benefits to Industry". eurofighter.com. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  35. ^ "Overview". eurofighter.com. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  36. ^ "Eurofighter and NETMA Strike Logistics Deal". Jane's International Defence Review. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
  37. ^ "Airbus Looks to Create New Jet Trainer for Spanish Air Force". Aviation Today. 26 October 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  38. ^ "Airbus pitches new trainer jet for Spain, but with eyes for Europe". DefenseNews. 19 October 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
  39. ^ "RQ-4 Euro Hawk UAV Readying for Takeoff". Defense Industry Daily. 15 May 2013.
  40. ^ "Airbus achieves in-flight autonomous guidance and control of a drone from a tanker aircraft". www.airbus.com. 28 March 2023. Retrieved 24 May 2023.
  41. ^ Amos, Jonathan (24 June 2003). "Strato-plane looks forward". BBC News. Retrieved 31 March 2014. British engineers are preparing to push the limits of aeroplane technology
  42. ^ "First flight of Astrium's Zephyr solar HAPS". Airbus. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  43. ^ "Zephyr - The first stratospheric UAS of its kind". www.airbus.com. 7 November 2022. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  44. ^ Pierre Tran (10 May 2016). "Airbus and Safran Agree to Space Launcher Joint Venture". defensenews.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  45. ^ Bergin, Chris (15 February 2011). "Ariane 5 launches ATV-2 for journey to the ISS". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  46. ^ "Intelsat Pair lifted into Orbit in Record-Setting Ariane 5 Launch". Spaceflight 101. 24 August 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  47. ^ "Ariane 6". ESA. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  48. ^ "Automated Transfer Vehicle, ESA document EUC-ESA-FSH-003 Rev 1.2 (specification)" (PDF). ESA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
  49. ^ "Call for Media: LISA Pathfinder launch". ESA. 23 November 2015.
  50. ^ "News: Top News | eLISA Gravitational Wave Observatory". Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  51. ^ "ESA Gaia home". ESA. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  52. ^ Spie (2014). "Timo Prusti plenary: Gaia: Scientific In-orbit Performance". SPIE Newsroom. doi:10.1117/2.3201407.13.
  53. ^ "Liftoff for Solar Orbiter, ESA's mission to face the Sun up close". European Space Agency. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  54. ^ KIS – Solar Orbiter
  55. ^ Vago, Jorge; Witasse, Olivier; Baglioni, Pietro; Haldemann, Albert; Gianfiglio, Giacinto; et al. (August 2013). "ExoMars: ESA's Next Step in Mars Exploration" (PDF). Bulletin. European Space Agency (155): 12–23.
  56. ^ Katz, Gregory (27 March 2014). "2018 mission: Mars rover prototype unveiled in UK". Excite.com. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  57. ^ "Russia and Europe Team Up for Mars Missions". Space.com. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  58. ^ de Selding, Peter B. (26 September 2012). "U.S., Europe Won't Go It Alone in Mars Exploration". Space News. Retrieved 31 January 2023.
  59. ^ "Second EXOMARS Mission moves to next launch opportunity in 2020". ESA.
  60. ^ Amos, Jonathan (18 January 2008). "European probe aims for Mercury" (web). The European Space Agency (Esa) has signed an industrial contract to build a probe to send to the planet Mercury. BBC News. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  61. ^ "ESA PR 28-2018: BepiColombo blasts off to investigate Mercury's mysteries". ESA. 20 October 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  62. ^ "ESA—Selection of the L1 mission" (PDF). 17 April 2012.
  63. ^ "Esa selects 1bn-euro Juice probe to Jupiter". Jonathan Amos. BBC News Online. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
  64. ^ Agle, D. C.; Brown, Dwayne; Bauer, Markus (30 June 2014). "Rosetta's Comet Target 'Releases' Plentiful Water". NASA. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  65. ^ Chang, Kenneth (5 August 2014). "Rosetta Spacecraft Set for Unprecedented Close Study of a Comet". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  66. ^ Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Schwehm, Gerhard (25 February 2007). "Stunning view of Rosetta skimming past Mars". European Space Agency. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  67. ^ Auster, H. U.; Richter, I.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Berghofer, G.; Carr, C. M.; Motschmann, U. (July 2010). "Magnetic field investigations during Rosetta's 2867 Šteins flyby". Planetary and Space Science. 58 (9): 1124–1128. Bibcode:2010P&SS...58.1124A. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2010.01.006.
  68. ^ "Earth Observation Satellites". Airbus Defence and Space. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  69. ^ "Earth Observation Satellites". Airbus Defence and Space. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  70. ^ EarthNet Online
  71. ^ "Telecommunications". Airbus Defence and Space. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  72. ^ Astrium celebrates 500 years of successful Eurostar satellite operation in orbit, UKspace, 27.12.2013 [1]
  73. ^ "Elon Musk's First Astronaut Launch". Forbes. 25 May 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
  74. ^ "Rocket Launcher Propulsion – Ottobrunn, Germany". Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  75. ^ Patil, Vishwanath. "Airbus Launches Satellite Image Library for Defence, Intelligence and Security Applications". Defense World. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  76. ^ Cell, Technology. "Airbus Defence and Space Launches "One Atlas" Satellite Image Library for Agricultural Applications". Africa Agri Business. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  77. ^ Foust, Jeff (16 January 2024). "Airbus and Voyager finalize Starlab joint venture".
  78. ^ "AirBus Worldwide Presence". www.airbus.com. Retrieved 20 January 2024.
  79. ^ Kelsall, Thomas (26 September 2022). "Airbus hails new Adelaide station". InDaily. Retrieved 27 September 2022.